Arduino Based RFID Security System

In this section we are going to learn about How to build an RFID based access control system using Arduino. The system will only give access on scanning the right tag and on scanning the wrong tag, the system will deny access and buzzer will make a beep sound. There will be a master tag that will be used to add/remove other tags.
The saved tags will remain even after powering off the module. The only way to reset the system is by using the wipe button that will erase all the data in the EEPROM. EEPROM has roughly 100, 000 limited Write cycle.

you are going to learn about how to build an RFID based access control system using Arduino. The system will only give access on scanning the right tag and on scanning the wrong tag, the system will deny access and buzzer will make a beep sound. There will be a master tag that will be used to add/remove other tags.
The saved tags will remain even after powering off the module. The only way to reset the system is by using the wipe button that will erase all the data in the EEPROM. EEPROM has roughly 100, 000 limited Write cycle.

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Step 1: WORKING OF THE PROJECT

On starting the project for the first time, it will ask you to define a master tag and whichever tag you will scan will be your master tag. The master tag will act as programmer and you can use it to add or remove other tags.
After defining the master tag, you will have to add other tags that you can use to open the door. To do this, scan the master tag and it will take the system into program mode. In the program mode, scanning the tags will add/Remove these from the system. Scan the tags that you want to use to open the door and system will store the UID’s of these tags in the EEPROM. Scan the tag again to remove it from the EEPROM. To exit the program mode, scan the master tag. Now scan the tags that you have added in the system to open the door and on scanning the wrong tag, the door will remain closed.

Step 2: LET's SEE THE CIRCUIT

The RFID reader communicates with the Arduino through the SPI protocol and different Arduino boards have different SPI pins.
To test if the RFID reader is working properly or not, upload the “dumpinfo” from the examples in the Arduino and see if it is showing the information of the tags on the serial monitor or not. If you are new to RFID, then follow this tutorial | RFID basics and RFID module interfacing with Arduino The I2C LCD communicates with the Arduino through the I2C protocol. Different Arduino boards have different I2C pins. The I2C pins on Arduino Uno and Arduino Nano are A4, A5. After that, make the connections of Arduino with servo, LED's, buzzer and push button. In the end, connect the power source to the Arduino. I have used three 18650 cells. We can give 6 to 12V to the Arduino through the barrel jack. The complete circuit diagram for RFID Based Access Control System using Arduino is as follows

