Search for zero point energy in Topics


anybody experiment with zero point energy?

I have alwats thought there was usable energy in magnets but have been assured that there isn't. Still can't accept it.

Question by boogiemann    |  last reply


tesla ?

Hey guys is these two power sources plasuble http://www.teslasecret.com/ http://www.greenearth4energy.com/zero_point_energy.html for me to bulid 

Question by tinker234    |  last reply


Breast Energy

Everywhere we turn, people are looking for new sources of renewable energy. Using the body to charge small electronics is nothing new; as Treehugger points out, Instructables has its very own breath-powered USB charger. But Adrienne So had a slightly different idea: she wanted to charge her iPod during exercise using the movements of her breasts as a power source.The idea may sound ludicrous, but her research shows that it might actually be viable. Make sure to check out all of the links in the article--besides So's original idea, she sheds light on many interesting developments in the realm of renewable energy. You never know where the next energy-saving idea will come from.LinkImage

Topic by joshf    |  last reply


Energy Saving Link

Can you check the link to the Energy Saving Guide? It's pointing to the contest page. Thanks! --Kent

Topic by kentiler    |  last reply


Can I power a raspberry zero + arduino with a powerbank?

Hello everyone, I want to make some kind of driving computer, but I don't know how to fix the power. I have a 16000mah powerbank that has a 1A and a 2A power output with 5v. And I want to power the following: Raspberry Pi zero Internet dongle Arduino Arduino Motor Shield 4 motors(DC 3-6v each) 2 servos 1 webcam (optional) I really hope someone can tell me if this is possible. The reason I don't want to use normal battery's is because I want a solution that is easy to recharge.

Topic by Thijsd4    |  last reply


anyone working on an magnetic over unity generator?

I was wondering if anyone could help me out with instructions or at least point me in the right direction for a magnetic over unity generator

Question by Loki1978    |  last reply


High Energy shenanigans

Blowin up small fruits with my capacitor bank, and a little look at my homemade plasma globe hopefully ill add more of a description at some point, feel free to comment and ask questions

Topic by The 4th Doctor    |  last reply


Notes on specific Laws - the Zeroth Law

This is where the whole Law thing started:There is a fairly regular kind of thread that appears here.It starts should I make an Instructable about insert topic here?You know what? The answer is yes. Even if nobody else on the site is even vaguely interested in insert topic here, it is probable that somebody with access to the internet, somewhere in the world, will eventually develop an interest in insert topic here and resort to Google. Since this site is googlable (is that a word?), they can end up here, grateful to you and potentially a new and useful member of the site.So, unless it breaks the guidelines for what is suitable here (basically, Please remember that this is a family site), and you're not just re-inventing the wheel, then the answer to should I? is always yes.This has become the Zeroth Law:If an Instructable exactly like yours has not already been posted, then you shall post your Instructable.Instructables are, after all, the whole point of this site. If nobody posted new Instructables, the site would shrivel and die.It doesn't matter what you make, as long as it falls within the bounds of "good taste" (define them how you will). What does matter is that you make. If you look at other sites limited to making only one kind of thing (jet engines, chests of drawers, whatever), they tend to have a slow input of new projects, with many variations on a few basic themes posted early in the site's history. Instructables has a daily project count that rarely drops below ten, and sometimes hits thirty.Addendum to the Zeroth LawIf your Instructable has an identical goal to a pre-existing Instructable, but achieves that goal by a different or improved route, or in a different style, then you shall also post your Instructable.Why the addendum? Sometimes potential posters worry - there's already a project quite like mine, so should I waste bandwidth with mine? Of course you should! Some people will prefer the first version, but other people will prefer your version - maybe it's easier to read, the photos are better, or they prefer your sense of humour. Maybe you use different raw materials, or use different tools. Either way, unless your Instructable is indistinguishable from an earlier project, you should post your own.

Topic by Kiteman    |  last reply


Storing Lightning Energy? Answered

Hey Guys, I have wondered on this from a long time. Can lightning energy be stored? Lightning occurs when water droplets rub together right? Which means this is static electricity. As lightning strike the highest point why dont they make a huge conductive bar? And as i know from the various lyden jar projects storing static isnt that difficult. So why dont they do it? I asked my dad  that how much is it per lightning strike he said millions of kilovolts if that is true then why dont they store it? My dad said that its because they cant store that much electricity. Is that the only reason? BTW I'm 12 so please ignore my dumb electric knowledge :).

Question by SA-DIY    |  last reply


The Future Of Nuclear Energy

p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0.0in; font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: Times New Roman , serif; } p.Standard, li.Standard, div.Standard { margin: 0.0in; font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: Times New Roman , serif; } *.MsoChpDefault { font-size: 12.0pt; } *.MsoPapDefault { } div.WordSection1 { page: WordSection1; }                                              Nuclear energy is sometimes referred to as pollutant energy or “bad” energy. This is some what true but in the case of research  there is no “bad” waste being emitted from the reactions that undergo in theses reactors. Commercial Nuclear Reactors or CNRs do produce a lot of residue. They produce this residue by using their fuel so much to the point of radioactive waste. Small Research Reactors or SRRs do not do this, instead of using it up they produce new isotopes that can be useful instead of becoming waste.   So why don't we use SRRs? We do not use SRRs because of financial and safety. The safety concern comes in when the reactors are able to undergo Nuclear fission witch releases huge amounts of heat that no current materiel known to men kind is capable of withstanding. The other type of SRR is safe and financially friendly but does not produce electricity instead it uses approximately 1 million volts DC, but produces isotopes from elements such as Hydrogen witch is found in water.   In conclusion nuclear energy has not ended.

Topic by dcerin    |  last reply


I have a problem in this code for Arduino UNO , Can you help me?

