Latest Topics

Retiring the Forums

After more than a decade, Instructables has decided to retire our forums. This exclusively pertains to the "Community" section of this website where this topic is posted. Step-by-step instructable tutorials will not be affected in any way by this change.Starting in October we will no longer allow site members to post new forum topics in the Community section. The existing content will remain online and accessible through 2020 to provide everyone the opportunity to save any relevant information. In the spring of 2021, we plan to take the Community forums offline entirely.This decision was not made lightly. For many years we considered these pages the heart of the community. However, times have changed. It’s with some sadness that we need to acknowledge this and adapt.Our biggest clue that it was time to retire the forums came as our site traffic more-than-doubled over the last few months. We observed that the number of Instructables being published increased, the number of comments increased, the amount of favoriting increased, and just about every other measurable form of participation on this website also increased. The one notable thing that did not increase was the number of forum topics being published. We continued to receive, on average, about one a day.This forced us to look at some hard truths. The first is that the world has changed. In 2005 our forums offered a big tent to the maker community at a time when there were few places to go and interact socially with a cross-section of like-minded individuals. However, most of the conversations that used to happen here have now moved to either social media, Reddit, or niche forums elsewhere on the internet. No one builds general discussion forums like ours anymore, and most others have gone extinct a long time ago. The other hard truth we had to reconcile with is that fundamentally our core business is not running a forum. Nevertheless, we spend a lot of time keeping them up and running. For every valid forum topic that gets posted on the site, we get about 50 forum topics that get caught by our spam filter and end up having to be reviewed and deleted. In addition, the forums are based on some of the oldest code on our website, which means they tend to break often. Keeping them up and running distracts energy from our very small team that could be better used elsewhere. That said, there are now more places than ever that you can go to discuss making online. For starters, you could connect with us on Twitter or Instagram where we have a thriving community. You should also check out some of these awesome staff-recommended channels and sites: thank everyone for all of their contributions to these forums over the years and the community you helped make flourish. We welcome everyone to share your thoughts, feelings, or memories below.

Topic by randofo    |  last reply

COVID-19 Adjustments to Instructables Contest Prizes

As the world adjusts to concerns over the spread of COVID-19, the Instructables team has had to make necessary changes to our contest prize system.Physical prizes along with the supplemental “prize packs” (t-shirts, notebooks, mugs, etc.) are typically shipped from our office in San Francisco, which is currently shut down and workers have been sent home as the city is under a shelter in place order.For the foreseeable future we will be replacing ALL physical prizes with digital gift cards equivalent to the value of the prize (including the value of the “prize pack” when applicable). The values of contest prizes and prize packs are noted in the official rules of each respective contest.Individual winners of currently-running contests will be notified with additional information after contest winners are announced. Please be advised that we, like all that have been impacted by the spread of COVID-19, cannot say when we will be able to return to our regular prize shipping practices. We know you love the robot t-shirts, mugs, and other goodies, and we hope to be able to return to regular shipping practices as soon as we are allowed and able.Thank you for your patience, understanding, and all-around general awesomeness. We have the best community of authors and makers, and we absolutely love you!Stay safe.Instructables Community Team

Topic by seamster    |  last reply

Welcome to Instructables

On this page you can find links to some of our most frequently asked questions. What is this site? Instructables is a community for people who like to make things. Our community shares what they make in a step-by-step format that we call an Instructable.How do I post an Instructable? We offer a free and easy online class to coach you through posting your first Instructable or you can just wing it and start a new one today. How do I get help improving my Instructable?Ask the community for help in The Clinic. How does my Instructable get featured? The best way to get your projects featured is by following the Featuring Guidelines. Where can I learn more about contests? Our Contest FAQ has all of the information that you need to know about contests. What contests are launching soon? Check out our list of upcoming contests. Are you on social media? Yes! Follow us on Pinterest, Instagram and Twitter. How do I contact Instructables directly? The best way to contact us is through our Contact Page.

Topic by randofo    |  last reply


Hi - sorry to interrupt, but I want to make a Quiet Place type monster costume, so I was thinking of putting lavalier microphones into certain ear spots (the entire costume is a cross between the Demogorgon and Death Angel - with some other creature traits included), and I was wondering how I could make it so the input of the lav mic could be played directly into my ear? I will he otherwise fairly hard of hearing in this costume otherwise I think. Also, eye holes? Anyways I can figure all that other stuff out I just need help with this sound stuff. Thanks!!

Question by PiL71    |  last reply

I've a problem in my arduino program. why the output in serial monitor everything is worth 0?

Bool;float A;float B;float C;float D;float volt1;float volt2;float volt3;float volt4;int a;int b;int c;int d; void setup (){ if (a, b, c, d >=3.2) { 1;}else{ 0;}Serial.begin(9600);}void loop(){ A = analogRead(A0); B = analogRead(A1); C = analogRead(A2); D = analogRead(A3); volt1 = (A*(4.883))/1000; volt2 = (B*(4.883))/1000; volt3 = (C*(4.883))/1000; volt4 = (D*(4.883))/1000; a = volt1; b = volt2; c = volt3; d = volt4; ((b&&c;)||(a&&c;)||(a&&b;))&&d;//this is a boolean logicSerial.println (a);Serial.println (b);Serial.println (c);Serial.println (d);delay (1000);}

Question by airlanggaal4    |  last reply


ECO COUNTER BRICKS a counter to collect materials in a container, through MakeyMakey, and programmed with scratch1. prepare a container to collect materials in this case eco bricks2. create a switch and sync it with makey makey and scratch,3. program with scratch so that when you press the switch you can count each bottle that enters the container

Topic by dani.reyesmoya  

Have solar street light, want to use it at Home for LED lights - Help

Hello guys!I am a bit curious if I can do this. So here is the scenario;We have been powering the cow shed - store room from a regular electricity source (220v 50hz AC, India). Recently somebody told us that this is actually illegal as the shed - store room is treated as separate house in itself.The good part is, we have a solar street light (subsidized by govt of India - costed around 5000 INR/ 70 USD). This is before LED's gone viral. So we have a 2g11 CFL (18 watts) bulb. It has worked quite well so far.Its August, it rains heavily in this part of India. So i have been monitoring the time for which the light stays on. In an overcast day (with no rain), the CFL will power up for 7-8 hours and in sunny day its for 12 hours as there is auto cut-off for the street light once its morning.The battery: 12v 75 Ah solar tubular (Its a C10 battery, nothing was mentioned on the label, had to confirm with customer care). I checked voltage using multi-meter; it was 12.33 volts (I think thats 70% charge??) The solar panel: Max rated power (Pmax): 75 watts; Rated operating voltage (Vmax = 17v); RO Current (Imax = 4.42A); Open circuit voltage (21.5v); Short circuit current (4.65A).I plan to add following load;1) Part A: 2 x 7 watts LED AC bulb (B22 connector, standard Indian) - This will remain on the auto-on-off circuit (as the CFL is now) to replace the street light.2) Part B: 3 x 5 watts LED AC bulb (in the shed) + Emergency 3 pin socket for charging mobile phones (Reason: once it happened that my village had a power issue which took a week to resolve! So no charging phones, which means the other people in city were worried as they couldn't talk to their loved ones back home). LED's for couple of hours. and Emergency socket will run rarely. Here I would need an Inverter circuit to convert 12v DC to 220v AC.Queries;1) Is this doable? My battery will be running out of warranty in another month, is it worth the adventure? ( a new battery costs 75 USD in open market :p)2) Is it technically feasible to have this load for the shed? Is the solar panel enough to charge the battery to support this load? I think it can pull it off. But still need an expert opinion. 3) Any recommendations for the Inverter circuit? I will search its equivalent on Amazon India. I also have a car inverter (200 watts) which i used on long drives to charge laptops and DSLR camera - hence this idea of adding an additional inverter circuit. Wont be sacrificing this car inverter, hence a new circuit. Is this feasible?4) Is there any way to power Part B from solar panels in day and battery at night?5)Any other thoughts/ inputs for this project? Thanks and Regards,Vikas M.

Question by vic86m    |  last reply

Any Ideas? I want to make a Smart Mat

Hi! This is my first topic here!I am thinking about starting a project but I'd first like to know if anyone has better ideas about how to make it.I want to make a "smart mat" - a mat that, when it senses pressure (in other words, when someone is stepping on it) it send me a notification. Does anyone have any ideas on whats the best way to make it? I was thinking on maybe use a smart door/window sensor and somehow change its state when someone steps on the mat.If not, maybe use an arduino but I don't know what kind of sensor I could use or where to buy it...Thank you!

Question by joaohess    |  last reply

Vmix wifi arduino tally

Hi,did anyone made arduino wifi tally system?

Question by JuricaB  

Air Purifier Ionizer

Like to get it's kit for assembly and test it's effect

Topic by Kesavkesav    |  last reply

GPS: STM32L010K4 Hardfault_Handler at STM32L0xx_it.c:0x800067a

Dear fellow human being,I am working on a project wich uses the STM32L010K4 microcontroller. We implemented the chip on a PCB and we can write pins high and low and we’re able to use SPI. This project revolves around a GPS application. We’re trying to use the UART protocol with the stm32CubeMx IDE. We’re also trying to make some large/complex computations, I read online that this could potentially lead to stack overflow. I also read the datasheet and the uart is and spi are part of two different alternate functions. This is the message we get when trying to implement uart.With kind regards, Reinier

Topic by raygz1    |  last reply

What is this made in Germany

Made in Germany

Question by upeniece.liiga1990    |  last reply

Person Following Robot Ideas

Hi, I am building a robot where i want to follow me, I made a part with GPS, it gets my coordinates from mobile and drives to towards me, but this has some issues like:1. When you are close to robot, GPS accuracy is not good. my robot has accuracy arround 1.5m, while phone has arround 5-6m accuracy, total 7-8m accuracy is not very good.2. GPS doesn't work indoor.So I am tying to find a solution that for two cases:1. in outdoor, when robot get closer it may switch to another option instead of GPS to follow me, camera or some sensor. I saw cameras like HUSKYLENS where you can track face and objects easily but I don't know if this will work to track person from behind without seen face directly. There was some options used Ping sonar's to track.2. indoor, where i think if I find a solution for outdoor, it will work in indoor also. I prefer to use HUSKYLENS lens but its bit expensive for me to order it, I am trying to get sure that this might work. In this link there is one simple example, which works very nice.