Step 3: LET's SEE THE CODE

#include // We are going to read and write Tag's UIDs from/to EEPROM
#include #include #include #include #include // Create instances MFRC522 mfrc522(10, 9); // MFRC522 mfrc522(SS_PIN, RST_PIN) LiquidCrystal_I2C lcd(0x27, 16, 2); Servo myServo; // create servo object to control a servo // Set Pins for led's, servo, buzzer and wipe button constexpr uint8_t greenLed = 7; constexpr uint8_t blueLed = 6; constexpr uint8_t redLed = 5; constexpr uint8_t ServoPin = 8; constexpr uint8_t BuzzerPin = 4; constexpr uint8_t wipeB = 3; // Button pin for WipeMode boolean match = false; // initialize card match to false boolean programMode = false; // initialize programming mode to false boolean replaceMaster = false; uint8_t successRead; // Variable integer to keep if we have Successful Read from Reader byte storedCard[4]; // Stores an ID read from EEPROM byte readCard[4]; // Stores scanned ID read from RFID Module byte masterCard[4]; // Stores master card's ID read from EEPROM ///////////////////////////////////////// Setup /////////////////////////////////// void setup() { //Arduino Pin Configuration pinMode(redLed, OUTPUT); pinMode(greenLed, OUTPUT); pinMode(blueLed, OUTPUT); pinMode(BuzzerPin, OUTPUT); pinMode(wipeB, INPUT_PULLUP); // Enable pin's pull up resistor // Make sure led's are off digitalWrite(redLed, LOW); digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW); digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW); //Protocol Configuration lcd.init(); // initialize the LCD lcd.backlight(); SPI.begin(); // MFRC522 Hardware uses SPI protocol mfrc522.PCD_Init(); // Initialize MFRC522 Hardware myServo.attach(ServoPin); // attaches the servo on pin 8 to the servo object myServo.write(10); // Initial Position //If you set Antenna Gain to Max it will increase reading distance //mfrc522.PCD_SetAntennaGain(mfrc522.RxGain_max); ShowReaderDetails(); // Show details of PCD - MFRC522 Card Reader details //Wipe Code - If the Button (wipeB) Pressed while setup run (powered on) it wipes EEPROM if (digitalRead(wipeB) == LOW) { // when button pressed pin should get low, button connected to ground digitalWrite(redLed, HIGH); // Red Led stays on to inform user we are going to wipe lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("Button Pressed"); digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH); delay(1000); digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW); lcd.clear(); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("This will remove"); lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print("all records"); delay(2000); lcd.clear(); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("You have 10 "); lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print("secs to Cancel"); delay(2000); lcd.clear(); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("Unpres to cancel"); lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print("Counting: "); bool buttonState = monitorWipeButton(10000); // Give user enough time to cancel operation if (buttonState == true && digitalRead(wipeB) == LOW) { // If button still be pressed, wipe EEPROM lcd.print("Wiping EEPROM..."); for (uint16_t x = 0; x < EEPROM.length(); x = x + 1) { //Loop end of EEPROM address if (EEPROM.read(x) == 0) { //If EEPROM address 0 // do nothing, already clear, go to the next address in order to save time and reduce writes to EEPROM } else { EEPROM.write(x, 0); // if not write 0 to clear, it takes 3.3mS } } lcd.clear(); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("Wiping Done"); // visualize a successful wipe digitalWrite(redLed, LOW); digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH); delay(200); digitalWrite(redLed, HIGH); digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW); delay(200); digitalWrite(redLed, LOW); digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH); delay(200); digitalWrite(redLed, HIGH); digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW); delay(200); digitalWrite(redLed, LOW); } else { lcd.clear(); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("Wiping Cancelled"); // Show some feedback that the wipe button did not pressed for 10 seconds digitalWrite(redLed, LOW); } } // Check if master card defined, if not let user choose a master card // This also useful to just redefine the Master Card // You can keep other EEPROM records just write other than 143 to EEPROM address 1 // EEPROM address 1 should hold magical number which is '143' if (EEPROM.read(1) != 143) { lcd.clear(); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("No Master Card "); lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print("Defined"); delay(2000); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("Scan A Tag to "); lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print("Define as Master"); do { successRead = getID(); // sets successRead to 1 when we get read from reader otherwise 0 // Visualize Master Card need to be defined digitalWrite(blueLed, HIGH); digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH); delay(200); digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW); digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW); delay(200); } while (!successRead); // Program will not go further while you not get a successful read for ( uint8_t j = 0; j < 4; j++ ) { // Loop 4 times EEPROM.write( 2 + j, readCard[j] ); // Write scanned Tag's UID to EEPROM, start from address 3 } EEPROM.write(1, 143); // Write to EEPROM we defined Master Card. lcd.clear(); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("Master Defined"); delay(2000); } for ( uint8_t i = 0; i < 4; i++ ) { // Read Master Card's UID from EEPROM masterCard[i] = EEPROM.read(2 + i); // Write it to masterCard } ShowOnLCD(); // Print data on LCD cycleLeds(); // Everything ready lets give user some feedback by cycling leds } ///////////////////////////////////////// Main Loop /////////////////////////////////// void loop () { do { successRead = getID(); // sets successRead to 1 when we get read from reader otherwise 0 if (programMode) { cycleLeds(); // Program Mode cycles through Red Green Blue waiting to read a new card } else { normalModeOn(); // Normal mode, blue Power LED is on, all others are off } } while (!successRead); //the program will not go further while you are not getting a successful read if (programMode) { if ( isMaster(readCard) ) { //When in program mode check First If master card scanned again to exit program mode lcd.clear(); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("Exiting Program Mode"); digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH); delay(1000); digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW); ShowOnLCD(); programMode = false; return; } else { if ( findID(readCard) ) { // If scanned card is known delete it lcd.clear(); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("Already there"); deleteID(readCard); lcd.clear(); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("Tag to