#include #include #define SOL_ADC A0     // Solar panel side voltage divider is connected to pin A0 #define BAT_ADC A1    // Battery side voltage divider is connected to pin A1 #define CURRENT_ADC A2  // ACS 712 current sensor is connected to pin A2 #define TEMP_ADC A3   // LM 35 Temperature is connected to pin A3 #define AVG_NUM 10    // number of iterations of the adc routine to average the adc readings #define BAT_MIN 10.5  // minimum battery voltage for 12V system #define BAT_MAX 15.0  // maximum battery voltage for 12V system #define BULK_CH_SP 14.4 // bulk charge set point for sealed lead acid battery // flooded type set it to 14.6V #define FLOAT_CH_SP 13.6  //float charge set point for lead acid battery #define LVD 11.5          //Low voltage disconnect setting for a 12V system #define PWM_PIN 3         // pin-3 is used to control the charging MOSFET //the default frequency is 490.20Hz #define LOAD_PIN 2       // pin-2 is used to control the load #define BAT_RED_LED 5 #define BAT_GREEN_LED 6 #define BAT_BLUE_LED 7 #define LOAD_RED_LED 8 #define LOAD_GREEN_LED 9 //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ///////////////////////DECLARATION OF ALL BIT MAP ARRAY FOR FONTS//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- byte solar[8] = //icon for solar panel {   0b11111,0b10101,0b11111,0b10101,0b11111,0b10101,0b11111,0b00000 }; byte battery[8] =  //icon for battery {   0b01110,0b11011,0b10001,0b10001,0b10001,0b10001,0b10001,0b11111 }; byte energy[8] =  // icon for power {   0b00010,0b00100,0b01000,0b11111,0b00010,0b00100,0b01000,0b00000 }; /*byte alarm[8] =  // icon for alarm { 0b00000,0b00100,0b01110,0b01110,0b01110,0b11111,0b00000,0b00100 };*/ byte temp[8] = //icon for termometer { 0b00100,0b01010,0b01010,0b01110,0b01110,0b11111,0b11111,0b01110 }; byte charge[8] = // icon for battery charge {   0b01010,0b11111,0b10001,0b10001,0b10001,0b01110,0b00100,0b00100, }; byte not_charge[8]= {   0b00000,0b10001,0b01010,0b00100,0b01010,0b10001,0b00000,0b00000, }; //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ///////////////////////DECLARATION OF ALL GLOBAL VARIABLES////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- float solar_volt=0; float bat_volt=0; float load_current=0; int temperature=0; int temp_change=0; float system_volt=0; float bulk_charge_sp=0; float float_charge_sp=0; float charge_status=0; float load_status=0; float error=0; float Ep=0; int duty =0; float lvd; float msec=0; float last_msec=0; float elasped_msec=0; float elasped_time=0; float ampSecs = 0; float ampHours=0; float watts=0; float wattSecs = 0; float wattHours=0; // Set the pins on the I2C chip used for LCD connections: //                    addr, en,rw,rs,d4,d5,d6,d7,bl,blpol LiquidCrystal_I2C lcd(0x27, 2, 1, 0, 4, 5, 6, 7, 3, POSITIVE);  // Set the LCD I2C address // In my case 0x27 //******************************************************* MAIN PROGRAM START ************************************************ void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); pinMode(BAT_RED_LED,OUTPUT); pinMode(BAT_GREEN_LED,OUTPUT); pinMode(BAT_BLUE_LED,OUTPUT); pinMode(LOAD_RED_LED ,OUTPUT); pinMode(LOAD_GREEN_LED,OUTPUT); pinMode(PWM_PIN,OUTPUT); pinMode(LOAD_PIN,OUTPUT); digitalWrite(PWM_PIN,LOW);  // default value of pwm duty cycle digitalWrite(LOAD_PIN,LOW);  // default load state is OFF lcd.begin(20,4);   // initialize the lcd for 16 chars 2 lines, turn on backlight lcd.backlight(); // finish with backlight on  lcd.createChar(1,solar); lcd.createChar(2, battery); lcd.createChar(3, energy); //lcd.createChar(4,alarm); lcd.createChar(5,temp); lcd.createChar(6,charge); lcd.createChar(7,not_charge); lcd.clear(); } void loop() { read_data();             // read different sensors data from analog pin of arduino system_voltage();        // detect the system voltage according to battery voltage setpoint();      // decide the charge set point according to system voltage charge_cycle();         // pwm charging of battery power();                // calculate the load power and energy load_control();         //control the load led_indication();       // led indica print_data();            // print in serial monitor lcd_display();           // lcd display } //************************************************************ PROGRAM END ************************************************* //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ////////////////// READS AND AVERAGES THE ANALOG INPUTS (SOLRAR VOLTAGE,BATTERY VOLTAGE)//////////////// //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ int read_adc(int adc_parameter) {     int sum = 0;   int sample ;   for (int i=0; i   {                                        // loop through reading raw adc values AVG_NUM number of times      sample = analogRead(adc_parameter);    // read the input pin      sum += sample;                        // store sum for averaging     delayMicroseconds(50);              // pauses for 50 microseconds    }   return(sum / AVG_NUM);                // divide sum by AVG_NUM to get average and return it } //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ////////////////////////////////////READ THE DATA////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- void read_data(void) {     //5V = ADC value 1024 => 1 ADC value = (5/1024)Volt= 0.0048828Volt     // Vout=Vin*R2/(R1+R2) => Vin = Vout*(R1+R2)/R2   R1=100 and R2=20      solar_volt = read_adc(SOL_ADC)*0.00488*(120/20);      bat_volt   = read_adc(BAT_ADC)*0.00488*(120/20);            load_current = (read_adc(CURRENT_ADC)*.0488 -25);      temperature = read_adc(TEMP_ADC)*0.00488*100;        }   //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ /////////////////////////////////POWER AND ENERGY CALCULATION ////////////////////////////////////////////// //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ void power(void) { msec = millis(); elasped_msec = msec - last_msec; //Calculate how long has past since last call of this function elasped_time = elasped_msec / 1000.0; // 1sec=1000 msec watts = load_current * bat_volt; //Watts now ampSecs = (load_current*elasped_time); //AmpSecs since last measurement wattSecs = ampSecs * bat_volt; //WattSecs since last measurement ampHours = ampHours + ampSecs/3600; // 1 hour=3600sec //Total ampHours since program started wattHours = wattHours + wattSecs/3600; // 1 hour=3600sec //Total wattHours since program started last_msec = msec; //Store 'now' for next time } //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ /////////////////////////////////PRINT DATA IN SERIAL MONITOR///////////////////////////////////////////////// //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   void print_data(void)   {     delay(100);     Serial.print("Solar Panel Voltage: ");     Serial.print(solar_volt);     Serial.println("V");     Serial.print("Battery Voltage: ");     Serial.print(bat_volt);     Serial.println("V");     Serial.print("Syestem Voltage: ");     Serial.print(system_volt);     Serial.println("V");     Serial.print("Charge Set Point:");     Serial.println(bulk_charge_sp);     Serial.print("Temperature:");     Serial.print(temperature);     Serial.println("C");     Serial.print("Load Current: ");     Serial.print(load_current);     Serial.println("A");     Serial.print("Power: ");     Serial.print(watts);     Serial.println("W");     Serial.print("Energy: ");     Serial.print(wattHours);     Serial.println("WH");     Serial.print("Duty Cycle :");     if (charge_status==1)     {     Serial.println("99%");     Serial.println("BULK CHARGING");     }     else if (charge_status==2)     {     Serial.print(Ep);     Serial.println("%");     Serial.println("FLOAT CHARGING");     }     else     {     Serial.println("0%");     Serial.println("NOT CHARGING");     }     if(load_status==1)     {      Serial.println("LOAD IS CONNECTED");     }     else     {      Serial.println("LOAD IS DISCONNECTED");       }        Serial.println("***************************"); } //---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- //////////////////////////////////SYSTEM VOLTAGE AUTO DETECT /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// //---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- void system_voltage(void) {   if ((bat_volt >BAT_MIN) && (bat_volt < BAT_MAX))   {      system_volt = 12;   }   /*   else if  ((bat_volt > BAT_MIN*2 ) && (bat_volt < BAT_MAX*2))   {     system_volt=24;   }*/   else if ((bat_volt > BAT_MIN/2 ) && (bat_volt < BAT_MAX/2))   {     system_volt=6;   }   } //--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ////////////////////////////////////CHARGE SET POINT /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// //--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- void setpoint(void) {   temp_change =temperature-25.0; // 25deg cel is taken as standard room temperature // temperature compensation = -5mv/degC/Cell   // If temperature is above the room temp ;Charge set point should reduced   // If temperature is bellow the room temp ;Charge set point should increased   if(system_volt ==12)   {      bulk_charge_sp = BULK_CH_SP-(0.030*temp_change) ;      float_charge_sp=FLOAT_CH_SP-(0.030*temp_change) ;      lvd =LVD;   }   else if(system_volt ==6)   {      bulk_charge_sp = (BULK_CH_SP/2)-(0.015*temp_change) ;      float_charge_sp= (FLOAT_CH_SP/2)-(0.015*temp_change) ;      lvd=LVD/2;   }   /*   else if (system_volt == 24)   {    bulk_charge_sp = (BULK_CH_SP*2)-(0.060*temp_change) ;    float_charge_sp= (FLOAT_CH_SP*2)-(0.060*temp_change) ;    lvd=LVD*2;   }   */   } //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ///////////////////////////////////////////////////PWM CHARGE CYCLE @500 HZ ////////////////////////////////////////////////// //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- void charge_cycle(void) {   if (solar_volt > bat_volt && bat_volt <= bulk_charge_sp)   {         if (bat_volt <= float_charge_sp) // charging start   {       charge_status = 1; // indicate the charger is in BULK mode      duty= 252.45;      analogWrite(PWM_PIN,duty); // 99 % duty cycle // rapid charging           }   else if (bat_volt >float_charge_sp && bat_volt <= bulk_charge_sp)   {         charge_status = 2; // indicate the charger is in FLOAT mode       error  = (bulk_charge_sp - bat_volt);      // duty cycle reduced when the battery voltage approaches the charge set point       Ep= error *100 ; //Ep= error* Kp // Assume  Kp=100             if(Ep < 0)        {         Ep=0;         }       else if(Ep>100)         {          Ep=100;         }       else if(Ep>0 && Ep <=100) // regulating        {          duty = (Ep*255)/100;        }        analogWrite(PWM_PIN,duty);    } }    else    {    charge_status=0;  // indicate the charger is OFF    duty=0;    analogWrite(PWM_PIN,duty);    } } //---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- /////////////////////////////////////////////LOAD CONTROL///////////////////////////////////////////////////// //----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------    void load_control() { if (solar_volt < 5  ) // load will on when night {   if(bat_volt >lvd)   // check if battery is healthy   {   load_status=1;   digitalWrite(LOAD_PIN, HIGH); // load is ON   }   else if(bat_volt < lvd)   {     load_status=0;    digitalWrite(LOAD_PIN, LOW); //load is OFF   } } else // load will off during day {    load_status=0;    digitalWrite(LOAD_PIN, LOW); } } //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- //////////////////////////LED INDICATION//////////////////////////////////// //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- void led_indication(void) {   battery_led();           //Battery status led indication   load_led();              //Load led indication } //---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- /////////////////////////////////////////////BATTERY LED INDICATION///////////////////////////////////////////////////// //---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- void battery_led(void) {      if( (bat_volt > system_volt) && ( bat_volt   {         leds_off_all();       digitalWrite(BAT_GREEN_LED,LOW);  // battery voltage is healthy   }   else if(bat_volt >= bulk_charge_sp)   {       leds_off_all();       digitalWrite(BAT_BLUE_LED,LOW);  //battery is fully charged   }    else if(bat_volt < system_volt)   {       leds_off_all();       digitalWrite(BAT_RED_LED,LOW);  // battery voltage low   } } //---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- /////////////////////////////////////////////LOAD LED INDICATION///////////////////////////////////////////////////// //----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------      void load_led()   {     if(load_status==1)     {       digitalWrite(LOAD_GREEN_LED,HIGH);     }     else if(load_status==0)     {       digitalWrite(LOAD_RED_LED,HIGH);     }    } //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ //////////////////////// TURN OFF ALL THE LED/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ void leds_off_all(void) {     digitalWrite(BAT_RED_LED,HIGH);   digitalWrite(BAT_GREEN_LED,HIGH);   digitalWrite(BAT_BLUE_LED,HIGH);   digitalWrite(LOAD_RED_LED, LOW);   digitalWrite(LOAD_GREEN_LED, LOW); } //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ //////////////////////// LCD DISPLAY/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ void lcd_display() { lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.write(1); lcd.setCursor(2, 0); lcd.print(solar_volt); lcd.print("V"); lcd.setCursor(14, 0); lcd.write(5); lcd.setCursor(16, 0); lcd.print(temperature); lcd.write(0b11011111); lcd.print("C"); lcd.setCursor(0,1); lcd.write(2); lcd.setCursor(2, 1); lcd.print(bat_volt); lcd.print("V"); lcd.setCursor(14, 1); lcd.write(2); if((charge_status==1) | (charge_status== 2)) { lcd.write(6); } else { lcd.write(7); } lcd.setCursor(0,2); lcd.write(3); lcd.setCursor(2,2); lcd.print(load_current); lcd.print("A"); lcd.setCursor(13,2); lcd.print(watts); lcd.print("W"); lcd.setCursor(0,3); lcd.print("Energy:"); lcd.print(wattHours); lcd.print("WH");      }

Question by Fares Mareai    |  last reply


Weight Watchers Points Tracker

I'm not really sure how useful this is going to be to people, but as it's helped out several friends, I figured I'd share it here. <<>> A good portion of my immediate family and their significant others have been doing Weight Watchers.  My mom and girlfriend kept asking me when I was going to do it to.  Hoping I might get out of it, I told my girlfriend I'd do it to so long as she kept track of all my points.  She agreed, and so I was stuck. (To be fair, I agreed to Weight Watchers as opposed to any other diet as it seems more of a “how to eat properly/lifestyle” kind of thing as opposed to a “diet” kind of thing, so it also peeked my curiosity.  Like, “How much SHOULD I be eating compared to what I have been?” (Answer: A lot less)  To express this point, you don't have to lose weight while on the program, you can adjust how much you eat to gain, lose or maintain whatever weight you want.  It's kind of interesting to realize the amount of food intake it requires to affect your body.) After a month of letting my girlfriend track my points, I decided to do it myself.  I wasn't going to learn anything about what I was eating if I didn't take part.  Soon after I started tracking, I realized I needed some kind of automated system that I didn't have to constantly add, subtract and keep count of for days at a time.  All of the information was already stored in a fairly easy to follow spreadsheet my girlfriend made, so I decided to add a few formulas to keep track of things a little easier. To put simply, this spreadsheet keeps tabs on what you're eating, how many points it costs, and determines how many points you've used/have left for the day and week.  Like I said, I'm not sure how useful this is to anyone else, but I figured there'd be one or two people out there that might enjoy. <<>> Please let me know if you have any questions...I edited the files a little bit in hopes that it makes more sense.  Feedback is always appreciated. Who this is for: If you want to try weight watchers, or currently use weight watcher, but don't want to pay them, this might help you. If you want to count your calories in a point system, this might be for you. (This is essentially a glorified calorie counter.) If you want to keep track of what you eat, this might also be for you, though it may not be in depth enough. What this isn't: This doesn't tell you how many points things are worth, that's your job. A quick guide to points: Every 50 Calories = +1 Point Every 10 Grams of Fat = +1 Point Every 5 Grams of Fiber = -1 Point (you can't go below 0) (and don't forget to keep an eye on serving sizes!) This doesn't tell you how many points you should shoot for.  Again, your job to find out If you want to lose weight, there's guides online to figure out what it should be. If you want to gain weight or stay the same, figure what you need to do to lose weight, add five or ten points to that and see what happens. This doesn't track Workout points. I don't believe in them, I don't use them, I didn't add them. What this is: You enter in what you eat. You enter in how many points it costs. It will tally everything for you. Tracks Weekly Points which are bonus points that tally though the week These are a buffer in addition to your daily points They count down throughout the week (you don't want them to go to zero) ...use it for a couple of days and it should start making sense. What you need to do to make the most use of this: Download the appropriate file and put it in a place that's easy to access. I use different computers depending on where I am, so I also downloaded Dropbox and put this in a folder that's shared with all of my computers. Figure out how many points you should eat and enter that in the ??????? field on the spreadsheet (see the attached picture). Enter in what you eat, as you eat it, and see how things go. If you use this, and your weight changes, ten pounds more or less, make sure you re-figure out how many points you're allowed to eat. Voila! Now you don't have to pay $17.00 a month to a website to track your points for you! Attached you'll find the Open Office and Excel versions of the same file.  Choose what suits you.