Question by GürhanÇ    |  last reply

Building BCI

Hi folks!I am 16, and I want to build a BCI that the paralyzed use for controlling a robot. I have watched the most courses series on YouTube. But I still feel lost and I don't know where to start. I want the project to end up successfully. Ie when the user wears a headset and he/she wants to drink, the robot gives them water and so on. What kind of brain signals should I use. What steps should I take in order. I don't want the project to take years. I wand to end it as soon as possible.Thanks!!

Question by Sarah20201    |  last reply

Mouse mods question

Hi there, I have a question regarding the connection port inside the mouse (Dell). It shows d+(green wire), d-(white wire) , s(black wire), v(red wire), and g (empty no wire). See attached photo. I'm trying to add a timer to it and I need to add a wire to the v(red wire) and a wire to the ground, but my question is there is no wire that currently goes to the ground inside the mouse so where to I add my ground wire? In the empty slot? Or to the s(black wire, usually the ground) is it considered to be the ground? What does s(black wire) mean? Thank u for ur time

Question by sanchezas    |  last reply

4p 18650 power backup using TP4056's with protection

Hi Everybody, I need help with project I am up to so any advices would be much appreciated. Setup: Laptop power supply 20V 3A 4x TP4056 with protection 4x 18650 lion cells of different condition 4x P-MOSFET 4x Schotky diode 4x 1k resistor 1x step down module 1x step up module Task: Want to build 18650 cell charger (backup power supply) using 20V power supply and charging circuit with TP4056 in parallel. Goal: Should be able to run constantly connected to main power supply being able to simultaneously charge the cells (and cut them of while fully charged) and supplying power to the load. For the input I plan to use step down convertor to get 5V (for parallel connected TP4056 chargers) and for output step up convertor to get 12V for the load. I did a lot of research already, therefore I incorporate P-MOSFET, Diode and 1K resistor to not to disturb the precision of the charger and prevent the drain of the cells once charged. I also draw the circuit how I think it should be done. I am new to this so I will appreciate any input, correction or alternative to this. Whole idea is to be able to charge cells which are unmatched without balancer and being safe. I am not sure if the TP4056 protection would serve sufficiently for this. Also am interested how much would be maximal possible current output. Plan to use Samsung IRC18650 24b cells at the moment which I salvaged from my old laptop battery.

Question by pavelkryml    |  last reply

How to program IC v9881d to make energy meter (KWH)?

I want to make a single phase electrical energy measurement module using IC V9881D. After learning a little about the IC, it turned out that the IC had to be programmed before it could be used. I don't know how to program the IC. Does anyone know how to program the V9881D IC so that it can produce voltage (Volts), current (Amperes), power (Watts), and single-phase electrical energy (Kwh)?

Question by de ap    |  last reply


Hello. I try to program an Arduino-sketch for cars and pedestrians. I have already made a begin to this sketch but there is an error in it.The sketch is attached to this topic. In line 16, the 'sensorValue' is not decleared. As i am a beginning programmer, i have not found a solotion yet. Ho can tell me what to give in to this sketch to make it run?Already thanks for answers.

Topic by pascaljansen1    |  last reply

Ventilator sensors

Hi guys It's for a ventilator (open source ) project So I want to modify some stuff & Kinda upgrading the app So my probleme are in sensors ( pressure sensor , airflow sensor) For the pressure sensor I decide to take this one: The range of pressure needed(0- 5 pka) is fine (0-40 pka) But the problem is the airflow sensor.. (0- 20/25L/MN) I thinker about water flow sensor (0-30L/MN) {YF-S201} That's will be work??? If no please give me some advice or , kinda of sensor that I can use for measuring the airflow The porpus of all that it's to make an graphic , like monitoring of the ventilator Best regards

Question by Snake00012    |  last reply

Naruto Fans!

Naruto is the BEST anime! Any people who wamt to talk about Naruto Chat here!

Topic by Anime Otaku JG    |  last reply

Suggested Prizes

Stay with Amazon Gift Cards - these are great!

Topic by bmohnsen  

Homemade Electromagnetic Drill Stand

Hi every body In this video I make an electromagnetic drill standFor this project I’m using two microwave transformers one psu 350 watt from old pc, epoxy resin. Aluminium swarfs, some pieces from steel and one piece of bronse. I hope you enjoy the video !;=J9I3FJ8dROk&feature;=emb_logo