ADD/REM"); lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print("Master to Exit"); } else { // If scanned card is not known add it lcd.clear(); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("New Tag,adding..."); writeID(readCard); lcd.clear(); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("Scan to ADD/REM"); lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print("Master to Exit"); } } } else { if ( isMaster(readCard)) { // If scanned card's ID matches Master Card's ID - enter program mode programMode = true; lcd.clear(); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("Program Mode"); uint8_t count = EEPROM.read(0); // Read the first Byte of EEPROM that stores the number of ID's in EEPROM lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print("I have "); lcd.print(count); lcd.print(" records"); digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH); delay(2000); digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW); lcd.clear(); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("Scan a Tag to "); lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print("ADD/REMOVE"); } else { if ( findID(readCard) ) { // If not, see if the card is in the EEPROM lcd.clear(); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("Access Granted"); granted(); // Open the door lock myServo.write(10); ShowOnLCD(); } else { // If not, show that the Access is denied lcd.clear(); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("Access Denied"); denied(); ShowOnLCD(); } } } } ///////////////////////////////////////// Access Granted /////////////////////////////////// void granted () { digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW); // Turn off blue LED digitalWrite(redLed, LOW); // Turn off red LED digitalWrite(greenLed, HIGH); // Turn on green LED myServo.write(90); delay(8000); } ///////////////////////////////////////// Access Denied /////////////////////////////////// void denied() { digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW); // Make sure green LED is off digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW); // Make sure blue LED is off digitalWrite(redLed, HIGH); // Turn on red LED digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH); delay(1000); digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW); } ///////////////////////////////////////// Get Tag's UID /////////////////////////////////// uint8_t getID() { // Getting ready for Reading Tags if ( ! mfrc522.PICC_IsNewCardPresent()) { //If a new Tag placed to RFID reader continue return 0; } if ( ! mfrc522.PICC_ReadCardSerial()) { //Since a Tag placed get Serial and continue return 0; } // There are Mifare Tags which have 4 byte or 7 byte UID care if you use 7 byte Tag // I think we should assume every Tag as they have 4 byte UID // Until we support 7 byte Tags for ( uint8_t i = 0; i < 4; i++) { // readCard[i] = mfrc522.uid.uidByte[i]; } mfrc522.PICC_HaltA(); // Stop reading return 1; } /////////////////////// Check if RFID Reader is correctly initialized or not ///////////////////// void ShowReaderDetails() { // Get the MFRC522 software version byte v = mfrc522.PCD_ReadRegister(mfrc522.VersionReg); // When 0x00 or 0xFF is returned, communication probably failed if ((v == 0x00) || (v == 0xFF)) { lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("Communication Failure"); lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print("Check Connections"); digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH); delay(2000); // Visualize system is halted digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW); // Make sure green LED is off digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW); // Make sure blue LED is off digitalWrite(redLed, HIGH); // Turn on red LED digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW); while (true); // do not go further } } ///////////////////////////////////////// Cycle Leds (Program Mode) /////////////////////////////////// void cycleLeds() { digitalWrite(redLed, LOW); // Make sure red LED is off digitalWrite(greenLed, HIGH); // Make sure green LED is on digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW); // Make sure blue LED is off delay(200); digitalWrite(redLed, LOW); // Make sure red LED is off digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW); // Make sure green LED is off digitalWrite(blueLed, HIGH); // Make sure blue LED is on delay(200); digitalWrite(redLed, HIGH); // Make sure red LED is on digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW); // Make sure green LED is off digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW); // Make sure blue LED is off delay(200); } //////////////////////////////////////// Normal Mode Led /////////////////////////////////// void normalModeOn () { digitalWrite(blueLed, HIGH); // Blue LED ON and ready to read card digitalWrite(redLed, LOW); // Make sure Red LED is off digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW); // Make sure Green LED is off } //////////////////////////////////////// Read an ID from EEPROM ////////////////////////////// void readID( uint8_t number ) { uint8_t start = (number * 4 ) + 2; // Figure out starting position for ( uint8_t i = 0; i < 4; i++ ) { // Loop 4 times to get the 4 Bytes storedCard[i] = EEPROM.read(start + i); // Assign values read from EEPROM to array } } ///////////////////////////////////////// Add ID to EEPROM /////////////////////////////////// void writeID( byte a[] ) { if ( !findID( a ) ) { // Before we write to the EEPROM, check to see if we have seen this card before! uint8_t num = EEPROM.read(0); // Get the numer of used spaces, position 0 stores the number of ID cards uint8_t start = ( num * 4 ) + 6; // Figure out where the next slot starts num++; // Increment the counter by one EEPROM.write( 0, num ); // Write the new count to the counter for ( uint8_t j = 0; j < 4; j++ ) { // Loop 4 times EEPROM.write( start + j, a[j] ); // Write the array values to EEPROM in the right position } BlinkLEDS(greenLed); lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print("Added"); delay(1000); } else { BlinkLEDS(redLed); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("Failed!"); lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print("wrong ID or bad EEPROM"); delay(2000); } } ///////////////////////////////////////// Remove ID from EEPROM /////////////////////////////////// void deleteID( byte a[] ) { if ( !findID( a ) ) { // Before we delete from the EEPROM, check to see if we have this card! BlinkLEDS(redLed); // If not lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print("Failed!"); lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print("wrong ID or bad EEPROM"); delay(2000); } else { uint8_t num = EEPROM.read(0); // Get the numer of used spaces, position 0 stores the number of ID cards uint8_t slot; // Figure out the slot number of the card uint8_t start; // = ( num * 4 ) + 6; // Figure out where the next slot starts uint8_t looping; // The number of times the loop repeats uint8_t j; uint8_t count = EEPROM.read(0); // