The electronics for powering a pump via solar power Answered
So I've been tossing around the idea of making a automated garden that uses solar panels, much inspired by a vermiponics instructable I saw but I have some questions of theory and practice I'd like help with before I go into it. I've worked with simple electronics and have a fairly good grasp on the theory but nothing quite this complex or with components I'm not familiar with, so I'm looking for advice.
1) Solar panels must need something like a capacitor or battery to store the energy for the motor to use, and how would I get this reservoir to trigger at a high enough voltage so that the motor can actually spin and I don't just end up with a motor charging a battery that is discharging across a motor at a low enough current that it doesn't spin.
2) preventing the battery from discharging back into the panel, I assume one would use a diode for this but I'm curious if there's anything additional that is required
3) If I wanted to try adding further automation by adding an arduino with a mess of sensors, would powering the arduino from an additional battery charged by the same panel work (I assume this would slow down the charging of the motor's battery).
4) Safety features to implement so I don't do things like overcharge the batteries/ suggestions encouraged.
The arduino is currently gravy for the project, worst comes to worst I can set up some simple level switches.