Topic by versam    |  last reply

The sad truth about VR headsets

With seemingly no end to lockdown I thought I provide a little heads up on the VR front in terms what is going on, what is required, how much it might cost you and where the downsides are.Google basically abandoned the Cardboard idea, there isn't much new happening anymore, still it is a great and dirt cheap start. For under 10 bucks you get some cardboard, two lenses and some magnets. Put together and you have a head mount for your phone to enjoy 3D and VR/AR realities. And surprisingly there is actually good content available for Carboard users.For a bit more you can get stand alone headset from several vendors. Starting from as little as 300 bucks for the older, entry level models. Good enough to watch movies, play some nice games and explore the virtual world. Serious gaming is becoming more and more popular, especially online multi player games.Still considered the best option in terms of experience ad quality are tethered solutions that required you to have a powerful gaming PC at your disposal. But for the casual fun it would be overkill to invest into both PC and VR hardware.How good is it then? I tried quite a few systems and have to say they have come a long way from the early days. The wow-factor though depends on the content, some is good, some is just painfully bad unless you like catoon style graphics. The potential is huge but right now content is limited to more or less always the same in a different look. If you have problems on a moving ship or have your breakfast come up in a themepark ride you might stay away from certain VR things. They like to call them "experiences" - a way for you to be really in it, a part of it. Only problem is that no everyone can tolerate seeing all sorts of movements and motions without actually moving - seasickness in reverse so to say and not very pleasant if you suffer from it LOL What is rather surprising is that some VR things are incredibly addictive even with crappy graphics. You can lost playing some crappy game for hours on end and still want more.....What is possible in terms of social interaction, considering we are in a pandemic? Depending on what you and your friends/loved ones have available there is some... You can hang out in virtual worlds together, have a chat, play some games. With some systems you can even watch movies together in your own virtual theater. A bit like having your friends with you in a really dark movie theater and not being allowed to touch them LOL Sadly a virtual sharing experience still seems far way. You can't just pop your headset on, plug in your 3D camera and share what you do in realtime and 3d with your friends. There is development though in terms of virtual interaction. By linking certain things, like little robots, electronic board games or just your virtual assistent, you can create your own virtual, virtual home. And whoever comes to visit can use your interactive things, for example to tell the robot tomove a chess piece on the board. VR suits to allow for a more realistic virtual experience are still very far away ....The reality about content, games and apps. Google offers quite a lot on it's Youtube platform. Simply tye in whatever you like and add VR to have a good chance to get at least a 180° video out. And there is plenty of other providers specialising in VR experiences and video content. From holiday promotions, over themepark rides to doing freefall jumps out of a helicopter - there is something for everyone. If we leave the free world of the internet behind us and things that every browser can reach: What is left? That is the real problem.... It is a platform war of the worst kind. Something that you like isn't available for your friends headset. An app that works fine for you can't even installed by your friend. And not even within a company you have a chance to use it all as Facebook showed us with Oculus. They kindly allow you to use some apps and games if you upgrade to a better model but not all. And once you find out that your new model can't share stuff with your friends on older ones you feel ripped off. Does not help that if you don't own one of the older models you won't even get access to the compatible and free software - you are stuck. Every company provides their own "store", why bother with the Playstore if you can keep the money and content control. It's all VR but good luck getting real cross platform support. Some developers decided to seek alternatives and so options to sideload content were born. And yes, some there actually bother to provide their game or app for multiple platforms :) What bothers me is the "try out buy later" approach. Sounds nice, sounds fair.... Most offer you a limited time, like 2 hours, to test a paid app or game. Turned out that itis actually possible to complete some paid experiences and games within two hours. Would you really want to pay 50 bucks for 2 hours of fun?.... Some say around 50 bucks is a fair price for a good game. Others say that for non VR platforms there is plenty of free alternatives that ae equally good and that it seems impossible to play the same game with people on 2D and in VR. Why is this happening....Let's take a look on how it all started.... There was the great idea once that AR and VR applications for everyone would be a great thing. We had no usuable tech at affordable prices though. Several companies and individuals tried ways to get at least AR solutions working, often by using mobile phones or tablets. Google jumped in with Cardboard, Samsung with Gear VR and even Microsoft wanted it rather late, a bit different and calling it mixed reality. Google gave up quickly and focussed back on Andoid and real world devices, same for Samsung. HTC and others still are game players and in some way responsible for us still having at least some choices left. from being just a pain and novelty at best AR and VR quickly saw real world uses. Developers jumped onto it and although content was rather low quality the interest was there. At some stage we saw a few interesting Kickstarter campaigns. And that's when things got really bad. A new device appeared and seemed to be a real game changer - a true stand alone headset with enough power to be practical. A few more were added shortly and it was almost a run to be the first to get a solution to the market. Obvious that even developers became rather exited. Suddenly they all started to disappear, often without actually shipping any devices to the many supporters. Only one Kickstarter got snatched up by a military contractor, two offered their services to Bill gates. The remaining ones including this amasing standalone model ready for production got snatched up for cheap by Mark and his social media platform. Microsfot had a lot of titles and applications, HTC was going strong as well and even Gear and Carboard were still all time favourites back then. Facebook offered the dream of every little hardware developer. Unlimited funds and access to a whole new world. Sadly it meant handing all control to FB. The dream of a free and open source VR platform with lots of support was gone. Now we have to decide in advance which system to buy, which company offers the most to fit the needs. Usually it means if your friend or family member has one device then you will buy something compatible, if not the same. VR turned into a game of control and data hording.What do your need to get really into VR and AR? Unless you have a supported Samsung device or a cardboard AND are happy with what is available you need a lot! Every competitor requires you to provide your personal details in one way or another. Most, if not all require you to also agree to being tracked and monitored during usage. They ALL require your bank details or credit card information if you want to make a purchase - few expections for the Xbox and Playstation in terms of gift cards. The later still require you to have a valid payment account at some stage. Some might say it is ok because if you order a toaster online the seller would have your address and bank details as well. Most sellers won't have databases for their users to track them or collect all sorts of data.... Microsoft at least limits this to gaming and proffessional use and the other competitors seem to keep a low profile. FB on the other hand has a very lear appraoch: Add whatever is possible to allow for even more data horading and user tracking - at the cost of competitors as this hurts developers and users alike. If you don't like being watched, tracked and that your data is abused stay away from the virtual world ;)How the VR development came to a stop.... Facebook made it clear from the start that certain content is prefered in their VR store. Experiences are fine but for apps and games the focus on being online is pretty clear. The need for people to not just sit there with a headset alone but to actually interact with other was abused to the max. The easier it is to get users together, to actually listen to them, see what they are up to is worth gold. This is reflected in the store. Apps that work(ed) fine on the GO are not available for the Quest. Titles advertised are not available. Developers wanting to port their things to the Quest are refused with useless excuses why it can't be allowed. If you actually check and see that it seems to be fine to publicly stream pirated movies or other copyright protected material you have to wonder... Bigscreen is a huge thing right now and o problem finding someone streaming a movie that is not allowed to beused this way. But it allows many users to watch and do things together..... Same for those virtual environments where you can hang out with your friends, share pictures and play games - you are being watched, tracked and followed while doing so - you date is indeed vital.... In other cases it is a clear money approach, like with Skybox. There were wuite a few good video players available for the Go. Only Skybox made it over to the Quest, the free ones all missed out. Those who still maged to get entry seem to have no choice but to leave well deserved features out, so that Skybox remains the only alternative. If you wonder why: The others won't offer or allow servers used to collect user data and usage data.... Right now the only real option seems to be to stay away from Oculus and to prefer the alternatives out there as a lesser evil.What will the future hold for us? The market is already clearly devided and split with only Steam being sort of a middleman solution for some platforms. Facebook made sure the hardware market stays empty and even if we would get a new player in the game it is questionable if the control of the big players can be broken. If in doubt and something becomes a thread it will be bought for whatever price necessary. Facebook already hinted that closing the door for "unknown sources" is an easy option, same for alternative app launchers. Microsoft made it clear that they don't mind free development for their mixed VR systems but well, with a very low user base interest is low for developers as well. HTC and the rest still try to fill the gap and find their place but it seems they only catch only slowly. In the early days we had only a few "companies" starting our computer revolution. Only the two who split apart in the garage times and are still rivals survived. Apple VS Microsoft. Only Linux and as a part of it Android really provided any lasting alternatives. Android was soon taken over by Google. Now we have the same useless war in the virtual world, with only the user paying the price and being blamed for the failure of VR catching on. Funny once you start thinking about it and checking how it all started. It is no wonder then that OS security as well as App security is of the highest importance to FB. Allowing true homebrew on these otherwise just modded Andriod systems would mean the end of tracking users and milking the money out of them.Is homebrew the solution or the real threat to VR? A very few of you will now say hold on a minute! Wasn't there a few court cases against Google and FB in regars to user data and privacy breaches?? Yes, and that is part of the problem. Both companies, more or less reluctantly, agreed access to their databses to government agencies. With basically everything in VR being (intentionally) kept unencrypted it is a real treasure hunt..... Homebrew would allow apps similar to Whatsapp entry and with that added level of end to end encryption open pandora's box. Imagine loading a custom OS onto a VR system that allows you boot whatever you like. You could create secure chat rooms for people with the need to show their latest tech, their latest innovations in a way that everyone can interact. Problems with your latest order of assault rifles - just check out our VR experience showing all you need to know. Need a map to find your way through this facility you shouldn't be in? No worries, just load the interactive 3D map on your headset and turn on the pass through from the cameras - follow the red line.... Fair enough then most will say now, make a bit of sense to be careful... But what is used as the worst case scenario to keep the doors locked also keeps all the good stuff out. And a result the devlopment and amount of titles and apps is kept low.What about families or group setups? Unlike other platforms there is no such thing as family accounts, not even individual user accounts on most devices. FB even removed this option from the native android setting with "updates". Means, if you own a bunch of VR headset you most likely will have buy the apps and games for every single device. The family fun of competing in virtual games then can set you back 200 to 250 bucks with easy - per title....Summary: VR is a novelty at best right now. Good for hardcore gamers with enough money mostly or to be precise totally useless for cross platform interaction - not even watching a movie from your own collection together in VR. You are tracked whenever possible, you are profiled and coached into buying more and more. Without real competition, without real open source solutions this will not change anytime soon.

Topic by Downunder35m  

LED flourescent tube replacements

Hey all.I scored some cheap LED drop-in replacement tubes and intended to get some old fluorescent light fixtures up and working again.Unfortunately the fixtures' ballasts seem to be bad -- which I suppose is no great surprise since they were taken out of service for a reason.My question is, even though the LED's I've got are intended to be used with a ballast, can I simply wire them directly?I don't see that a ballast does anything to the frequency/voltage, and according to Wikipedia its purpose is "to stabilize the current through the lamp, and to provide the initial striking voltage required to start the arc discharge". LED's shouldn't care about any of this.Or is there something I'm overlooking?

Question by PS118    |  last reply

Tesla's "Earthquake" machine - revisited!

Lockdown sucks, so what bett to do than to check on some old inventions :)It is claimed that, although the earthquaked that happened was unrelated, that Tesla's little machine indeed was able to do some damage.Today however we focus on what is actually possible in terms of an oscillating apparatus causing other things to swing in resonance.If you look at the patent than there is terms used (intentionally) that neither make sense, nor find any explanation inside the patent - like "airsprings" ...Knowing Tesla's way of thinking a little allowed me to come up with some conclusions of my own.Using some surface transducers to get going also helped a lot.Using more or less modern stuff that anyone can access, we will try to build our own little quake machine.At least in theory, I leave it up to you if you want to build something just to confirm or rip apart what I might claim in here ;)How does this resonance thing work?If you check "Londong bridge swing" you see what I mean ;)Like soldiers won't cross a bridge in step for good reasons, a lot of little inputs quickly accumulated and syncronise themself- the bridge swings.You try it in small scale with a bunch of Metronoms (is that right for many of them? LOL) on a board supported by rollers.Set them all to the same timing, start them and release the board.One after the other will fall in sync until they all swing the same.Check how much the board moves in relation, especially if you place some added weights on it ;)For machines we often have the problem that something unbalanced and rotating causes all sorts of vibrations in other parts - we know that from our cars as well when a wheel is unbalanced.Not always is the part causing the resoance somewhere near where it resonates ;)What Tesla claimed to have built was a machine that had a freely moving weight, some electromagnets, "airsprings" and somehing to make it all able to find the resonance by magic....I can recreate some of it, but not all (yet).We need a way to move a weight with as little friction as possible while also providing some sort of dampening effect - otherwise the weight would just swing to the max.I thought a lot about this and how to do in the most basic form.For sake of simplicity I opted for a vertical approach.Ideally you would have big and heavy cylindrical magnet, about 3cm in diameter and at leat 6cm long.But you can cheat by stacking disk magnets or putting suare ones into a round tube.You need two cylinders, one to hold the magnets, the other just a bit wider to allow for a TINY air gap.Put together the magnet cylinder should freely boune around when you shake it but show good resistance if you close both ends of the outer tube.How to make "airsprings"....I found the easiest way out is to use "bouncers" on either end of the outer tube - with consideration that the inner tube needs to movable ;)The inner magnet has some good weight, so using stacks of small magnets allows us to compensate the different movement.Start with a bottom stack so the inner magnet has a good distance (gap).Now you need a sensitive scale or use a balanced weighbridge.Check how much extra weight on the inner magnets is required to push it down by, let's say 5mm.Note that weight somewhere.Place a smaller stack on the top end of the tubes.You want the distance so the inner magnet just start to be pushed down a tiny bit.You might need a slotted outer tube to allow you to push it up as well down now - hence the weighbridge idea.Adjust the distance and amount/type of magnets on the top stack until the inner magnet travels an equal amount up and down with the force (weight) applied.It is now "balanced" to be weightless in terms being suspended while free to travel a limited amount.Ideally the force you need for up and down should stay equal (more or less) throughout the indended range of motion.I found two ways that work well to actuate the magnet by extrenal means while having a good control.One uses a center coil around the tube, the other a split coil.Key is wind it so it is usable with something simple.Like creating a coil with a resistance if 4 Ohm so a normal audio amplifier can be used.Tricky bit here is to find the right balance in terms of the inductivity.For a strong magnet you wants of turns and lots of layers - your amp does not like this too much.I found that many layers and many turns require a capacitor to compensate but also that this brings additional problems.I suggest to stick with reall cheap amps in the 25 to 50W range for your testing.They seem to be more forgiving if you use multiple layers on a coil.Using a split coil with reversed polarities allows to use both channels on a stereo amp.In this configuration you can have a lot of fun in the lower frequencies, which are usually the ones we want anyway.The resonance finding though it a fully manually thing and you need to make sure the machine is secured properly to the surface you want to use it on.I found it best to start at about 1kHz and then to work my way down until something happens somewhere.Once you go below the 200hz region you will need to crank the amp up a bit.What is actually happening and why once it starts moving things around?Figuring that one out took me quite a while.It is not the moving magnet causing a change of things.It is the forces it transfers when it changes directions.When the magnet is down and the coil changes polarity it is "pulled" up.Wich means the mounted machine is applying downforces onto the surface.Opposite for the way down.Interesting about this how both the surcare and the machine interact.Out of sync not much at happens anywhere, but the closer you get to a resonant frequency the easier the magnet can move around - the amplitude increases while the input level is the same.Hence the need for the dampening magnet stacks ;)These stop the motion in a smooth and even way while transfering the excess to the machine in the form of vertical forces.Together this works rather well and surprisingly simple.You just need the right balance between weight of the magnet inside and magnetic field your coil can generate - it does not have to be huge magnet to have some fun...No clue, or least no usuable, how Tesla simplified the resonance finding and keeping - if he did not do it manually after all.In terms of electronic means it should be possible fairly easy to get the same output force no matter the conditions.Thinking of a controlled feedback loop here.The required power from the amp is lowest in resonance and higest when totally out of sync.This out of sync motion is to a small degree transfered onto the coil through the moving magnet.A clear sine wave gets "distortions" from the overlaying frequencies transfered from the surface.You can "filter" the required power level and the detected "distortions".If both filters indicate a minimum it means resonace is found.From there only the power levels are monitored.Every time they spike the frequency is adjusted so the spike is in sync again with the max amplitude of the frequency.The power levels will then level out while the external movement maxes out sooner or later.Will it actually make a building shake?If it is an old, wooden construction like mine it will rattle here and there ;)A solid brick or concrete one however won't be too impressed.A big barn with a sheet metal roof might get noisy but won't collapse.The frequencies to actually make big things swing are rather low, often below the 60Hz range.With that comes the energy requirements - you have maybe 200g moving around at max in your machine?Try pushing over some dead pine tree by making it swing until it breaks - same thing.If you manage to keep the correct swing you need a long, long time to make swing far enough to snap.For a big bridge you might need a centimeter or more of swing before anything can be noticed.You machine might be able to add a µm with every hundred swings it makes....Moving traffic constantly changes things so after a few weeks of trying the bridge might not even vibrate a little.Huge fun though to make friends cars shake apart with no sound at all LOLJust screw in the boot and crank it up once you notice something vibrates somewhere ;)

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply

Is it possible to upgrade an old LED grow light by simply upgrading the chips/diodes in the light?

I have a couple of old cheap LED grow lights I don't use anymore as I've upgraded to more modern lights however I don't want to toss them out as they could come in handy as a spare or useful should I require a new grow space.I was wondering if I could upgrade these old lights by purchasing new full spectrum (or whatever) chips/diodes (about .80c per Epistar from China) and simply solder out the old cheap 3 watt diodes from these old grow lights and solder in new 3 watt chips to make a 'new' and better grow light for around $40 (as I'd be using the fans and all electrics of the original grow light).I have no electrical knowledge so is this even 'doable' or just a thought bubble?

Question by PYak    |  last reply

Research on makers and modular design

Hi maker community! I am conducting a survey as part of an investigation by the University of Zaragoza (Spain) about makers and modular design. Would you be so kind to do it and collaborate in the dissemination? The more answers the better! you very much for your help! :)

Topic by lauraasion    |  last reply

Info on ring I found?

I found this ring while rotottilling the yard and would like to know anything about it. Any information would be greatly appreciated.

Question by raypalmquist    |  last reply

Maker Resources for High School Students

Hello! My name is Anthony Tan and I am the Founder of the Maker Hub Club Initiative, a non profit project that supports communities of high school student makers in the U.S. If you are a high school student in the U.S., I would love to help you make projects by providing resources and funding. Please let me know if you are interested. You can reach me at

Topic by rockcacti  

Alloys with a low melting point - not just for fun and magic tricks!

Be it real scientific need or just curiousity, we invented alloys with really low melting points quite early.Even some mercury based ones staying liquid at below minus 60°C.Usages are plentyful once you get a hang of it ;)On a big scale in reactors as a cooling medium for example.On a much smaller scle as a perfect heat transfer medium if water or oil are out of the wuestion due to the temperatures required.A bath for liquid salt works much better if it is sitting in another, heated container with a low melting alloy like Wood's Metal.Good thing here is that you don't need much if the containers match with just a little gap.Unlike oil or water nothing evaporates, nothing boils, nothing smokes ...Plus it does not wear out, you can use the low melting alloy for years if you keep it sealed and oxygen away.If in doubt just seal it and be done.Ever had the problem that you needed to work on a small piece that just wouldn't stay in you vice or clamp due to the shape?Or that it just a bit too fragile to get clamped into something?Get a small plastic box, melt some Wood's or field's Metal, place your part in the box and fill the molten metal in.Once hard you can clamp the new block any way you like and once done run some hot water over it to free you part.The railroad enthusiast like the stuff as well.Make you small lokomotive much heavier by filling voids with a low melting alloy - after sealing all possible holes with modelling clay or similar.Recently these low melting alloys found their way in wood and resin art as well.You can just fill a crack on wood with these metals and sand or machine them down with the wood for a perferct finnish - proper PPE and vacuum removal of the produced dust recommended for those metals containing Lead or Cadmium!But are there other uses we don't really think about that much?If they wouldn't be rather costly you could use them for mdel making and prototyping.Bending metal tubing into otherwise impossible coils and shapes is a nice use too - just fill them up and let the metal go solid.I quite like the fact that these metals are strong and can be used to cheat with magnets.Not affecting the magnetic field you can create arrays that you force together with a thin acrylic frame.Make a suitable mold, fill to the acrylic with metal, remove the acrylic once cooled enough and fill completely.You just created an impossible magnet array the dirt simple way.Not to mention that it is rather easy to include metal strips for field directing ;)If you don't mind the money for the low melting metal in bulk you can even use it to replicate body parts for old cars with no spares available anymore.Just create a mold capable of holding the original part.Create a wall around the original.Meaning you want a vertical wall to prevent the molten metal to flood over the part - you only need one side ;)And holes or missing bits will have an excess of metal once cooled.This can removed, machined and polished if required to create the perfect match for a replacement.Then you can use this block and a piece of sheet metal to re-create your part.Best thing is that for the block itself you can use wood as the metal won't harm it when you fill it up.Some added fun with Gallium!Gallium is rather special as it not only melts in your hand but mainly because it is able to "wet" almost any surface!Wetting means that a metal can stick to a surface, when soldering or brazing we usually have to use a flux for this to happen properly.If you have a low melting alloy with enough gallium in it you can do crazy things.Like melting it and then using a fine brush to paint circuit traces onto glass or acrylic.Simply place or electrics and elecronics with some super glue onto the surface and then use the molten metal to create the electrical connections.The resistance is low enough for most applications and if in doub you can always add a few layers for power hungry connections.Ok, I see you want to make an Ible for it....Then do it properly...Get some gallium metal and some plumbers solder, preferably the lead free type.Melt the solder in a small pot and use a tiny amount of rosin flux to prevent oxidation.Add a little bit of gallium, mix it for a while and do a quick check if the mix is able to wet steel or wood.If not, use a little bit more gallium until it does - don't forget the mixing, it will take about 20 minutes for 250g of solder to complete the reaction and alloy forming.Create a stencil to match your circuit.Don't forget to include the ares for solder pads!Heat your piece to about 80°C with the stecil in place.Fill the stencil with the molten metal - once it cooled down the new melting point should be significantly lower than the original solder.Wipe off all excess before it hardens.Once cooled down remove stencil and solder on the parts.Fill in some text and pics please beofre you publish ;)I do not recommend this for flexible materials as these alloys tend to be rather brittle.And well, obviously not for temperature near or even above the melting point of the alloy - like in your car on a hot summer day...Is there anything really unusual we could try out?Sure, quite a lot actually once you start wondering about things....For example what would would happen if you subject a liquid metal to an electromagnetic field.Copper isn't magnetic but creates a current if use as a conductor in a varying electromognetic field.Otherwise we wouldn't have transformers, motors, generators and much more.We know the current "flows" through the conductor, but what do we know how it works if the conductor is liquid.... ;)You might be surpised to see what happens if you use some flexible PVC tubing filled with a liquid metal that is used as a transformer coil.....Or if you have a liquid core inside your core....Something that wasn't already tried againsince WW2 is Mercury based propulsion.The knowledge about this facinating technology went itno allied hands after the war and never made it out into the public in any usable way.I talked about this a bit in my series on ancient technologies.Mercury or liquid metal propulsion systems are "banned" if you like.Officially declared a myth.Doesn't explain though why since WW2 it became harder and harder to obtain mercury as a private person.Nor why the demand for it sky rocketed in the US with no real indication that it was used for anything.Why is that?Mercury based propulsion systems use quantum effects and bend the space time continium.In some cases and with enough energy output they can basically create a bubble around any craft that excludes it from the effects around it - no gravity, no mass, no nothing, not even time itself.Try it out yourself if you are still able to obtain mercury and can make sure it is handled and used in the safest way possible.The more you mess around with magnets and electromagnetic fields the more you realise how special this metal really is.

Topic by Downunder35m  

Where can i get a 1/8 inch sheet plastic for cheep.

Where can i get !/* inch sheet plastic for cheep. I am looking to make a custom bike fender. does anyone have any advice?

Topic by estherD135    |  last reply

Is there a list of... creators on here somewhere that sell what they make?

I get that this place is meant to teach us how to make these things ourselves, but you also have to know a lot of tech, or have a space where you live to DO things like solder etc... I’m so frustrated when I see such amazing tech on here and want to buy it as an addition to my nerd cave but no one even seems to reply and just say, “No, I’m too busy even during a pandemic to make what is for me, like building a Lego set but for you is like building a Rover for NASA... from your wheelchair, BTW” I’m a nerdy guy who collects stuff from Showbiz Pizza and Chuck E. Cheese, like a couple of animatronics that run via their computer and can also be programmed to any mp3... Neon signs, posters and probably the largest collection of the animatronic shows media than anyone else(I said I was nerdy) but that includes asking their former CEO, Dick Frank, to borrow several of their SVHS masters to copy to DVD, just so that the community could finally close gaps in shows we didn’t have yet and up until 2010 had alluded us... So, I’m just trying to I guess find out, is it illegal or no allowed on here TO sell and I just missed that and if so, and you want to sell privately... please PM me if you sell, period! I mean, even wealthy people like money.

Topic by PizzaCam2020    |  last reply

Does the magnet motor really work and keep spinning?

See it as a last hurray before the forum here disappears ;)For ages we have people claiming that they managed to build a working magnet motor.Basically not even a perpetual motion engine but something with enough energy output to spare.As soon as they surfaced to make it all public the vanished.Most say they only vanished because it was just another fraud as those things simply can't work - physiscs won't allow it.If that was really always the case then why did some of these people AND their families disappear after till publishing details and being active in their communities?Either way: If there is a will then there is a backseat - or so they said in the 70's ;)People are still willing to fall for every foolish plan they can find on the net, waste their money and find out that, well, it just won't work.If you dig long and deep enough though you get a glimpse of what really is possible without violating our laws of physics.And yes, done and applied properly even a magnet motor is possible.The do's and don'ts of trying to build a magnet motor:Once you got hooked you have to start somewhere.Usually some V-gate or similar that ALMOST worked for you already.Anyway, you will have to encounter the appearently only reason why these motors won't work rather quickly.It seems impossible to provide accelleration without having at least point in the cycle where the binding can't be overcome through inertia or mechanical trickery.So the first thing you really need to learn is to forget what you already know!Treat magnets like a think you never knew at all, something rare and very special.Don't use your schoolbook knowldege or what you learnt at university - only use what you discover yourself!!!Make your conclusions no matter how wrong they seem - you will find out soon enough if something was flawed.I, for example, "wasted" endless hours when there was nothing on TV.Just some good music running and playing around with my magnets.Adding metal strips, filing them down, seeing how they react at different angles and distances to each other.Once you are at the stage of getting over this last bit of forces that ruins it all you need to learn how to think totally out of the box!You can't see the magnetic field lines, can't really use magntic viewer foils on the running thing - you have to try things!Take 5 magnets and create and array with a very strong pole on one side and a very weak on the other - realise that the manetic field lines don't care whether or not they go back to their own magnet!See for yourself how strips of metel from some old transformer core will provide a pathway for those field lines.See for yourself where the "threshold" is from just "shielding" a part of the magnet to "re-shaping" the field itself.See for yourself how a magnet that you bring close to one pole also affects the opposite pole of the "attacked" magnet ;)And did I already say you should try to forget what you think you know until you could actually check it and all possible variations yourself? ;)Butter on the toast....For mostly the reason to keep it shorter I just assume you tried to build something based on the classic V-gate motor and that you found this topic somehow...For other motors most of what comes now still aplies in one way or another though.Binding:I speak of binding if a motor has one or more points during a full cycle where it gets stuck.Not just a bit of attraction, enough to ruin the entire motion.There are two forms of binding forces that I identified as important.1. Opposite poles.2. Equal poles.Just means your binding is either caused by too much attraction to move further or that the next (set of) magnet(s) repells too much.Either is bad ;)Redirected forces:It is a bit impossible to only provide a force in the exactly needed direction.For example when it is more displacement forces driving the wheel - going more sideways than in a true rotional motion.Means nothing more than that a lot of potential energy is literally wasted.Shielding:You can't shoild magnetic fields!I still use the term to indicate that I am "wasting" a part of the magetic field - I don't want this bit to interfere with operations.Flux directing:Or fluxing...I use this whenever I want to affect the shape or reach of a magnets field.E.g.: by adding a rod to "extend" one pole or by providing a "shunt" strip between two magnets.A way to get field lines where they are needed most.So much for the basic terms that might pop up from now on ;)Before you can worry about lost energy from redirected forces you need to overcome your binding points.This is only possible through shielding and flux directing!Of course it also includes the possibe use of arrays to create a field with a specific shape.Let me try with some classic examples you might have faced already:Where your V changes from wide to slim you always get stuck, so you did it again by using two V's in line.Hoping that you could use what one V has in excess to overcome the binding on the ther side.Nice thinking only you forgot that your max power output is about half way through the V ;)So you realised this and added two more V's on your roll with a 120° phase shift.Does much better now but still prefers to bind no matter what you try.So what went wrong?The approach did ;)You compensated for a binding force by wasting what you have in rotational energy - to say it simple.You might have tried some mechanical lifting and flipping as well to get closer but never close enough.Our first array....By now you realised that the junction between wide open and really narrow ruins your motor.Check where the thing stops without the next magnets in line.Then check the opposite arrangement and see where the next bit would stop the thing.This is your binding area.Mark this area.Now test where your machine creates the most pull or push to get it going.Do this by finding the strongest starting point.Mark this again.Now take a look at your markings!You will see a angular relation.E.g.: You max push/pull is 50° away from your max binding point.This angle defines how many parallel V-gates you need on your drum.You want then arranged so that whenever you have a max binding point you also have a max push/pull point at the same time.This is you basic V-Gate array allowing you compensate for a lot just by using a better design.Or second array....We now need a way to compensate at least a little bit of the binding forces by redirecting and shielding some field lines.If you like fairy floss then grab some ;)We face the problem that we use a displacemnt force to keep things rolling.Fairy floss on a stick can help to visualise ;)Grab two sticks so their stick end comes out either side of your fist.Do the same with the other hand.Having two colors helps as well and gives it some flavour.Try to align those double cones so they create areas where their forces would cancel ech other out.Meaninf for example when one north pole is close enough to another south pole to create a flattened field.You realise soon that angles are not really that relevant here, only distance ;)You can cheat by adding some (smaller but strong) magnets in little arrays between the closed and open ends of your V.Keep the distances from the previous power tests in mind though!!!For example if the closed end would just keep pushing with little binding due to having a long magnet bar on top then you focus on providing a path where the adverse push from the open V is mostly compensated.Or third array...We need some balance in the system now, so why not use magnets for the weights ;)You want to place them so they increase the push/pull forces!Helps to have a big collection of various sizes and shapes....Please also consider strips or bars of silicicium rich steel (transformer cores) to brigde from one magnet to another to get a good balanced system or just adding short pieces on the underside of magnets.Ok, where are we now?We have a phase shifted array of 3 to 6 V-gates.We have it properly balanced and still use these long mangets as the driving bars on top - or even multiple if you have more than one V per array part.And that thing is causing all our binding issues.....Common solution is now to just lift the offending bar up or to increase the distance until it can provide force again that we need.Unless you are already an artsist for building you own little steam engines froms cratch it is the worst possible approach.Creates too much friction, uses to much energy!We think we are almost there.....We can't waste ANY energy until we figured out how to get more than enough of it.A mechanical gear system is far from perfect but offers precision.A simple push rod solution works well too if properly balanced and the mechanics allow for a smooth operation.I leave it up to your what you prefer.We can't just change the lenght of our magnet bar but we can cheat - a lot.One good option to check for yourself how a magnet if a fixed rotational thingy reacts when you spin a magnet close by.Even with really good bearings you will realise the binding forces between them are not equal if you keep the same distance while rotating.Now re-think your engine desing - I know it hurst if ou realise now your magnet arrangement wasn't ideal.Do you have a north-south bar on top of a V with one row of magnets facing north and the other facing south?Really I am sorry if you do but it is not all lost unless you glued your magnets in place as a permanent solution.You can leave it if you wish but it might be harder to apply the required cheats - there is ways if you look good ;)Why a V-gate where both rows of magnets are orientated the same way?It is just easier and more flexible as you then can focus on the driving bar(s) ;)Let me explain the difference as I see it:With a fixed north and south pole on your bar you seem to be able to use "more" of the magnets.And it seems to be the logical way at a first glance.But now that you learned and discovered so much yourself already, ask yourself:Does it really matter if there a north and south pole available on the bar?Wouldn't two rows of north facing magnets with matching magnets on the bar to the same things?They would....And in such an arrangement we have almost endless ways to "cheat" physics as we know it.Especially if you have two V's per drum and have one facing north and the other south ;)For the standard single V the trick is to rotate the "magnet bar" in a controlled way so when the binding forces of the V are max the forces the bar can apply are minimised.You can see that nicely if you manually rotated the wheel and watch how the bar reacts to the field.At some points it wants to push, at others pull and at still others it would love to just flick over - use this behaviour in your rotating mechanism!You want to keep the max possible forces for the longest possible time and keep the flicking over time in sync with the drum rotation.Look up on the many ways to do a flipping motion by mechanical means to see how you can best implent one into a rotary action.If you were a really good observer during your experiments you now realise that you start to also deal with friction and mechanical losses and counteracting forces.We can not reduce all of them to zero by simple cheats and mechanical solutions.Whenever we try we must do this in the most efficient way possible - even if it means cheating on our own constructions.Remember playing with the magnets to see how they react at various distances to each other and ferrous metals? ;)There is a fine line between too much and too little ;)Try for yourself on your whell with a simple bar mechanism that allow distance adjustment.Do you really get mor "driving" force the closer you get with the bar? ;)Where is the point between effective force and you needing too much force to keep the bar at this distance? ;)Do you notice how the distance affects the forces in your binding areas? ;)Cheating the cheat ;)Now that we have to find the opimal distance for our bar to avoid changing this ones as well on a constant base during the rotation, we should see how to make this the least energy wasting.You need some sort of counter balance for your mechanics and it would be nice to somehow affect our bar magnets so we don't need to much mechanical energy to make them rotated and flick over.Why not use a drum around them ? ;)When you need a reduced force you can have a metal (ferrous of course) roatate in place.As a drum you would just cut out the parts you don't need and add weight where needed to compensate the imbalance in the mechanical system.Like for example having the most "shielding" metal between bar and drum when the binding forces would be max.Hence the need for correct distance to prevent unwanted binding forces from the drum parts ;)You can even influence the width of your magnetic bar to some extend this way ;)If done properly you now wasted a few weeks in your shed and have a motor that still is only very close to keep running forever once you gave it a little push.Let's say you did a really bad job.Means you still have one or more destinct binding points left.In this case I suggest you focus on them after finding out if they are mechanical or magnetic in origin.If you did a half decent job then your machine should be able to start running from multiple points in the rotation.But not in some others.Perfect would be two equally sized areas per revolution where it seems the thing would just need to be started a few degrees later to overcome the power loss.If you reached the max point and going a few degrees more again start to reduce the power output you are good to go.What exactly haapend so far, assuming all is still well in your shed?We tricked our system in various ways to actually utilise the push/pull forces our motor provides.And we learned what to do and how to do it so we overvome almost everything.Just to finally fail like all those idiots on the net before - or did we??? ;)Isn't there something really vital we missed in our construction while we cheated so much?There is but I can't blame you if you have not picked it up much earlier in your construction.We rotate our magnet bar now to compensate for the binding effect by mecahnical means.Ever wondered if we could more rotation and changing orientations in our V?The magnets won't mind too much if they are put in with north and south alternating as long as you rotate the bar correspondingly.Just instead of one spin or flip during max binding you do it for every single magnet in the row.... ;)The shielding drum though operates as normal with this.Bit complicated, lots of mechanical design involved - I know!!!And for what exactly???To use what have not even touched yet - electrical energy produced by our now alternating drum ;)I know :( Now you are whacking your head against the wall like I did so many years ago, sorry for that experience!But would it mean that coils will cause additional losses and binding forces?Of course it does, that's why it is so much fun trying to cheat physics!This approach is usually just neglected due to the ill thinking that a magnet motor would provide free energy for everyone.Simple fact is that no matter how good you are it will be impossible to get more than a magnetic machine that almost works forever - you won't be able to compensate for all losses and utilise them as energy unless you either have multiple high degrees or spend a lot of time in your shed - a lot...Since a full rebuild is now due anyway I leave it up to you to figure out how desgin it, I just throw in some "ideas" here:We only use the outside of our magnetic drum, this needs to change.And before you go into a mechanical frency to figure how to place inner magnets that rotate with the drum to compensate for dead zones: Just don't! You will get a headache and waste too much time.We can use all those inwards facing magnets to our advantage though.A lot of the arrays, if not all, could be replaced by creating a rotor to hold the magnets.Not in the traditional sense though but to guide the field lines to a common center.There is a need for a rather wide distance between the magnets so you can provide a ferrous pathway that won't just fully shortcut the fields.It needs to be enough so that a coil array placed on the inside will be subjected to changing fields- north south...I leave it up to to decide if a low resistance or ahigher output voltage is the better option.Either way we are able to produce some electrical energy as long as the drum rotates.But we only need extra energy for those ares where the system does not produce extra energy and in fact eats all our energy up.One way would be to store the electrical energy in a nice supercapacitor and to use it for some electromagnet that is placed in the right spot and activates at the right time.And yes it works.Far better though is to utilise resonance.We aim for a fully harmonic system so we can actually try to figure out where and if there is a way to produce more neergy that what we feed into it.Perpetual motion means a system produces enough energy to sustain motion.If motion is sustained AFTER getting to a certain speed by other means it is perpetual from then on.We have the impossible if a machine produces more energy than what is required for the motion AND if we can utilise this power.Sadly we have no means to utilise friction energy....So a machine that sustains motion would already be in what is called "over unity" !?In a sense yes, but not in a usable as it will discredit you quickly.A resonant electrical system is able to handle way more energy with way less resistance - or losses.Now to give you the final homework lesson and risk being watched again:What do you think happens if a resonant LC system has a set of rotating magnets at a matching speed? ;)Right! It won't be able to stay in sync because we still have this firction and "binding" problem on our hands.....What does that mean in reality though?The spacing of the rotor is critical, that is clear already,And our electrical system is never fully in sync with our drum, clear again.But it is still a resonant system, totally unclear, now I lost you ;)See it as two independent frequencies, one defined by rotor spacing and our desired operational speed, the other what results from our losses and running slightly behind.Imagine you would finetune the LC system to actually match the frequency that results from the losses....Suddenly it is not longer tuned to a theoretical speed but to the real speed.And due the the now full resonace the phase shift now is able to provide extra push for our system ;)Explains nicely why basically all magnet motor machines that claimed to work and disappeared only worked at a fixed speed ;)What are the final conclusions here then - is it really possible to do the impossible?I say it depends on your time, workshop and willingness to think out of the box.Impossible, certainly not.In case you came to the same impossible conclusion after neglecting your family and friends for weeks you now wonder how much more might be possible than just keeping it going for almost forever.For this you need to understand and basically feel how magnetic field lines interact and react, including electromagnetic fields.A magnetic field is a form of energy.We usually created this by putting an awful lot of energy into coild during the manufacturing process.And like a battery magnets lose their energy over the time, especially in bad conditions.Still we treat this energy as unusable because we can't seen to be able to utilise static fields at all.If neither the coil, nor the magnet moves there is no change in field and with that no electricity.Does that mean though the megnetic energy does not go through the coil? ;)Nope, it is still there, going nowhere.Otherwise we would not need power plants and just use earth's magnetic field instead.Now to drive your brain into true overdrive for the final:Did you ever watch these nice videos where a great physics teacher of the old kind shows how (AC) electromagnetic field work?Or maybe you had one of those in school?Remember how a metal cylinder placed ner a tall electromagnet starts spinning?Often used to explain the righthand rule ;)The cylinder spins due to the eddy currents created - like the disk did in your old school electrical meter in the fuse box.And doesn't our drum now support a changing magnetic field on the inside while it rotates?What do you think happens to "drums" placed off center and close to those magnets? You think they would spin?And, if made from aluminium or copper, wouldn't the field lines stillpass through and reach the electrical coil(s) ;)Couldn't you utilise the drum motion during the times of not enough spin? ;)Considering they are basically short cut inductors: Couldn't you use a "coil" that still spins while producing electricity? ;)Once you can answer this with confidence you will know how to build a magnet motor able to produce excess energy.I am not saying it is easy to include all this knowledge into a simple and basic design.But I do say that one you understand the relation between static permanent magnetic fields and electromagnetic ones you are a winner.I'll give you one final hint:Every electrical current or electromagnetic field near enough to a permanent magnet will influence its field!You only need to decide where the electrical energy is used to influence permanent magnets is a positive way without using more than what the system is able to provide.Then, and only then, will you motor to be able to start (with no load) from any position and keep gaining speed until resonance is reached.The amount of energy you can draw once this speed is reached is only defined by how much it drives the system out of resonance.Once the load is greater than what the system can sustain the speed slows, resonance is lost, efficiency down the drain.A good motor of desktop size is able to provide about 100W of extra electrical energy.And no it still isn't over unity or perpetual at all!The magnets deplete and they do it surprisingly fast in a working magnet motor.You are lucky get 6 months of continious use before one or more magnets get too weak.And if you check how much electrical energy was used to give these magnets their abilities you realise that even two years of usage wouldn't make up for it.Still nice to have a machine that runs for a few years with no load attached or that powers some fan, lamp, whatever for a few weeks without batteries or fuel.

Topic by Downunder35m  

Stylus digitizer suggestions for diy drafting table?

I want to build a drafting table with a glass table top and a screen behind it. That way I can do things like:1) display reference images while I work on art2) trace things from screen onto paper3) toggle the screen to 100% white and use as a backlight4) draw shapes using traditional drafting tools and have them digitized. (Think of using triangles, compasses, and whatnot to draw on a Wacom Cintiq)It's that last thing that has me scratching my head. What are some affordable options for a fairly large screen with stylus (and possibly touch) capabilities?Will it work behind thick tempered glass?Should I / can I make my own digitizer?

Question by PS118    |  last reply

Forums are retiring - I am building a replacement-forum

OK... As many of you may have heard, the forums here @ Instructables are closing permanently this october. See may have its cause and it is all explained in the linked post. I want to thank the instructables-Team to have provided such a great community over all these years. I learned a lot and enjoyed reading all those posts and answering those questions asked. I may even have had a positive influence on someones live. Who knows?Anyway: I dont aggree with the result of the analysis that there is a falling # of posts and activity in the forums here. I think it was more a self-killing system with bad & old Forum-software not motivating for new users and new posts. This in return gives low activity and low incentive for staff to update the forum and make it more appealing. Less appealing forum = low user-acitvity = low staff-incentive = Less appealing forum = ...I still think there is a big benefit for a dedicated forum for DIY and instructables. But ranting does help nobody. It is a free world and Instructables / Autodesk have made the decision. OK. Lets see what we can do from here on.I quickly grabbed a Domain, booked a webhosting and set up a rudimentary phpBB.-->> <<--Currently, userregistration is disabled. If you want to help out, please dont hsitate to contact me here om Instructables via PM. Soon we will have the structure and details and rules fleshed out and will be opening the gates.Someone has a nice idea for a logo?