Topic by StumpChunkman    |  last reply


Space power plant

International project. Space station. Geostationary earth orbit. Solar energy flow. Microwave oven generator of big power. Transfer to Earth of energy in the form of a beam (microwave oven beam, microwave oven energy). Geographical point for reception of a beam - the desert. On Earth of the microwave oven energy will be transformed to electric energy. It is offered to discuss this project!

Topic by Vladimir2016    |  last reply


Energy return on investment for various different energy sources

We're used to thinking about the cost per unit of energy (e.g. $/gallon of gasoline) with the implicit assumption that cost is a rough indicator of what is required to obtain that energy. The Oil Drum has a nice piece on Energy Return on Investment (EROI) and the implications of using low EROI energy sources. To dive right in, it's instructive to think about the EROI of domestic oil production as a function of time:100:1 in 193030:1 in 197011-18:1 in 2000EROI on the Web part 2 of 5, (Provisional Results Summary, Imported Oil, Natural Gas)Energy return on investment, sometimes called EROI and sometimes called EROEI, is thought by many, including myself, to be a critical issue for determining the past, present and future status of human society. It is usually considered in terms of energy return on energy investment, but it can also be considered in terms of energy return on monetary investment. While much of human progress has been attributed, rightfully, to technology, much of that technology has been a means of using more energy for human ends. This is true for fire, knife blades and spear points (energy concentrating devices), the development of agriculture and the increase in its productivity and, essentially all aspects of the industrial revolution.EROI is simply the energy delivered by an energy-obtaining activity compared to the energy required to get it. If the numerator and denominator are expressed in the same units (barrels per barrel, MegaJoules per MegaJoule) the result is a dimensionless ratio, i.e. 100:1 or 10:1). Obviously a higher ratio implies a more desirable fuel than a lower one, other things being equal (which is rarely the case). The concept is extremely simple in theory but often very difficult in execution, mostly because society generally maintains its records in monetary rather than energy terms. Another problem is that the U.S. Government has not supported such studies in a consistent fashion and it is my perception that the quality of some energy records as are kept by e.g. the U.S. Departments of Energy and of Commerce appear to be deteriorating in recent years. Thus deriving the energy cost of getting energy (or most other things) is generally somewhat, and oftentimes exceedingly, difficult. A second problem is that the usual measure of the quantity of a fuel, its heat value, often does not give a full assessment of that fuel's ability to do economic or other work. Most simply electricity and thermal heat from e.g. coal or oil have a great difference in their ability to do work, such as we are willing to trade three or four heat units of coal or oil in a thermal plant for one thermal unit of higher quality electricity. Thus if the input and output fuels are of different quality then it is often thought desirable to weight in some way the inputs and the outputs. A third problem is that it is important to consider boundaries: how large should we draw the boundaries of the energy analysis for the inputs? We will consider these issues in far more detail in later publications but there are many reasons why it is important to make summaries of EROI available at this time even though many uncertainties exist in the numbers that we present here, and indeed with any numbers that might be possible to generate.via jforbess

Topic by ewilhelm    |  last reply


Electricity Recycler? Stupid Question?

I was laying in bed a few minutes ago thinking about my idea to change the world, as i do every night before bed. I thought why can't or hasn't anyone made a electricity recycling generator? like why can't you take say..... a car alternator and make it produce enough electricity to run a small motor to spin the alternator as well as have enough energy left over to power devices? and then why couldn't this theory be applied to large scale generators? or why couldn't you electricly power a vehicle and somehow turn the wheels into basically 4 big alternators that generate power for the vehicle? going back to the alternator idea, is there no way to make an alternator type generator to use say 25 - 50% of its generated power to power itself and the other 50% to power devices? please point out the flaws its hurting my brain

Topic by chaoscampbell    |  last reply


-Hi dear friends! I'm here, home too... I would like to ask a question about the connections of dc motor. May I ?

   Here in instructables, I saw a " pringles wind turbine" . I'm also looking for making sth. like that. Over there, all is ok. But, our friend doesn't tell us how we connect that wires. All is fine. We stick magnetson a cd;  and these wire rounds, to an other cd. But, after this point, we don't know how we connect wires together. After, diode connection, and battery connection.     Can you please tell me how I have to connect all of these tinks together and have electric? Thanks for your helps from the beginning.            Devrimm pc: My English isn't perfect. So, I prefer some pictures while answering my question...

Question by Devrimm    |  last reply


Is anyone familiar with an Euler's Disk? (physics, conservation of energy and angular momentum demonstration).

At this one site I haunt now and then, looking for new science toys and things to hack, I came across this little item called a Euler's Disk.  I am assuming at this point, that there is quite a bit of specificity in the way this needs to be made so that it works, thus the $25 price tag. Anyone have any information (not contained in the ad) on this?   It'd be most appreciated.  

Topic by Goodhart    |  last reply


Algae biofuel oil refining?

I have long been a fan of the idea of renewable energy from algae colonies, but I have yet to find any information on actually refining the oil produced with the algae.  I am well aware of how to remove the oil, however at that point it is just an organic crude.  Is their a process to refine it to a more diesel or gasoline-like state, or is it efficient enough to run an engine on the crude.  I am currently growing a reasonable algae colony and would appreciate assistance in doing something with the algae after it is grown.  

Question by jj.inc    |  last reply


Texas Windpower = Big Money

Texas is now far ahead of California, and the rest of the country, in production of wind power.From the NYTimes:Texas, once the oil capital of North America, is rapidly turning into the capital of wind power. After breakneck growth the last three years, Texas has reached the point that more than 3 percent of its electricity, enough to supply power to one million homes, comes from wind turbines.Texans are even turning tapped-out oil fields into wind farms.

Topic by canida    |  last reply


LEDs as a replacement?

I've been thinking, which, for me is strange. What's stranger, i've been thinking about saving the planet. I don't believe that global warming is solely the fault of man and his machines, nor do i believe that we're all going to fry in a ten-thousand year summer, but that's not the point of this forum, and i'd appreciate no comments labelling me as a communist, or a planet-hater. What i had in mind is a new system of lighting. Say i took some LEDs (lets say 16) and connected them in paralell, and attatched them to the appropriate power source, would they be more or less efficient than a tungsten filament lamp? As for aesthetic considerations, to simulate natural sunlight during winter months, one could add blue or yellow LEDs to tune the shade of the light. Would this idea be more efficient than the lights we have? (i avoided mentioning those energy-efficient lights because they're not really that efficient, and give crap light.)

Topic by Vendigroth    |  last reply


Which low boiling fluid to use (that won't corrode metals and plastics)?

I'm having a bit of a headache trying to chose and procure a working fluid to use in my solar device. It needs to be low boiling, but as my device so far is involving copper, aluminium and maybe some plastics and rubbers, it would also need to be as non corrosive as poss. Cheap and plentiful are also important, not so much for the prototype, but when these things are ultimately used, they need to be easy to assemble. The four options I'm aware of so far are: Methanol boils at 64.7 °C, I thought it would be easy to get but is turning out quite difficult and maybe expensive, also apparently eats through every material I plan to use. Ethanol Boiling Point: 78.4 °C, easier to get but still corrosive. Hexane Boiling Point: 69 °C, not corrosive (?) but not at all easy to get or cheap. Water Boiling Point: 100 °C, which may be a bit too high. The fluids will be boiling in a non-pressurised but sealed environment, so no atmospheric water will be able to get in or out. Help?

Topic by SolarFlower_org    |  last reply


How clouds act as an air pump to suck in air. Not how you think they do!

I have been thinking a long time about the biotic pump theory but I still don't understand it.  The math is too hard for me.   BUT it got me to thinking.   It is a point of major dispute in the meteorological world.   Does condensation cause low pressure?  2 russian nuclear physicists say yes,  almost everyone else says no!   So,  I thought and thought and thought.  Now I think I have a simple enough explanation And yes, they may not necessarily cause low pressure under the cloud (probably do)  but they definitely suck in air from elsewhere.  Imagine a fleet of huge doughnut shaped dirigible airships. They are sitting at 10,000 ft just floating there.   Now the commander tells everyone that they must now fly at 5000 ft.   So they turn on their propellers (in the hole in the doughnut) and drop down to 5000 ft by propelling air up  through the hole.   Now staying at 5000 ft is achieved by running the propellers at just fast enough.  So at 5000 ft they are pumping air from under the doughnuts to above them.   Now imagine a cumulus cloud.  Even though it is not fixed in size or shape and it does not have a propeller,  it is doing the exact same thing.  Air is being pumped up the middle and the clouds are sitting lower in the sky than they "should",  because they are sending that column of air up into the sky.   Here is my video to explain it visually.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sPO8dWm_GIg

Topic by gaiatechnician    |  last reply


Dual energy generation with magnetic Seesaw system and gravity with the help of 3 volt toy motor

This technology is based on  a Seesaw system and magnetic repelling principle Linear motion  .We can generate electricity with very little force with the help of this technology.This will be a radical step in the field of energy generation. In this technology there will be a balance system and two heavy weight magnets(high strength NEODYMIUM MAGNETS) will be attached with each side of this balance system as per diagram. As per diagram there will be two moving weights and these moving weights will move on tracks.These tracks will be fixed at the angle of 8 to 10 degree. Two magnets will be attached on the front side of these moving weights and these magnets will have similar polarity with the magnets of balance system. These moving weights will be attached with two gear boxes and these gear boxes will be attached with two generators. HOW THIS TECH WILL WORK? When one side heavy weight magnet of balance system will be pressed with the help of any kind of external force then this side will come down and repel its side moving weight due to equal polarity of magnets.due to repelling the moving weight will move forward .but when the heavy weight magnet will move upward then this moving weight will move backward due to gravity to get its position back. in this way this moving weight will work to run a gear box and this gear box will work to start a generator to generate energy. This balance system will also work to pass through their side copper coil due to linear movement and in this way this technology will generate Dual energy. WE will take very high strength NEODYMIUM magnets  for balance system. I would like to insist on some following points (1) The balance system will be attached with 'L' form crank with external PRESSING source. (2) The moving weights will also be attached with 'L' form crank with gear boxes. (3) Each side magnet of balance system will work one by one .When one side magnet will come down the another side magnet will move up .These magnets will come down and move up one by one to repel their side moving weight. (4) We can take as much weight as we can of these magnets of balance system .(500 kilogram to 1000 Kilogram or more) to pass through the heavy coils having 100000 turns or more.  (5) External source of pressing this balance system could be anything such as pressing with foot  or solar cell. WE WILL NEED ONLY 3 VOLT EXTERNAL ENERGY TO PRESS THIS BALANCE SYSTEM  AND GENERATE MORE AND MORE ENERGY.

Topic by vikram_gupta11  


For drivers who leave their SUVs idling -- can we make a remote control that will shut off their engines ?

Some drivers leave their cars idling.. many times unattended.  They are getting lousy gas mileage and adding carbon needlessly to the environment. Can we deliver some kind of kinetic energy to the vehicle that will cause the engine to shut off without endangering anyone? I'm thinking this would be a remote control device... Just point and click.... and the engine stops running until the driver shows up and starts the car again.

