12v battery discharge protection circuit is a must and if you want to keep your battery as long as possible let's have a go and share lead acid battery charging and discharging procedures.
Step 1: 12v Lead Acid Battery
When we say 12v battery often we refer to the car battery or any 12v lead acid battery in order to power ower project with any 12v battery we have to understand that Undervoltage and overvoltage is a must.
In order to do that protection, we will need an electronic protection circuit that will monitor the battery voltage and prevent it from overcharging and accordingly overdischarging.In this episode, we will concentrate on discharge protection.Normally a 12v battery has to be charged between 13.5v and 14.4v and do not exceed 10.5v when we discharge it and to be safer and extend the battery life when the voltage reaches 11v we have to disconnect the load and recharge it accordingly.
Step 2: Battery Protection Circuit
Batteries are typically made of six galvanic cells in a series circuit. Each cell provides 2.1 volts for a total of 12.6 volts at full charge.Each cell of a lead storage battery consists of alternate plates of lead (cathode) and lead coated with lead dioxide (anode) immersed in an electrolyte of sulfuric acid solution. The actual standard cell potential is obtained from the standard reduction potentials. This causes a chemical reaction that releases electrons, allowing them to flow through conductors to produce electricity. As the battery discharges, the acid of the electrolyte reacts with the materials of the plates, changing their surface to lead sulfate. When the battery is recharged, the chemical reaction is reversed:
The lead sulfate reforms into lead dioxide. With the plates restored to their original condition, the process may be repeated.
Step 3: Homemade 12v Battery Protection
Let use a solar charge controller not for charging but for the build it protection on the discharging
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Solar chargers can charge lead acid or Ni-Cd battery banks up to 48 V and hundreds of ampere-hours (up to 4000 Ah) capacity. Such type of solar charger setups generally use an intelligent charge controller. A series of solar cells are installed in a stationary location (ie: rooftops of homes, base-station locations on the
ground etc.) and can be connected to a battery bank to store energy for off-peak usage. They can also be used in addition to mains-supply chargers for energy saving during the daytime.
Step 4: How to Connect the Battery Protection
The solar charger is very easy to connect it has pictures on the front side with:
Each of this have2 pins +/- so in order to connect as a battery protector we will use just the battery and light connection accordingly.In the video i simulate the voltage discharging with a variable power supply
and dropping down the voltage from 12v to 11v first.
A perfect 12v battery discharger protection will cutoff just now to extend battery life and avoid sulfation,
but the minimum is 10.5v(from the specs of the 12v battery).Our homemade protection circuit will stop the light
at 10.8V so is perfect if we want to stay safe and we can proudly say that this solar charger is working properly.
Step 5: 12v Battery Inventor
By the way did you know that :
The lead–acid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery. Despite having a very low energy-to-weight ratio and a low energy-to-volume ratio.
Step 6: Circuit Protector Working
We can see that is working as it should we can protect your 12v lead acid battery easy.
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Thanks for your time and check out the video if you want to see more