USB, AVR, and PICs! Oh my! Answered
I come from a pretty solid CS background, so I'm trying to wrap my head around the concept of EE projects. I've got the basics of circuit design down, but I'm getting a little bogged down researching how to interface USB<-->ICs. While I know efforts like Arduino provide a significant amount of pre-built software and hardware that can accomplish most DIY projects, I would really prefer to learn/have control over the whole software stack (and as much of the hardware stack as possible) from App to Userspace Driver to Kernel Driver (I've written a few, but never actually built my own circuitry to talk to). I'm looking to learn for some resources on how to interface at a low level. I wouldn't shy away from writing my own PIC/AVR/??? bootloader if it means I have more control over the communication stack. I'm sure I'd be re-writing a lot of the Arduino/AVR software that's out there, but hey, I see it as a learning opportunity... right? :)
It seems that FTDI makes some USB/UART(Serial) chips that many of the sparkfun-esque USB->Breadboard adapters are based on. From what I can tell though, most of the chips do literal USB Full/Low speed->115200 bit/s Serial connection. This seems like an awfully large downsample of the possible communication bandwidth... Is this how things like printers, external hard drives, and webcams work?
So, in short, if I was going to write my own USB stack/drive/kernel module to go along with a custom IC bootloader, how would I go about it? Are there any resources out there describing how one would go about this?
Thanks for your time!