Question by steve_newguy    |  last reply


I was wondering if there is a good robotics starter kit for someone with zero experience? Answered

I have no tools, no experience, or basic know how to robotics. However, I am very interested in trying this out as a hobby. Where can I go to start building a beginner platform robot. I am also a mac user and again, have zero programming experience. Clean slate! Need a good starting point!

Question by EBarron21    |  last reply


HELP!! i am building an using the magnet on the back of a car speaker.

I am also going to try to channel the electromagnetic waves. where should i start? How much energy would i need? How can i contain the magnetic field? at what point does the energy become harmful to the human body?

Question by tprusak    |  last reply


Wireless energy transfer and resonant coupling?

I am getting a bit sick and tired of frying expensive parts, entire coils and sitting in stinking smoke for hours, so time to gather some new ideas from you guys ;) Problem as short as possible: I am working on wireless energy transmission. Not with the usualy distances we know from charging pads or electric toothbrushes though, I am aiming for 30cm and more of distance here. After endless hours wasted on testing different coil designs I think I got that one nailed quite good but the thing is that I seem to be unable to keep resonance under load. The coils require a very tiny window for the right operating frequency in the 40kHz range or for the other design in the 150kHz region. When the frequency shifts more than 3 or 4kHz from the resonant point the efficiency drops to useless. Since this entire thing is planned to be as simple as possible so everyone can do it I would like to prevent complicated electronics. The few I need so far are done through ready to use modules. Of course a microcontroller would be the most obvious choice here but that does not fit in as I like "old school" for this one. Two ways I considered so far with more or less success: a) Fixed frequency feed and limited output power. This works actually quite well but only allows for tiny power levels like charging a mobile phone or tablet if you have some time. Problem however is that load changes affect the frequency and without a link back to the sender the efficiency goes down and not enough energy reaches the receiver for usage. b) ZVS driven coil. So far this approach gives the best output power but also uses huge amounts of juice. Good to make a fancy glass stand for your TV and supply the power through a hidden receiver in the base of the TV but since there is no limit or link between sender and receiver it is full power only. Is there a really simple way to provide a limited amount of power together with automatic resonance keping? Next one might be a bit tricky: Is there a simple way to increase the harmonic frequencies? As we know every simple oscillator also creates and reacts to the corresponding harmonic frequencies. On the sender's side I would like to be able to not just feed the primary frequency but also one of the harmonic frequencies with a similar power level. Again without a microcontroller or extensive electronics where possible.

Question by Downunder35m    |  last reply


"New " old material for experimentation.

This video is about Nitinol memory metal engines that are basically Stirling heat engines and work on a very low temperature difference. I first say this material while watching a video on the founder of 'The Venus Project'. He had small spring that he would stretch out of shape and the heat it - it would come back to its original form and shape. I thought it was neat but didn't see the potential of the material. This video is from a 1970 CNN broadcast  - when CNN was news instead of a propaganda machine. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7GfYlRakZ6Y The material is available on the web somewhere as others have purchased it since I showed them the video. At this point in time I am more of an information messenger and unable to partake in experimentation. So have at it guys and gals. God Bless

Topic by strmrnnr  


Where is the induction kettle or hot water system?

No modern kitchen these days is complete without at least a single induction cooktop.Convient to even place on the table to keep things warm but also nice to have 4 or 6 "hotplates" to cook on that are actually not getting hot at all.When it comes to efficiency induction cooking tops all others as no heat is wasted.Which brings me to the point...A single cooktop goes now often for well under 50 bucks.Although the base might end up slightly higher than a normal kettle I fail to see why we don't have induction kettles in our kitchen.Why wait 12 minutes to have the thing boil if you can do it cheaper and faster?Way more convinient too as there is no pesky contacts and heating elements anymore, no failure due to leaks either...But what really got me wondering is the hot water systems or heating options like prefered in Europe.Here you have a central "boiler" so to say and water circulates through valves into finned radiators, usually located under windows.We have oil filled radiators of this kind as free standing units that are now being phased out because they waste too much energy with their heating elements.Same story for just hot water :(On demand systems are getting more popular now outside Europe but still the common solution is to have a few hundret liters of water in a tank that is kept hot no matter how much of it we use.Be is gas or electric both types have their drawbacks and to get ahead of the corrosion that always kills them we now opt for expensive stainless steel tanks...Using induction it would be very easy to have a fully sealed tank and to actually only heat what needs to be heated without wasting too much energy.The "heating" element could be just a steel plate inside the tank with no connections to the outside.The gap between wall and element doubles to make the water circulate.And changing from a fixed timer to a temperatur control system to turn the induction element on and off is not hard either.Do you have an induction based hot water system, heater or maybe kettle already?Would love to see it...

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Solar "Generator"

Since I've always wanted to do something like this and I found this site, it's about to happen! I found a smaller version with what I wanted to do at Popular Science but I want to do something on a larger scale. I do have some questions though that I'm hoping someone can answer or point me in the correct direction.I'm going to describe what I'm doing with what and what I have questions with.I'm going to be buying this solar panel and charge controller kit. Sunforce Solar Panel With Charge ControllerA deep cycle 115 AMP Hour 12 V marine battery from Wal-Mart with Plastic Battery caseSalvaged wood Toy BoxMeter Question: How to meter how many amp hours I have left or how charged the battery is? What kind of meter to buy? Where? (not too expensive <20 bucks or so) how to hook it up.A 12 V accessory outlet with on off switch Question: I'm putting an inline fuse before the switch, 15A the line fuse goes on the + (positive) side correct?A 700 Watt 6.25 AMP DC to AC converter with 4 outlets connected to it. Question: can I put a breaker or fuse between the 4 outlets I'm going to be plugging into on the outside and the plug being plugged into the DC to AC converter? If so how?USB ports for charging with on off switch. Question: how do I convert the 12V to 5V in an easy way? I've seen some creative ideas on here for charging VIA salvaged USB ports but I don't want to have to hook it up to my power inverter if I don't have to. Cooling/ventilation for the entire thing. Any ideas how I might cool/vent it? Currently I'm thinking of using old computer fans and put them on both sides of the toy box and have 2 blowing and 2 blowing out. Having the fans run off of the solar panel during the day and either have a switch to change it to battery at night (if it's too warm in the house) or maybe photo sense it? Temp sensor to turn it on and off? Or a switch to turn it off completely. I'm just looking for idea's to keep the battery (and to expand to be more than one battery) cool/ventilated. If you have examples or detailed description on how to do it that'd be great. I'm not one to steal ideas so I'll credit the idea's I'm given if I use them =)I'm going to see how much I can run off of this and how long. Hopefully save some big time energy also!Thanks all!

Topic by oddie1212    |  last reply


Solar - PV versus Solar Oven with Peltier

I was browsing the site as I am often wont to do, and spent quite some time revisiting old 'ibles covering various solar projects, almost all of which are heat related. I understand from general consensus that PV (photo voltaic) solar systems are very inefficient and one of the worst ways to harvest solar energy (when considering the cost of construction and the energy transfer capacity, etc.) Almost everyone who knows what they are doing suggest that the best (and easiest) way to harvest solar energy is to collect the heat - be it to heat air or water, cook food, or other such purposes.Now, I have recently been fascinated by a discovery relatively new to me, peltier units. These devices, for those who don't know, can work in one of three ways. They can harvest and/or produce either heat, cold, or electricity.Basically, if an electric current is run through a unit, it produces heat on one side and an equal amount of 'cold' on the other. Yes I know you can't produce cold - but for the layman, that is what we call it.Or, if one side is heated while the other side is cooled, the unit produces an amount of electricity from the difference in temperatures. One example I have seen and plan to make use of is in vehicles - if you place one or more of these on your exhaust manifold, or any other location where the engine produces waste heat, and airflow can reach it to cool the other side, you generate electricity from the waste heat energy that would otherwise just be . . . well, wasted.But it occurred to me today, if you had a unit attached in the middle of a solar collector, focusing sunlight on one side of the peltier unit, and isolate the other side of the unit in some cooling medium (perhaps even just air with a heat sink of some sort - more likely a cooling liquid though), how effective would this be at harvesting solar energy (heat) into electricity?Actually, I have been using the more common name of peltier, but I believe that for this application a seebeck unit (which is nearly the same, but different) would be required. As I understand it, Peltier units are used more as coolers and are almost always constructed with Bismuth Telluride (Bi2Te3) and used around room temperature and below; while Seebeck units are good for power generators are often constructed of PbTe or, SiGe as well as Bi2Te3 and are used at much higher temperatures.From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermoelectric_effect :The effect is that a voltage, the thermoelectric EMF, is created in the presence of a temperature difference between two different metals or semiconductors. This causes a continuous current to flow in the conductors if they form a complete loop. The voltage created is of the order of several microvolts per degree difference.((more info can be found at the referenced wiki page on formulae etc.))Just curious on if this would ever be a decent way to harvest solar energy into electricity. I have also thought up using a thermal siphon solar heating system in which the liquid flows past one or more water wheels which power a small (and obviously slow) generator - but at that point I believe it would be so inefficient and limited in use as to just have absolutely no practical application. The peltier unit (used as a seebeck unit) would probably do better, but I am not certain, which is why I post the question.

Topic by karossii    |  last reply


Necromancy?

Hello. I recently started showing strong behaviors of an energy vampire, or a psychic vampire. I am afraid. I'm not sure what to do or where to go. Today, I understood that vampires are dark creatures, means I have some dark magic to use. I want to learn necromancy. I have heard about "Communing With The Spirits", A book, So can someone please point me to an ebook? or eny other scource of info that can help me?

Question by netbus    |  last reply


Power the American nation with waste food!

A new study shows that the energy used to produce the food wasted by Americans is greater than the energy stored in the oil and gas reserves around US shores. The situation is probably worse than the study suggests, since the only data available on wasted food was from 1995, when 27% of all food was wasted.  Since then, food prices have fallen, and waste has probably increased. Michael Webber and Amanda Cuellar at the Center for International Energy and Environmental Policy at the University of Texas at Austin calculate that this is the equivalent of about 2150 trillion kilojoules lost each year. That's more than could be gained from many popular strategies to improve energy efficiency. It is also more than projections for how much energy the US could produce by making ethanol biofuel from grains. Obviously, Americans (and every other similarly-wasteful society - we're just as guilty in the UK) should be doing their level best to reduce their wasted food, but it also strikes me; there is gold in them thar bins. Rather than persuade hundreds of millions of lazy "Westerners" to change their ways, why not exploit them?  Why not make money off them (or at least, save your own energy costs)? We already have a bus driving around for free, and a car running on garbage.  Can you come up with a house-hold scale scheme? Could you cut your energy bills to zero, just by collecting other people's garbage for them? Could you set yourself up as a supplier of motor fuels (gasoline or diesel replacements?  methane?) Come on, iblers, do your thing! New Scientist article Oil data The study itself. (I have attached a PDF of the study, if you're interested.

Topic by Kiteman    |  last reply


"Knex War?" (The Math Bit)

Hey guy! Sharir1701 here and I just want to start off by saying that I'm not back into Knex warfare, but I have something to show you. About a year and a half ago, I posted this forum topic. There I explained why, in my opinion, just adding more rubber bands to a gun will not actually produce an overall better gun (past a certain, low point). I'm not getting back into that discussion, but I simply wanted to share something regarding that. Don't ask me how or why (I don't know, myself), but a few days ago I suddenly remembered that old assumption I made. Being a perfectionist, I hate leaving things unfinished or unexplained (particularly math and physics related inquiries). Back when I posted that topic, I had little to no formal Physics knowledge, and the beginnings of an understanding in mathematics. Now, I have a much broader understanding, much more knowledge, and an ability to explain and evaluate what I once couldn't. Anyway, what I'm trying to say is, back then, I didn't have the tools to prove my claims. I firmly believed in them, but I couldn't confirm them. It's nothing complicated, but, like I said, just something I'd like to share. I also want to point out that, although I personally don't enjoy spending days upon days perfecting a little plastic mechanism for firing (mostly) non-aerodynamic plastic projectiles, anymore, there still is a warm spot in my heart for the craft I once loved. More to the point - this is a small article just showing something I did in a few minutes the other day, that helps me to better understand how a Knex gun works. I hope that in writing this, more people that are still building guns, will think about more accurately calculating certain things about their guns to help improve their performance and hopefully produce more efficient guns. The final note I have is that I'm about to show you equations, all of which can be plugged with real, measurable numbers, to calculate to a high degree of accuracy, the forces at play. This means you can actually calculate the most efficient layout for a gun, and also that in designing your next, you will be able to use these equations, and many others, to find optimal solutions to your problems. So, what's all this fuss about? Well, basically, I just proved with a few, painfully easy equations that my conjecture about the forces in a gun, working on the pin, is true. I'll just get to it: First, Hooke's Law states that the force necessary to change the length of a spring or a (tense) rubber band is F=K*dX, where F is the force, dX is the distance you want to change, and K is a constant number, that each rubber band (or spring) has. You can quite easily measure both of these. For rubber bands connected parallel to each other (assuming they are the same type of rubber band, which ever is your chosen standard), this equation becomes F=K*dX*N, where N is the number of rubber bands used. dX and K are both constant in the regards of the pull of a pin on a standard Knex pin gun. Therefor, the amount of force required to cock a pin (pull it back to it's full length) is linearly correlated to the number of bands you put on your gun. Next, if we examine Newton's equation of work and energy, W=dE=F*dX, where W is the work, dE is the change in energy in your system (input from an external force, i.e. your hand), F is the force applied along a length of movement, and dX is that length. Let us define the base position of the pin (not cocked, minimum tension on the rubber bands, fully in the barrel, etc.) as having 0 energy. This then means that the work applied to the pin by cocking it is equal to all the potential energy it has. From this, plugging in the force, we get Ep=K*(dX)^2*N. Let us assume a perfect world, where we neglect the effects of friction and air resistance, and assume all the momentum of the pin is transferred into the bullet as it fires (I will briefly mention in the end, why everything we're neglecting here just strengthens my claim in reality, but let's continue for now). After being released (in other words, shot), the maximum velocity the pin reaches right before the end of it's journey can be found using the equation for kinetic energy Ek=1/2*M*(Vmax)^2, using the fact that (again, neglecting energy wasted as heat due to friction) the energy is conserved, as no external force is working on the system, which then means that Ep,start=Ek,end => K*(dX)^2*N=1/2*M*(Vmax)^2 => Vmax = sqrt(2*K*(dX)^2/M) * sqrt(N). The first sqrt term in the final equation is all one big constant (again, K is the ratio associated with the rubber band, dX is the distance the pin travels, and M is the mass of the pin), meaning we can conclude that (C for constant) Vmax=C*sqrt(N). Finally, force applied by a moving, massive object can be calculated using Newton's second law, F=dP/dT (P is the pin's momentum, T is the time it takes for the pin to go from velocity Vmax to 0, transferring all it's energy into the gun and the bullet, but as I said, let us assume all of it goes into the bullet), or F=M*dV/dT (M, mass of the pin, dV is the difference in velocity, Vmax-0, which is simply Vmax. This is because P=M*V, which means dP=M*dV, ignoring relativity). So, F=M*C/dT*sqrt(N). The time varies slightly, but insignificantly, so let us assume it is a constant. So that's it. The force exerted by the pin on the bullet is some constant (calculatable, as mentioned and as shown), times the sqrt of N, the number of rubber bands on the gun. So there you go. Just a little something I did out of the blue the other day and thought I would share a proof of my conjecture from what feels like eons ago. I hope you enjoyed. Finally, I would like to tell you guys, perhaps as a little tease, since I'm not sure if I will ever upload it, but I have made 1 more gun after I stopped posting. I have already slightly teased about it in my user info. I guess I'll tell you guys what it is if I'm already posting something here again :) Possibly my most enjoyable, most well received, and quite innovative gun of all time? The REMPAR-2. I built the REMPAR-3 (I was also going to call it S5 when I thought about posting it). In a brief summary, it's a pump action, chambering (or bolt action as I and many others falsely used to call it), magazine fed rifle, that's only 5 layers thick all over, except one tiny area where it's 8 layers thick (1.5 extra on either side), as a reinforcement, not necessary if you use less rubber bands. Oh, actually, there's another small necessary area where it's 7 layers thick, but it's tiny and doesn't make the gun look bulky at all, and who cares. Plus, the one is around the pump, which looks quite natural, and the other is "disguised" as a detachable sight (not really detachable) that also looks fine. It also looked fairly good for a gun that I made, it used (if I remember correctly) a grand total of 0 broken pieces, which is a big accomplishment for me (the mag has some broken white rods, but fuck off), and it worked flawlessly, reaching ranges over 80ft and being able to go at 2-4 rounds per second, depending on your skill level with it. In other words, I could shoot 4rps; My girlfriend, with no experience or practice, could do 2rps, which says something about the gun's comfortability and ease of use in my opinion. It shot blue rods up to an accuracy of about 5x5cm (2x2in) over 30ft, which is amazing for a Knex gun, and it was truly super comfortable. It wasn't even long at all, which is saying a lot, looking at some other people's attempts at 5-wide pump actions (I may also be guilty of an attempt several years ago). Being quite short and only 5 wide, it is also quite light. I'm sorry, I just really liked this gun, I think it was truly my best creation ever (of course, the S3 is by far the most innovative gun I've made, but it's mostly a concept gun, not meant for real effectiveness). I may post it in the future, but I'll make no promises. I suppose I won't leave you guys completely hanging and take a picture of it. Oh yes, there's also a neat, fun little thing I did, originally because I saw no other option, but then I actually really loved it. I'm talking about the mag-lock. It locks automatically (there's a band on it, but it ripped a long time ago, so...) and the mag cannot fall out. Then you pull on it with your middle finger, similar to a trigger, and the mag just drops right out. Love it :)

Topic by Sharir1701    |  last reply


Solar-powered laser (supposedly)

 I was in this other forum about the Mythbusters' "Archimedes' Death Ray" thing. Our discussion went off topic, so I made another topic! According to Google, a laser is a device that produces monochromatic, coherent beam of light. We have established the coherent part of it by focusing the Sun's energy on point which has a mirror so theoretically, that focused part of the beam should reflect off the mirror. Our design(s) is/are based on multiple parabolas (or Fresnel lenses) to collect and focus light. The light is in turn reflected off mirrors to be combined on a mirror (or lens) which will be used to aim the light to the target. Unfortunately, I forgot the "monochromatic" part of the laser, but that's not a problem. All we have to do is put filters on our parabolas. That should be a cool enough part to filter the light without melting the filter(s) itself / themselves. What would be an idiotic thing to do is put the filter right in front of the last mirror, because it would melt it (unless off course, that filter was a pane of glass).   Any suggestions/comments/design ideas please put them up here. If your idea is just downright stupid (sorry, I don't know what else to use (other than idiotic, or crazy, actually crazy's better than stupid (back to topic))). If it is stupid, I will not use offensive words against you (unless you were swearing on my face); you will, instead, be facing the following words: "Sorry, your (insert suggestion/comment/idea) is not feasible. Please try again". I know it's a bit funny; part of it is for your entertainment, part of it is for your knowing. Again, please post any suggestion, comment, or ideas. By the way, if it's only a bit stupid, you won't be needing to face the words... Have a nice day!

Topic by nutsandbolts_64    |  last reply


Can Non-Hybrid Cars Get 100+ MPG Today?

  We're not talking about hybrids here; our topic is cars powered by the basic IC-engine that relies on gasoline and not electric motors. Today's gasoline engines are not designed to combust/burn gasoline efficiently. Even with the advent of using high pressure fuel injection techniques that are computer controlled, we still fall short of the mark. Partly because liquid gasoline can't burn, only gasoline vapors burn, and there lies our problem. The same goes for injecting the high pressure droplets of fine-mist liquid gasoline that enters the engine cylinder using our current nozzle ejector technology, it doesn't all burn at the same time! Engine designers assume that these droplets are instantly vaporized by the engine's hot cylinder walls, and then instantly explode/combust when ignited by the sparkplug. Not true, up to 2/3 of the fuel isn't vaporized and doesn't combust until later on in the cycle. The 1/3 that gets almost-instantly vaporized and burns will do so within the several thousandths of a second (Fig-1) it has before the piston moves down its 1/2-stroke (out of today's 4-stroke cycle) completing the engine power-portion of its cycle. This releases power and tremendous heat which indeed vaporizes the remaining ~2/3 of our fuel from its liquid droplet form, but too late. It essentially does so when the power stroke is almost over or the piston is just about ready to move into its up-stroke (2nd stroke of our four stroke cycle) phase. So, because of poor vapo-timing we have 2/3 of our fuel virtually wasted by exploding at near the bottom of the power stroke. This incorrect explosive timing, which happens to most of our fuel, imparts very little energy into the crankshaft because its effective "moment" (a product of explosive force and radial-component distance from crankshaft center) is insignificant by then. Various attempts at adjusting the combustion timing spark hasn't made a significant difference. Even though ~2/3 of the fuel is now exploding and providing a huge force, its small "influence" arm distance is rapidly diminishing to zero, and any huge downward force times near zero arm-length is still zero. Some clarification here, technically thermal-efficiency is not improved, pretty much all of the gasoline gets combusted today. That means the energy of the fuel is almost totally released, but not effectively used. The problem is the timing it takes to convert fuel-injected gasoline droplets into vapor to combust at the correct engine rotational time and extract that expended energy. If you did the math for any size engine rotating at say 3200 RPM, you would find that a 4-stroke engine can only extract that energy from combustion during one of the four strokes. And the time it takes to make that stroke happen is only about 9.4 thousandths of a second or 9.4 milisecs (msecs). Now picture the piston just below TDC, all its valves closed, under pressure and containing all the fuel and air it needs to combust. At this point our deadly cocktail has about half of the 9.4 or about 5 msecs to complete combust after the timed sparkplug ignites it. The half factor exists because the max portion of our power stroke (moment arm) occurs at the mid-stroke of the piston sliding down and turning the crankshaft. If all of our fuel isn't combusted by then, the moment-arm or distance from the piston-center to the crankshaft quickly reduces to zero. Again, only vapors combust within a healthy 2 msecs (Fig-1), while fuel droplets take a relatively long time (>5 msecs) to vaporize before it can combust. Unfortunately nature is stubborn and vaporizes ~2/3 of our injected fuel droplets only during roughly the second half of the power stroke. So this huge amount of energy gets wasted because even though the forces of combustion are huge, its moment arm is rapidly approaching zero. Infinity times zero is still zero! Engine designers/engineers have been plagued by this phenomenon ever since the creation of the 4-stroke gasoline or Otto cycle engine. We need to improve this intermittent combustion/explosion process by combusting all of our injected fuel at the correct timing sequence. This is accomplished by injecting only vaporous fuel which will produce ~3X the power we now get. Another way to state this is, for the same power that we now get from a gasoline engine, if we burned the fuel correctly, we would only need 1/3 the fuel consumption to get 3X the current MPG.