Topic by Orngrimm    |  last reply

Ancient technologies revisted - the last chapter, 13

We often woder how the ancient builder were able to calculate all the stuff they needed.But there might be a very simple explanation: Evolution and the gregorian calendar...Our modern math is based on 10 or for most things US still the 12.And no matter which system you try to calculate things like gravity, accelleration or just angles you always end with a big mess.So what did the church to make it all so complicated, after all it was a change of calendar....Not quite....Before times we knew 13 star signs.Before the church came along most people used the 28 day moon cycle or derivations of it.What was once left to high priests or the village shamane turned into Astrology and also forgot about the 13, reducing the star signs by one.Big deal you say, no one cares....Or do we?What were the real world implications of this interference?Or year is now 364.25 days long - on average.We constantly need to adjust it by one day every four years and also need to correct our time accordingly.What a hassle....We also implemented that a day has to have 12 hours or 24 for the entire thing, including the night.Only to finally use the base 10 for our common math LOLIt does not get any more complicated than this :(As a result of this mixing our circle ended with 360° and a minute with 60 seconds - What the heck!?There is no common base to develop any proper, higher math!So we learned to work around the problem and to accept the most complicated way must be the best way.An artifical brake for our evolution.Nonsense? Let's play it out just a little bit:We do it the old ways and use the lunar cycle with 28 days.Gives us 364 days per year, every year.What about our star signs?Funny you should ask....Because suddenly we have a perfect fit for the 13 star signs again.We still ignore that they are not all visible for the same period of time in the zodiac though.What about the days and time?If we ignore the 12 and use 28 hours for a full day instead of just 24 we are again in the right rythm.But where is the natural logic in all this?Hidden, like our evolution ;)The key is again a thing called decimal parity, a magicians trick if you like.With that long number tunr into just a single digit by adding the singles:345= 3+4+5=12 = 1+2=3If we use the same magic on how our cells multiply:1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024 we not only suddely see number we know from our computers.The cell multiplication goes on and on, however: Decimal parity give a simple and repeating sequence:1, 2, 4, 8, 5, 7Notice how everything that makes a 12 like 3,6,9 are "missing"? ;)For a 28 hour day we can divide it evenly to get 14 hours for day and night.7 is a quarter of a day.And yes, 1+4=5 and 2+8=10 = 1+0=1If you now checked some of my really old topics and remember Tesla's circle of math then it is no coincidence that it matches.Go one step further and apply the 364 or a multiple of 28 on a circle as degrees for a full one....If we can link the moon, or to be precise, the lunar cycle so perfectly to how how our cells divide: can the moon really be just a coincidence? ;)Go ahead and play with some of our favourite physics formulas based on the lunar cycle!Don't bother bother trying to figure out how to match the required second to lunar times though.Reverse engineer the formula so to say!We might have solved the time and calendar problem but not the meter ;)Take Gravity for starters.If we assume the moon is no coincidence then gravity shouldn't be one either!?Ignoring all resistance an object near earth surface will increase speed by about 9.8m per second every second.Transfer that to hours and see what happens if you hour is based on 28 or 364.Makes very weird numbers I know.Try again but this time keep in mind that if you change the time base you need the same multiplicator for the 9.81 ;)Ok, now you should have basically matching results and still the basically same complicated number.Re-arrange you formula so you get just 1m instead of 9.81.We could calculate before with our old math how far an object would travel in free fall with our gravity in a given amount of time.Never a nice number per second.Try again with you moon second of hour now ;)If you struggle with it a bit I won't blame you at all.Feel free to use any of the other vital physics formulas we know that require meters and seconds to find out how long a real meter should be ;)Or do it the other way around and use the speed of light formula and see what you get with moon based numbers ;)Why was the 13 banned and declared bad?Ignorance, protection, secracy, god complexes, call it what you like.Either way it is the link between real math and nature in every way.Our year is based on it the same way as our lunar cycle.Our cell multiplication and basically every natural shape in nature uses the 13 as well.Even astrology should again include it.Banning the 13 and using the 12 or 10 instead meant we were unable to see the links nature and the universe offer freely.Is it really just coincidence that a water vortex of tornado look exactly like our milky way?Just that the later is more flat....Or that so many patterns in nature follow the sequence of decimal parity - even your sunflower ....Some say banning "false" gods wasn't enough, others say it was a simple insurance policy.But with the 13 gone the way was free to let anyone trying run into dead ends.Without the 28 day lunar cycle seeing the connection was next to impossible.Ok, but how does the 12 come into play with the church and all?Making math totally impossible was not possible because our brains constantly evolve.The 12 was a perfect fit for the old days.It stands for the "missing" 3 6 and 9 from the decimal parity sequence.It is simpler in one way but only for the most basic things.Once you need what we call today higher math the 12 makes things really hard - hence our never ending numbers when we try to calculate "round" stuff....You just never get the full accuracy because it is always an endless amount of digits behing the dezimal point.Even for Pie....Defining the meter or foot on something totally not natural only helped the cause.After the apple finally hit us on the head it was already too late.Our understanding of what time is was flawed, our meter was a makeshift approximation.Of course the results of calculations only got worse and worse the more we learned about physics.Now we can't even think in any other ways anymore....What about our DNA?We struggle to understand it, make sense of all the unrequired data in it.We often like to say the junk is the leftovers from evolution.But what if our failure to understand and decode our own DNA is intentional?What might happen if someone appraoches this problem with the numbers 13 and 28 as the base of operations?Just some extra magic to make a point: ;)Take 28 days for a "Month".Take 13 "Months" for a whole year.Makes 364 days.Using decimal parity we get:2+8=10 =11+3=43+6+4= 13!! 1+3=4Considering Tesla you still think the lunar cycle is coincidence and won't matter? ;)13 was and always will be the key....Don't believe me?Use 13 and keep adding 13, then use decimal parity to get a sequence.Like 1+3=42+6= 83+9==3.....You get this sequence:4 8 3 7 2 6 1 5 9 Draw it in a circle like Tesla used ;)9 at the top then 1 to 8 every 40 degrees.You get a 9 pointed star.With so many links freely available you just have to wonder how we could ignore it for so long.....The lunar cycle is a complete sequence, no end, no beginning.We now got two distinct sequences, one for the 13 or our moon and the other for our own cell multiplication.1,2,4,8,7,5If you figure out what Tesla did so many years ago and find where the 3, 6 and 9 link those two sequences you will be a winner.I'll give you a hint: They nicely divide our lunar sequence.And our parity line from the cell multiplication does the same.What more do you need to accept that the base for true math is not 10, 12 or even 16?It is 9, always was, always will be ;)Live long and prosper! ;)

Topic by Downunder35m  

Removing acrylic paint from a reused, painted canvas

About a year ago I got started in acrylic paint pouring. At the time I had decided to paint over some of them but I regret this now and wish to removed the painting I have done over them. The original paint pours were sealed with a spray on clear coating but not the painting that I did over them. Is there any way I can remove the over painting without damaging the original paint pours? Any recommendations for solvents/tools or experience with this? Thanks for your feedback!

Question by Markski    |  last reply

Como construir domos

Donde puedo encontrar un manual para construir un domo de 3metros de radio. quisiera saber las medidas que debo utilizar

Question by joseluis2399    |  last reply

How can I make gear shafts/axles without using power tools ?

I have a few gears that I want to 'connect' together into sort of a gearbox. Motor > small gear > large gear. Found a bunch of scavenged gears and bought plastic gears off aliexpress, but I am struggling to find shafts that would fit snugly inside the gear. Any ideas how I can make my own shafts ? The only idea in mind is to wrap pen refills with aluminum foil. Which seems okay. But not sure.. I do not have access to any power tools. Overall I am trying to make a curtain puller, for which the motor does not have enough torque. So making reduction gears to slow RPM, increase torque. At least that's what I have in mind. Not sure if I am on the right track. Thanks a lot! ~ love instructables

Question by jugaadDo    |  last reply

Learning electronics

I’m looking to learn more about electronics. Making circuits and stuff. Does anyone know a good way to take classes. I know I want it interactive. I want to be able to ask questions. So I can really learn the subject. I have done the basics here. And I watching utube. I find both very limiting. Any thoughts is appreciated

Question by Cumberson    |  last reply

Building an inground swimming pool below the waterline.

My daughter and her husband are building an inground swimming pool. They've dug the hole, but the bottom is below the waterline, and the hole keeps filling with water and mud. They've tried building a temporary dam from river rock and landscaping plastic, but are still having problems.Any advice?

Question by Youngner1    |  last reply

The great Covid-19 and 5G conspiracy - I am soo sick of it!

It has to come to my attention that here in Australia and in many other countries those behind the worst conspiracy stories of all are now building up forces.Mind you I really have no problem with conspiracy theories!I actually quite enjoy them, making my own thoughts and conclusions, sometimes even write some on my own.But what goes on now with Covid and 5G just isn't anything to tolerate anymore!We have groups and websites openly calling people to not only do stupid things but to openly run against the law, regulations and everything in regards to authority.You don't want a 5G tower near you home?Well why didn't you say so when it was proposed and the public informed to have a right to respond and provide concerns?No you wait until you see a company worker doing his job to abuse the crap out of him.Why?Not because YOU made this decision based on facts or because you think it is right.You just did it because someone told you it would be a great idea and that people who do would be celebrated as heros.You were USED.Same for stating that you don't need to wear a face mask and can do what you like while those around you fear infection.It is true that we all have rights, that police powers are not unlimited and that we all SHOULD be allowed to do as we please.It is also true that it seems to make sense in our modern world that individuals have more rights than enitre communities.But there are limits, not just those dictated by common sense.You favourite conspiracy theoery might provide all the excuse you need, those running it even all the legal texts you have to cite....What they won't tell you for obvious reasons is how ALL those cases got overturned!Either in higher courts or just by actually stating the facts and chain how our law actually works.You have one one real right, let me try to explain in case you are one of those conspiracy nutcracks:You were born into a world where you are just a tiny piece or great puzzle.The rights the country you are living in provides you are based on following the rules.Do you tell your kids to NOT listen to the teacher because you think the guy is telling your kid crap?If so then how do you explain to your kid properly what would be correct and justify this against everyone else?The world is just a flat disk, I know...You don't like the laws, the regulations? Fine with me, I don't like many of them either.Does not mean I go out there for fun trying to break them or make a useless and totally meaningless point if those things won't actually affect me.Especially not if it means making a fool out of myself.You wouldn't go into the Manchester United section of the stadium during the final just to shout out how you hate the team...Why? Because you would know you won't make it out in one piece or without the need for an ambulance.But taunting a cop in the same fashion seems to be fine because you know he or she wouldn't touch - or so you think.You only real right if you simply refuse to fit in is to leave.Africa has lots of open spaces where you can settle and start your own life free from supression....But you won't do this, you won't leave, all you want it being stupid, being a problem without providing even a clue about a solution.You want YOUR rights without giving those around ANY rights or choice - what exactly does that make you?

