Access Control System Using RFID

The project that i have made is a RFID door lock at an affordable price. The goal of this project is to create a more convenient way to unlock your door than the traditional key. In the key’s place is an RFID tag that will unlock the door by proximity. However, the improvements of this RFID door lock must outweigh the complications of implementation.

The design consists of two components. The first component is the actual door lock that must be installed in the doorframe. This will be controlled by a magnetic lock and will need to be powered. The second component is a relatively small module that you can install anywhere near the door. This module is responsible for RFID sensing.

Step 1: Components:

There are three types of components:

1. hardware

  • Arduino uno
  • RFID sensor
  • RFID tags
  • Buzzer
  • servo motor
  • LCD module
  • IR sensor
  • jumper wires

2. software

  • Arduino IDE

3. miscellaneous

  • cardboard
  • glue gun

Step 2: What Is RFID?

RFID stands for Radio Frequency Identification. RFID a non-contact technology that’s broadly used in many industries for tasks such as personnel tracking, access control, supply chain management, books tracking in libraries, tollgate systems and so on.

WORKING:

An RFID system consists of two main components, a
transponder or a tag which is located on the object that we want to be identified, and a transceiver or a reader.

The RFID reader consists of a radio frequency module, a control unit and an antenna coil which generates a high-frequency electromagnetic field. On the other hand, the tag is usually a passive component, which of just an antenna and an electronic microchip, so when it gets near the electromagnetic field of the transceiver, due to induction, a voltage is generated in its antenna coil and this voltage serves as power for the microchip.

Now as the tag is powered it can extract the transmitted message from the reader, and for sending the message back to the reader, it uses a technique called load manipulation. Switching on and off a load at the antenna of the tag will affect the power consumption of the reader’s antenna which can be measured as voltage drop. This changes in the voltage will be captured as ones and zeros and that’s the way the data is transferred from the tag to the reader.

Step 3: Circuit Diagram:

All connections are to be made according to circuit diagram

Step 4: Code:

the following library(used in code) should be downloaded and added in your arduino IDE before using this code:

Step 5: Working of RFID Access System

The RFID system consists of two components: an RFID tag and

a Reader. The RFID tag consists of an integrated circuit and an antenna, the integrated circuit is for the storage of the data, and an antenna is for transmitting the data to the RFID Reader module. Whenever the RFID tag comes in the range of RFID reader, RF signal power the tag and then tag starts transmitting data serially. Data is further received by the RFID reader and the reader sends it to the Arduino board. And, after that as per the code in micro-controller different task performs.

In our circuit, we have already saved the value of the RFID tag in the code. So, whenever that particular tag comes in range, the relay gets activated.

If we scan any other RFID card, the buzzer will start beeping as it’s the wrong RFID tag. Hence, for the door lock system, we have used this concept that the door will only get opened by using the right RFID tag.

Step 6: Prototype Image

Step 7: References

https://www.google.co.in/

https://howtomechatronics.com/tutorials/arduino/rfid-works-make-arduino-based-rfid-door-lock/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio-frequency_identification

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arduino

https://opensource.com/resources/what-arduino

https://www.arduino.cc

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