Topic by RT-101    |  last reply


Can I measure everything?

Can something exist if has no mass or cannot be converted into mass? The mass of a photon is zero, yet how can a photon have energy but not have mass? If this is false, would that it be true that a box with and LED in it would have more mass when the LED is lit? But, are there other types of being aside from energy and mass? A concept perhaps. How would a concept be measured? The word apple is comprised of certain wavelengths that are detected by the human ear. In the human body as a system, the energy that my body requires to produce those wavelengths at "regular" amplitude (assuming there can be a standard amplitude) could be converted into mass. Would this allow me to measure the mass of the word apple in the system of my body? Right now I'm sure many of you are thinking that the word apple could be represented in many other ways such as writing. This is why I used the word 'system' when I referred to myself saying the word apple. Since there is no standard for the writing and speech of the word apple. Is everything comprised of something? Could that something be converted into mass? Can I measure anything?

Topic by astrozombies138  


3D Printed Solar Electric Vehicle

Last months, as passive and low energy construction business went down in Romania, I had time to revival an old project - Zero Emission Solar Electric Vehicle. While researching online and off-line for chassis, body and materials suppliers and manufacturers, went to the 3D Printing idea for chassis, body and parts! There are already at least 2 cars printed so, and I'd like to share what I know already and also to learn from you. The vehicles will be modular, also. Hope you will love this idea, when I will have design ready and show it here :)  We might use Open Source Vehicles chassis, but not sure about this, because 3D printing will reduce the need of many parts that are in a classical chassis and body.  Your info brought here and your decent comments will be deeply appreciated. Thank you!

Topic by MTeodor    |  last reply


Thunderbirds are go!

Abu Dhabi has started to build what it says is the world's first zero-carbon, zero-waste car-free city.Masdar City will cost $22bn (£11.3bn), take eight years to build and be home to 50,000 people and 1,500 businesses.The city will be mostly powered by solar energy and residents will move in travel pods running on magnetic tracks.Finally, the world imagined by Gerry Anderson is starting to be built - whole cities built as one thing, people travelling on monorail pods, centralised desalination plants, massive hydrogen plants... the chances that they will need International Rescue seem greater with every corner you turn.Still, it could be A Good Thing - if it works, this could be a big stimulus to other nations to start working on carbon neutrality with a vengeance. Certainly the promotional video makes the whole thing sound very tempting ...BBC articleMasdar Initiative homepageDeveloper's promotional video

Topic by Kiteman    |  last reply


Integrating Highschool Sciences

Irene Duke, Kate Hoff, Lyndsay Carlisle and myself are participating in the MIT course 11.124, _Introduction to Teaching and Learning Science and Mathematics_. We have a variety of teaching interests: Irene hopes to teach chemistry, Kate to teach Physics, myself Physics or Mathematics and Lyndsay hopes to teach social justice / political history. Provided Make magazines as inspiration, we were tasked to design a joint activity, merging four high school classes of these topics for a period of weeks or months. We developed the ideas described in this first entry over the course of a class period. Hopefully, we'll take the time to expand each step into an instructable, possibly including trials by fire teaching 8th-11th graders. The material is structured by conservation of energy and resources, inspired by the articles of Tim Andersen. The final demonstration we envision motivates the particular material we wanted from each field. A bicycle wheel is drives an alternator transforming mechanical energy into electrical. The electrical energy is used to run a electrolysis process, rendering separate measurable quantities of Hydrogen and Oxygen. The Hydrogen and Oxygen are then combusted for the students. The amount of mechanical energy can be measured, as can the electrical. The binding energy of H_2O can be used to determine the chemical potential energy rendered. Finally, the combustion both demonstrates the energy's new form, and the difficulties in storing energy. The difference between power and energy underlies all of these experiments. Conservation of linear momentumn should be a familiar topic with the students. Conservation of angular momentumn can easily be introduced at this point, demonstrated with the bicycle and a fly wheel. Chaning the orientation of the wheel can be exteremely difficult. For the chemical portion of the experiment, stoicheometry should be familiar to establish the link between the amount of gas generated and the energy invested. The most appropriate mathemetical tools are statistical. Sampling, linear regression and averaging would prove useful throughout the experiments. Global economic relationships leading up from the colonial period would perhaps be the most applicable topic form history or the social sciences. Though not a technical detail, an important aspect of executing such an idea involves the actual deployment of resources. Students could, for example be broken up by their topic of interest, whether it be the physical, chemical or social aspects of the project. Next, new groups would be formed with one or two members from each subject area. These groups could then attempt to execute the design from the first slide, or one which is similar. Throughout, the students will present their thoughts or understanding to the teacher. This design project should perhaps be phrased as simply turning mechanical energy into hydrogen. Students with social scientific background might be responsible for estimating the costs of the implementation in different settings, and that would be used to drive a larger scale version. So, before getting started on building and documenting this project, do people have suggestions? What worked to combine the physical sciences for you? What might have worked?

Topic by mmt    |  last reply


V-Gate Motor, what is fake, what is real, why is it not possible

If we look at so called magnet motors than they usually share the common works of a V-Gate somewhere.So with the energy crisis blooming it might make sense to take a look on how these fance toys are supposed to work, or not work.You can check Wikipedia and watch a lot of Youtube videos showing magnet motors or just V-Gate magnet toys in operation.As the name suggests the permanent magnets are placed in a V shape configuration.Either linear or in a circle / on a drum.And the working theory suggests that if you place one or two magnets at the right spot in relation to the V than forces will make things move.It is great fun to play with a V-Gate just to figure out how the magnets actually interact.The longer you play with it and experiment the closer you think you are to actually make it work.No matter what you try though there is always a spot or an area where the magnet do the exact opposit of what they are supposed to do, the bind instead of making things move.Especially in the videos you can see a lot of interesting ways trying to compensate for this or to fool you.And the thing really no one wants you to know is that the pushing forces you want actually reverse half way through the cycle.But at this point their forces are already quite low.Would make sense now to just use that part of the V that actually works and to repeat it, doesn't it?If you do then you always end up with the same as what you had before, just more sections of it ;)And since in nature everything is equal we can not make the unwanted forces disappear and only keep the ones we want.Or can we? ;)A flywheel is a good option to preserve energy and to store it.No wonder then that people like to go big and include as many magnets on the drum as possible, preferably big and heavy as well...And since we can see in some videos that you can even make it spin by moving the magnet bar by hand: How hard can it be to do it properly?A flywheel needs energy to get going, especially if heavy...If the system would have the energy to make this spin then for obvious reasons it would only get faster and faster - but none of these toys do this...And well, moving your hand requires energy too ;)But combined with a mechanical or magnetic link it shall work just fine, timing is everything...And so you keep going and trying and in reality get nowhere at all.As said, you can't have only positive forces without the corresponding negative force(s).Modern approaches to the problem....The famous Yildiz generator uses all sorts of tricks.For example electromagnets to cancel out the field of permanent magnets, powered by internal generator coils of course.Or shielding around some magnets to direct the magnetic field in other directions.Others try to use a different angle for the magnets so seemingly one side of the field is stronger than the other.And the real enthusiast even machine their own magnet shapes from block magnets to get the field lines where they want them to be.In some case you can even find claims of commercial products in operation, with a convient link to order you own on a long term contract.This seems to suggest that there is indeed a way to create at least electricity for "free"....Of course this only made more plausible by the "security packets" included with these lease agreements.Sealed units, 24/7 remote camera surveillance, online connection for remote monitoring and on the go adjustments....And, no without the constant feedback from base operations through the online connection the "generators" will just stop.In a way all this only makes the search for the holy grail of magnetism more interesting.Just consider this:If it is worth to waste god knows how much money to create elaborate fakes with supporting websites and articles seeded all over the net, then why is it worth it?A real money scam would be exposed quite quickly and the websited disappear with the business.And if it is a real and registered business then they have to make the money somehow in legal ways.A balanced approach to the realities and options to make V-gate motor/generator as a workable toy....We know we can cheat and we know we can use modern materials.To make an interesting toy we would need to make it look and work interesting.Just a moving drum is boring and prone to be called a fake right away.Some fancy lever moving the magnet bar is nice but already well too abused to pass.Gearboxes and cranks however are not used that often due to the complexity of creating them in your garage.And some mechancial master creation displayed in museums of other places as "perpetual" motion machines are insanely complex.It comes down to first mapping the areas of negative impact, then finding ways to compensate for them.Preferably in some fancy optical way.Like the magician uses slide of hand to fool you you distract the audience by providing them things to focus on.The more focus on the workings behind it all the more they forget to understand physics ;)For example: If you want to lift the magnet bar you can use a fancy looking crank wheel that is overbalanced for the binding forced of the magnets - fools the unsuspecting person to think you actually eliminated the forces while in reality the wrong balance causes a problem later in the spin.And for those who were able to fllow that trail correctly you have something like and additional magnet moving to compensate fr this wrong balance.....Just make sure you seemingly complete the circle of force elimination back to where it started ;)Mumetal...Not, it does not come a cow....And yes, it is a real thing and not a fancy make up free energy freaks created ;)Unlike normal steel or iron Mumetal is extremely good in directing magnetic fields.For example the positioning head of your hard drive uses a pair of magnets on Mumetal plates to make sure the close proximity won't affect the disks storing your data.Now, some people on the net use these features to really fool you badly when it comes to magnets.From magnets in loudspeakers they misuse the term "shielded" to state Mumetal actuall shield the field of a permanent magnet.True is only that Mumetal provides pathway for the magnetic field that is thausands of times easier to follow than air.For example:A strong manget that still creates a noticable field at let's say 3cm distance.A Mumetal of 4cm in diameter placed 1cm apart would make the affects of the magnetic field disappear at 3cm.But not because the field is shielded, because the magnetic field lines now have an easy way to follow.They just "can't be bothered" anymore to go around the plate.In terms of utilising these effects for a V-Gate toy we can get really creative indeed.Some classic V-Gates use a magnet facing north on one side and a magnet facing south on the other side of the magnet bar and drum (left,right).Proving a Mumetal strip between them increases the field strenght on the other side quite a bit.It also allows for a much smaller extension of the field to the sides.And whatever area is covered by Mumetal will not show such a strong field, or none at all.So it would make sense to create a fancy gearbox to rotate a magnet bar.With every set of magnets on the drum the magnet bar makes one rotation.Like a real DV motor so to say.While the magnets attract each other the "active" side is exposed, and when the point comes where they would start to bind the "shielded" side is exposed to the drum.And like with all good mechnical toys we would have to find a way to revers the rotationthree times during one rotation of the drum to "compensate" for the reverse changes with a magnet bar that has a fixed spacing.Pushing instead of lifting....If two mangnets are used for the magnet bar it becomes obvious that a lot of "force" goes sideways instead of being used to actually push the drum.Hence the V shape to fool you the shape actually makes pushing possible to start with.Now read carefully and try to follow so you are not getting fooled by the explanation how to fool other people:For get an even base of understanding I will start where the closed end and the open end of the V meet on the drum, right where the pushing action starts.If the distance of the bar magnets dicreses with the V shape than we get even pushing forces working for us without the problem of reversal half way through the rotation.However we do get insane binding forces right when we get back to the start point of our rotation.Here we flip the magnet bar one full turn while the drum moves from pushing to pulling/binding.The direction of this rotation is important as it needs to match what the drum does.At the point of half rotation of the bar the single magnets move outwards again to be back in the start position once the rotation is complete.Complex mechanics, I know...The good thing is that you can always claim you get the energy for the action from the flipping of the magnets and that of course is not done by the mechanis, the magnet bar is flipped by the interaction of the magnets on the drum when the cycle repeats and drives the mechanics due the the inertia of the drum ;)So, is it possible to make it work without cheating and fooling?Sure it is.All you need to do is close the loop and make sure there is always more energy going into moving the drum than stopping it ;)Of course things would be much easier if you would find a material that actually blocks a magnetic field similar to what an opposing field would do but without the involved repelling forces.Like sunglasses for magnetic fields so to say.