Topic by Downunder35m  

Need help Arduino DC motor

Hi guys , I need your help How to build a diagram & Arduino program to control a DC motor (9v I think) datasheet required & The program from the Arduino to Run the motor for 3 second (clockwise)stopping for 2 second & finally turn for 3 second in the other sens All that is a cyclic mode (8 seconds) at all Thanks

Question by Snake00012    |  last reply

Newbie begging for help! Making a PWM LED lamp with 0 experience

Hi there!I'm currently entering my 3rd year of my psychology undergraduate degree and for my dissertation I'm doing research into a study done a few years ago. I'm making a lamp to see if it helps reduce optical distortions in dyslexic readers (super cool!).My problem is that I have 0 experience with anything like this, but I'm very much willing to give it a go and learn, i've looked up some instructables on making LED lamps which I can get my head around fairly easily, the issue comes in when I try to incorporate pulse width modulation as the tutorials there are more geared towards people more advanced than myself. So this is me begging for any advice or resources you can recommend to me that are newbie friendly - any sort of suggestions are greatly appreciated! :)I've put below some of the details about the lamp and what it requires. The lamp should be able to alternate between 2 settings: A constant illumination setting, in which it should be constantly 200 illuminance (lx) A pulse regime setting, in which there is a 80 Hz pulsed regime, with a duty cycle deltaT/T = 0.2, no visual flickering.Replaceable batteries Large enough to light up a sheet of A4 well

Topic by jenniferhinchy    |  last reply

Can you use a remote control in place of a motion sensor?

Checking to see if you are able to change out a motion sensor in a talking parrot toy to activate it using a remote control? If so, is there an appropriate wiring diagram to follow in order to complete this? Any information would be greatly appreciated.

Question by dde60    |  last reply

Homemade tx module.

How to read the data sent by the rc transmitter to the radio frequency tx modules (example frsky djt) what type of data the communication outputs and how to read this data with an arduino the goal would be to use the arduino with a nrf24 module to create a tx module and then create a receiver also with arduino and nrf24 the idea and use the industrial rc transmitter and its many features but with cheap home receivers for simpler projects that do not require very advanced receivers

Topic by savioeletronica992925995Sávio  

Model Railways Forum

This is the forum for modelrailway lovers at instructables! Questions, Ideas, and all the things ,all scales , real or model are welcome to here!

Topic by simaopintocorreia    |  last reply


I have these products (High Speed Closed Loop Stepper Motor + HBS57 Stepper Driver) and i think i will need arduino panel (i dont know how they call it). Can you help me ?

Topic by TheDevilOfHeaven    |  last reply

Safely washing Denim

Hi, I just recently completed a project of mine. I drew on my jeans with Sharpie Laundry marker, and I used another fabric marker as well. I was wondering if anyone knew how to safely wash my work without it fading or getting ruined?

Question by Catsbulbasaur  

Need help for Arduino Project based on Covid

Hello good people,I am trying to make an Arduino Project which can measure Body Temperature, Heart Rate & SpO2 using MLX90614, VL53L0X & MAXREFDES117# sensors respectively with Arduino UnoFor Heartrate and SpO2 output i am using program and algorithm modifies by RF Master whose github link is Temperature measurement i am using MAX90614 with LV53L0X LIDAR sensor for range monitoring.For the above combined output i am using ADAFRUIT libraries. And i am getting desired output from both these sensor when combined together in a program.My problem is that when i combine them all i dont get a output., the programe runs to certain extent then stopsFor simplicity i am attaching the library for MAXREFDES117# and the main program that i have modified and the output data.Your help will be very much appreciated, i have a mechanical engineering background with basic logic of programming. RegardsShubhashishProgram 1: where i take input from the user#include #include #include #include "algorithm_by_RF.h" #include "max30102.h" #include #include Adafruit_MLX90614 mlx = Adafruit_MLX90614(); VL53L0X sensor; const byte oxiInt = 10; uint32_t elapsedTime,timeStart; uint32_t aun_ir_buffer[BUFFER_SIZE]; uint32_t aun_red_buffer[BUFFER_SIZE]; float old_n_spo2; uint8_t uch_dummy,k; bool hr=true; uint8_t ip = 0; void setup() { Serial.begin(115200); Serial.println(F("1. Heart Rate\n2. Temp")); while(Serial.available()==0) //wait until user presses a key ip = Serial.parseInt(); if(ip==1) {hr = true;} else {hr=false;} if(hr) { pinMode(oxiInt, INPUT); Wire.begin(); maxim_max30102_reset(); delay(1000); maxim_max30102_read_reg(REG_INTR_STATUS_1,&uch;_dummy); //Reads/clears the interrupt status register maxim_max30102_init(); //initialize the MAX30102 old_n_spo2=0.0; } else { mlx.begin(); Wire.begin(); sensor.setTimeout(500); if (!sensor.init()) { Serial.println("Failed to detect and initialize sensor!"); while (1) {} } sensor.setMeasurementTimingBudget(200000); Serial.print(sensor.readRangeSingleMillimeters()); Serial.print(F("*F\tObject = ")); Serial.print(mlx.readObjectTempF());Serial.println(F("*F")); if (sensor.timeoutOccurred()) { Serial.print(" TIMEOUT"); } delay(100); } if(hr) {; Serial.print(F("Time[s]\tSpO2\tHR\tClock\tRatio\tCorr\t")); timeStart=millis(); } } void loop() { if(hr) { float n_spo2,ratio,correl; int8_t ch_spo2_valid; int32_t n_heart_rate; int8_t ch_hr_valid; int32_t i; char hr_str[10]; delay(1000); for(i=0;i Output for this program when user selects Heart Rate1. Heart Rate 2. Temp Time[s] SpO2 HR Clock Ratio Corr 0 737 508 1 731 511 2 733 507 3 734 506 4 728 504 5 734 506 6 738 503 7 736 505 8 731 507 9 741 503 10 739 516 11 733 508 12 734 512 13 735 507 14 730 507 15 732 494 16 741 502 17 734 509 18 728 502 19 742 505 20 742 500 21 736 502 22 742 501 23 734 508 24 735 508 25 733 506 26 734 505 27 732 507 28 732 498 29 737 505 30 736 504 31 729 502 32 731 498 33 730 502 34 733 507 35 730 502 36 730 508 37 729 504 38 729 505 39 731 505 40 730 500 41 731 497 42 733 498 43 733 505 44 736 504 45 730 501 46 731 505 47 733 506 48 734 505 49 732 498 50 735 502 51 736 499 52 731 499 53 729 507 54 729 506 55 728 504 56 734 499 57 729 509 58 734 503 59 727 507 60 736 501 61 730 505 62 735 501 63 734 507 64 731 508 65 732 503 66 731 503 67 736 506 68 731 502 69 738 512 70 736 506 71 734 504 72 735 505 73 733 506 74 733 503 75 730 506 76 730 502 77 732 508 78 731 502 79 734 508 80 733 505 81 727 504 82 742 508 83 735 506 84 738 503 85 729 504 86 729 505 87 728 502 88 726 512 89 729 502 90 734 503 91 737 499 92 732 510 93 739 503 94 734 512 95 731 510 96 734 499 97 738 503 98 729 505 99 724 510 03 734 512 731 510 734 499 AA1. Heart Rate 2. TempOutput for this program when user selects Temp1. Heart Rate 2. Temp 70*F Object = 85.26*FIf i comment out the code which take input from user then i get ouput based on condistion bool hr=true or bool hr= false#include #include #include #include "algorithm_by_RF.h" #include "max30102.h" #include #include Adafruit_MLX90614 mlx = Adafruit_MLX90614(); VL53L0X sensor; const byte oxiInt = 10; uint32_t elapsedTime,timeStart; uint32_t aun_ir_buffer[BUFFER_SIZE]; uint32_t aun_red_buffer[BUFFER_SIZE]; float old_n_spo2; uint8_t uch_dummy,k; bool hr=false; //uint8_t ip = 0; void setup() { Serial.begin(115200); //Serial.println(F("1. Heart Rate\n2. Temp")); /*while(Serial.available()==0) //wait until user presses a key { ip = Serial.parseInt(); } if(ip==1) {hr = true;}*/ if(hr) { pinMode(oxiInt, INPUT); Wire.begin(); maxim_max30102_reset(); delay(1000); maxim_max30102_read_reg(REG_INTR_STATUS_1,&uch;_dummy); //Reads/clears the interrupt status register maxim_max30102_init(); //initialize the MAX30102 old_n_spo2=0.0; } else { mlx.begin(); Wire.begin(); sensor.setTimeout(500); if (!sensor.init()) { Serial.println("Failed to detect and initialize sensor!"); while (1) {} } sensor.setMeasurementTimingBudget(200000); } if(hr) {; Serial.print(F("Time[s]\tSpO2\tHR\tClock\tRatio\tCorr\t")); timeStart=millis(); } } void loop() { if(hr) { float n_spo2,ratio,correl; int8_t ch_spo2_valid; int32_t n_heart_rate; int8_t ch_hr_valid; int32_t i; char hr_str[10]; delay(1000); for(i=0;i

Topic by shubhashishmaitra    |  last reply