Topic by Downunder35m  


What is the easiest/simplest way to run this "220V 30rpm gear motor box"?

Hello, so my electrotechnical (is that a word?) knowledge is about zero point zero, but ALL I want to do is make this motor do its work and rotate his fine ass. That's the only thing, nothing more, nothing less. What is the easiest way to do that for a clueless hopeless piece of scrap like me? Note: it's important that the motor goes 30 rpm. I added pics of the motor for clearification.  PS. I saw this awesome motor pack thing with clear instructions which would have been ideal for me, but the site doesn't send its products to the Netherlands :( link: http://www.monsterguts.com/store/product.php?productid=17760&cat;=3&page;=1   

Question by Dyonv    |  last reply


Free Energy - Am I insane or is it time to wake up?

Some might have noticed that I started a few, lets say, unconventional topics here.I added one just as a response to some very nasty feedback I got in other places.If you wonder what I am talking about check my topics about all things related to magnetism, "free energy" and such nonsense.The feedback I got was directed personal enough and verbal enough that I decided to increase my speed of seeding bread crumbs that might allow other people to "see" things slightly differently.Being called insane and mental case is the only things I use here as most of the rest would qualify as insults of the worst kind.The goal that was claimed I totally missed is to make people open up.Science or knowledge is as fluent as life itself.It eveloves with us, around us and through us.But we learned to use technology mostly to replace humans and to make our life easier.With that laziness also a reduced "desire" for knowledge and understand evolved.It is now far easier to "Google it" and forget it right after than to acutally learn and really understand something.A prime example is the disappearing artform of creating Japanese swords.No industrial process can produce a steel as pure and with such properties as used to be "offered" to the master swordsmith.Both are highly specialsed and rely on each other to create the perfect sword that outlasts generations.Once tradition gives way to modern life even this art will become a lost artform.We lost so much already, be it species, health, enviroment or just a "clean planet".Instead of accepting nature back into our scientific thinking and understanding we will continue to fail and get even more reluctant to learn new things.The blockbusters of science are no longer finding new laws of phsics or trying to understand things.We try to go further and further and use more and more dangerous ways to "create" the energy we continue to use more and more with no regrets.Well, other than complaining about the bills for it, which we wouldn't have otherwise...Why do we need more forms of colliding atoms to create energy?No because we need so much, only because we want more and more and at "centralised" locations.Distribution, control, money...Allowing us to use solar panels to reduce our electricity bill is nice, but try to overdo it and make good money by creating you own solar panel park and you get into trouble already.You can't see it anywhere other then back to your provider.And you only get whatever he thinks is a fair price for it, usually far less than what you pay to get it.Once you reach zero some even won't pay you money at all.And since there is always winter and night times it is only good that there will be always a need for electricity from the grid.Just try to get rid of your elecricity, water and gas connection in a township or city in case you found other sources you get for free.....Even if you build new most won't even allow you to without these "required" connections.If you need waste waster you also need tap water you pay for.And since a waste water treatment is no longer hyginic enough (despite proving the opposite) you can't get out.Gas you might be able to avoid but if there is electricity in the stree than it is already a building requirement to provie to the builder...What if all this nonsense and fakery actually has a true background somewhere?Humans are not meant to fly but we developed planes anyways.What once was a dream for a select few is now the prefered travel mode ofr most going on a far away holiday.But it is only so popular because there is a big demand.And where is demand profit can be made.Like a farmer:If you have ton of corn like twenty farmers around you then your local price will be low.Sell them a bit further away and you might get a lot more.In return our demand is closly related to the demands of those that provide the source of your demands.We all need energy and we evolve into a society that will need more of with every new generation.I try to give you hint in the form of a comparison:If you have a nice man cave and love to tinker than you might have a framed hand drill on the wall to remind you of how it all started for your grandfather.Or in most case you just liked it and got it for 2 bucks from a garage sale LOLEither, imagine all electricity would be gone and lost forever.Suddenly this crappy drill becomes a status symbol because only you can do things other people really struggle with - you drill holes with ease...Imagine the rpice you could ask to sell it..."Free energy" is the same but sadly in reverse.If a company sees a profit than it will be utilised some way.And if it happens that energy is your main income and keeps you rich and in control than you don't mind paying two or three fortunes to someone so he can forget and is happy give you his machine.Or would you really say no to life of no limits and with nothing to worry for your future generations of kids and grandkids?A few tried anyway to make a furtune themself by keeping a circle of trusted persons and finding enough willing investors to get their project going.Even if you can find some flaws there are still doubts about what someone would go through the lenght of providing online updates, sales numbers, testimonials and so on for years.Funny enough actually finding someone who is sceptic and make him check and report about it does not work either.No big university orders one or asks to really check it and provide a real world testimonial.No government or legal agency steps in to stop the "fraud" either.What is real, what is fake, what is disguise - you can figure it out if you want to.Ok, I could, but why bother if litereally everyone one already did and showed nothing works when it comes to the great unknown?Exactly for that reason alone it is worth it!People might make money now from ads or through clickbait but the topic is older than the internet already.And the proof even older than electricity...So many people would not try unless someone convinced them to try it ;)Might be just a bad joke but gets the point:If you ask 20 people if you can swim through the river to get to the other side then you might get confusing answers.1. No problem it is safe.Fully true but the guy might be from far up the river where it has no crocodiles in it...2. You could try it but a boat is safer as there might be corcodiles here.Still leaves you the option to swim as you can't be sure about the reptiles...You could go on and create a near endless list with bridges up ahead and so on.What it comes to is that depending on HOW you ask and WHO you ask the answers can be as different as day and night.In terms of science and making someone understand it take the most basic approach possible.Remember that time in school when your math teacher confronted you the existence of negative numbers?The confusion with the zero and how to add, subtract or multiply...Your teacher might have been great or you a quick learner but imagine the worst possible way to teach you an understanding of negative numbers!You know that 5 - 8 equals -3.You learned that this is true and why it is so.Imagine your teacher would have explained this extra simple like back with the apples when learning to add numbers."If there are 5 people in a room and 8 people leave the room, then 3 people must go back in so that room is empty!"Makes total sense if you expand the number game from above to 5 - 8 + 3 = 0 !!No sense at all however if you do it with people ;)People are not numbers, pressures or volumes, they are "real" to us.We associate certain things automatically, other we learn to associate and interpret through learning.Learning however is no longer actually doing all that would be involved in less technological world.We like magic tricks because we fail to understand how it is done or sometimes even how it is possible.Today it is for entertainment only.A true magician would never use his skills to scam people.But spend enough and research and you can do the same trick you saw on stage.Some not as good or not all though - thats life...Ask a good magician how how long it took him to get his new trick ready for the stage and quite often you get to hear it was years in the making.Think about that fact when you judge what is possible by dedication ;)

Question by Downunder35m  


Help with building an off-grid solar powered greenhouse

Hey All!  I've been wanting to build an autonomous greenhouse (a growbox, frankly) in my apartment, as a proof of concept to build a real one in a place where is difficult to get energy to. I've some experience in building things, I know my way around a solder and given a schematic, I can pretty much do what needs to be done, but I have almost zero technical knowledge on the why the parts go where they go. My real question is if there is an instructable here that I haven't found that would allow me to build something that works like an alternator, that would allow my battery pack (4 unprotected 18650) to power the arduino controller when the solar panel isn't outputting energy enough and to recharge my battery pack when the solar panel outputs enough energy to power the arduino with some surplus (that would go to the battery). In case the battery pack is at full capacity, the excedent would be directed to a another output (that I would most likely not use, or would use something to drain that, like led strips or something). If there isn't an instructable, any site with this info would be nice. I also could use lots of Instructables (or outside sources) to build the thing. I tried to search for it, but english is not my first language, so I don't really know how to search for this. I don't know if I was clear enough or if this is the right place to ask. In case there's need for more info, just ask me, please! Thanks in advance for all of you who makes this community awesome!

Question by acustodio1    |  last reply


Sandia, Stirling Energy Systems set new world record for solar-to-grid conversion efficiency

31.25 percent efficiency rate topples 1984 recordALBUQUERQUE, N.M. --On a perfect New Mexico winter day -- with the sky almost 10 percent brighter than usual -- Sandia National Laboratories and Stirling Energy Systems (SES) set a new solar-to-grid system conversion efficiency record by achieving a 31.25 percent net efficiency rate. The old 1984 record of 29.4 percent was toppled Jan. 31 on SES's "Serial #3" solar dish Stirling system at Sandia's National Solar Thermal Test Facility.The conversion efficiency is calculated by measuring the net energy delivered to the grid and dividing it by the solar energy hitting the dish mirrors. Auxiliary loads, such as water pumps, computers and tracking motors, are accounted for in the net power measurement."Gaining two whole points of conversion efficiency in this type of system is phenomenal," says Bruce Osborn, SES president and CEO. "This is a significant advancement that takes our dish engine systems well beyond the capacities of any other solar dish collectors and one step closer to commercializing an affordable system."Serial #3 was erected in May 2005 as part of a prototype six-dish model power plant at the Solar Thermal Test Facility that produces up to 150 kilowatts (kW) of grid-ready electrical power during the day. Each dish unit consists of 82 mirrors formed in a dish shape to focus the light to an intense beam.The solar dish generates electricity by focusing the sun's rays onto a receiver, which transmits the heat energy to a Stirling engine. The engine is a sealed system filled with hydrogen. As the gas heats and cools, its pressure rises and falls. The change in pressure drives the pistons inside the engine, producing mechanical power, which in turn drives a generator and makes electricity.More here:http://www.sandia.gov/news/resources/releases/2008/solargrid.html

Topic by ewilhelm    |  last reply


Solar Power Towers Efficiently Using Brayton Cycle

I want to point out a solar to electric generation concept that has yet to be seen anywhere, even though it originated back during the Carter Administration's ERDA programs of the late 70's. I’m talking about solar power towers that convert solar energy into electricity at the hundreds of mega-watt level. While power towers do exist today, and the world currently does have a handful of them as shown in Fig-1, none use the Brayton Cycle nor can they boast an energy conversion efficiency at the mid to upper thirty percent level.  A group of engineers got together at a think tank organization called Sanders Associates in Nashua, N.H., several decades ago, and designed a unique Brayton Cycle, 100 MW solar Power Tower concept for generating electricity. This was accomplished under ERDA (Energy Research Development Administration) who gave us a phase-2 follow-up contract that took our phase-1 design and built a working scale model at the 10 KW level. This model was tested at the Georgia Tech Solar Research Facility and "registered" ~37% electric solar conversion efficiency. The system used ambient air as its working fluid, and was to be located in open-spaced desert regions. Phase-2 was lost to competition using a closed-loop liquid sodium system that boiled water into superheated steam at 900F to run a turbine that generated ~21% overall electric conversion efficiency.  Apparently, at that time ERDA would rather haul water out to the desert than use ambient air to generate electricity? The politics of their decision is beyond reason and clashes with improving the world’s development of green technology energy.  ERDA shut out our better technological performer and safely locked it away for another day! ERDA's official reason for turning us down: "this technology uses excessively high temperatures (2500F versus 900F) that are dangerous to workman maintaining the equipment". But that was back in the 70’s, maybe we’ve learned to deal with high-temp heat by now?   Solar Energy Concept Using Low Pressure Storage Our solar power tower would collect the sun’s energy by locating its ceramic heat exchanger on top of a tall tower as shown in Fig-1. The tower was located in the center of a field of active sun-searching mirrors (heliostats, Figure-2). These mirrors reflected sunlight onto our ceramic honeycomb heat exchanger, producing a concentrated flux intensity level that heated it to around 2500F. At the same time, low pressure fans generating only a few psi pressure would suck the ambient air through the honeycomb, heating it to just under the 2500F and then passing it through energy storage silos which stored the heat down to ~150F. We purposely designed the energy storage charging phase of our hot air system to work at only a few psi above ambient as a safety feature. The sun effectively acts as the combustor of our jet engine or Brayton cycle engine. Once the sun heats the air, it passes through heat exchangers consisting of a labyrinth of underground silos that are temperature segregated. These silos receive our 2300F airflow and cool it down to about 150F, transferring this heat into solid salt containers which turn to liquid once they have absorbed sufficient heat. Figure-3 is a schematic of this underground energy storage facility and shows the airflow being heated by a fully charged set of silos containing liquid salt-bricks. This airflow direction is reversed when we charge the silo’s salt-bricks. The bricks are kept in specially insulated, high pressure silos (located underground for added insulation) that store the heat energy at one atmosphere for later use. These underground silos act as our energy storage batteries, and when needed would discharge their heat energy accordingly into the moving airflow. This energy storage concept permitted the generation of electricity at night and during overcast days. Two sets of storage systems are required for continuous operation. One would be charging at low pressure while the other is discharging at high pressure through the Brayton engine to generate electricity.   Electric Energy Generation at High Pressure Electricity would be created by turning an electric generator at high speed. The generator was turned by running a jet engine connected to it.  The engine’s combustor for heating the air is effectively the sun, hence the name Brayton cycle for generating our solar electricity (Figure-4). The heat from the molten salt containers would increase the energy of the high pressure air coming from the compressor, and would then force it through a typical turbine that turns this energy into high rotational speed to run the generator and make electricity. Our solar jet engine sucks in ambient air using its compressor, as all jet engines do, and blows it through a series of silos at high pressure whose stacked bricks are held at different temperature levels. We start our airflow through a silo held as low as 150F and work our way up to ~2300F as we pass through our last, hottest silo which acts to complete the effective solar combustion process. This air preheating technique dramatically improves our energy turnover capability and allowed us to convert solar energy into electricity at near 37% efficiency. During our electric energy generation phase, the silos of our Brayton system requires operating at many atmospheres of pressure just as in any jet engine combustor using petroleum-based JP-fuel.      

Topic by RT-101    |  last reply


How do you know that you are imagining things?

Funny question, I know...And usually I could not be bothered less about thinking that something might be a bit odd.I have a permanant job, drive the same car now for over 12 years and live in a crappy rental.Nothing special at all.Most people don't have a landline anymore, I still do for some reason and actually use it when I am home and not a mobile phone.So you might not know anymore when I explain the first weird thing I started to imagine...Ever picked up your phone and got no dial tone?Happens quite often here now....I try a few times and suddenly I got the familiar humm letting me know I can punch in a number.All good then...Then some friends claimed that sometimes I would have a delay from my end and during this delay there is no sound at all, not even the usual static you can hear.Ok, they use mobile phones, no big deal, crap happens.But I thought I might ask my provider for detailed phone records of the past 2 or three billing cycles instead just a summary.Some calls appeared a bit odd with the length of the call.Had a few where I ended on the voice box and hung up but the bill showed several minutes for the call...One local call really stood out though - 3.5 hours.And I know this one can't be right because I people here and actually made the call a quick one...The second weird thing that must be totally unrelated is that an Email account I used for well over 20 years and basically only to receive Emails got blocked by my provider based on claims it is used for spam.Emails to fix it and provide me with a password to log into my account got ignored.So I wasted about $30 for an overseas call to their service department.I explained that my client still receives all advertising Emails from the account provider without any need for a login or password.But all other Emails are kept in my online inbox with no access as my password got changed due the spam claims.As my records would clearly show that during the 20 or so year maybe a handful of Emails were sent from this account the normal procedure for a spam suspicion would have been to follow policies and inform me about it while blocking the OUTGOING part but not the incoming one!Funny enough I got not interrupted once trying to explain the problem but when I ended I got a shell shock.I was informed that my account must have been hacked and used online - however I could not find a single outgoing Email in my online account or Email client.When I asked about this fact and wanted to know details about these Emails I was told they were deleted to protect my account....As a lst attempt I explained that used a 24 digit and quite complex password and highly doubt anyone would have been able to hack it, so I would like my access restored or at least the accumulated incoming Emails forwarded to my verfication account.Apperantly since the spam was stopped by blocking my account there were no new Emails that reached my.Means all those Emails I know my friends sent and those I sent myself to test the account access were just a thing of my imagination.When I asked why my account is still active and provider Emails and notifications still arrive in my inbox on the PC I was told this is not possible as the account is inacative....In case you wonder what the usage for this account was: Pure personal, information and document exchange only.However most of the content in the received Emails relates to what we misleadingly call "free energy".Things like anti gravity propulsion, Scalar drive systems or just plain and really old stuff relating to patents that are almost 100 years old - or older...The last thing that now makes me wonder how active my imagination really is:Ever had the feeling you are being watched?Since about October last year every single parcel from overseas that did not originate in China or Malasia arrive repacked and with an inspection notice from our customs department.And according to some senders I seem to have lost quite a few printed documents in the process...But again, biosecurity is a big thing here, same for trying to figure out how so many drugs make it into the country on the postal or shipping way....However, when my neighbour came over after xmas and asked if I would know the guy in the tiny hatchback that is parked up the street I had to say no, I don't - Why?Appearently the same guy arrives there a few minutes after I get home from work and usually sits there for 2 or 3 hours.Well, not my problem, not my house up there, so why bother.I took a good look at the car and driver though when I went for a quick trip to the shops.I got back home and sure enough the guy was gone, so nothing to worry about.Until I started unloading my shopping and the guy came back, parking in his usual spot.I finnished my unloading, had something to eat and a shower, then took my bins out - and he was still there.Time to have a meet and greet.Don't know about you guys but I find it odd if someone does not react, does not look at you, not even when you knock on the window - just staring out of the windscreen as there was something magical happening in front of the car.And while I kept trying he just drove off...Have not seen the car or driver since anywhere in my street and I guess a car that now constantly parks with a driver in a dead end road with clear view into my road does not count...And yes, I tried the cops and yes the actually came twice until I was told they would not bother anymore.Appearently the poor guy finnishes work now and is waiting for his mate to get back home from work as he does no want drive home and a few minutes later down here.Makes a lot of sense, even if there is never anyone arriving and the guy never leave the car, just drives off once bored enough.It is so good to know that you only imagine things that are not real but just coincidences...However, I would like to know if there other people still using a landline and noticing odd things with it.And how often do you have international shippments inspected by customs and repacked?Ever got your Email account made inaccessible for no reason at all and no chance to ever get access again to it, despite proving your identity and no evidence of any wrongdoing available?If so, did it happen by any chance while you were waiting on some really important documents arriving in this inbox?

Question by Downunder35m  


Magnetic Levetation? A Magnet Levitating between two Bismuth plates?

I am trying to make a magnet levitate between two bismuth plates that i made (picture 3,4,5 and 6). As you can see they are round discs about 7mm (millimeters) thick and 110 mm or 11cm (centimeters) in diameter. I bought two magnets; -the one I am trying to make levitate is 30mm (millimeters) in diameter, 10mm thick, and 22kg (kilograms) strong... -the other that is on top, the one that is pulling the magnet up is 30mm in diameter, 15mm thick and 23kg strong I put my two plates of bismuth so that there is about 25mm of space between them... Than I put in the 30mm x 10mm magnet that I want to levitate inside. The other magnet is located above the setup. I very slowly, ever so carefully start to lower the magnet. The magnet between the two bismuth plates starts to shake and at one point hits the top bismuth plate. I can't make it to levitate, either it is on the bottom plate or on the top. I tried to make the space between two bismuth plates smaller and larger, to lower the magnet by a very small amount...it didn't help... PROBLEM: I can't make it levitate, either it is on the bottom bismuth plate or on the top... WHY IS THIS? HOW CAN I FIX IT AND MAKE IT LEVITATE? Thank you for your help! -Stanislav A.K.A. Comodore

Question by comodore    |  last reply


How to stop slow cooked (crock pot) food having watery gravy? Answered

When I use my slow cooker (crock pot) the food is always cooked properly but the gravy/juice is large in quantity and very watery.  I know I can tip the sauce into another pan and thicken it with cornflour, but that seems to miss the point of an energy efficient one pot meal. Can any one offer any ideas and/or recipes that don't have this problem?

Question by lizzyastro    |  last reply


Subaru legacy outback 1997 no compression? EJ25 DOHC Rebuilt heads/piston rings/gaskets/seals/timing Answered

I toasted my Subaru about a year ago and just now am able to work on it. Had the heads rebuilt, piston rings,gaskets and seals...I do a compression check and zero on all 4. What else could it be? The lifters? I'm really at a loss and trying to fix it. Been contemplating getting an actual mechanic to come out and look it over, but I would rather try everything I can first. Anything at all to point me in a new direction would be awesome. Thanks

Question by Gtx864    |  last reply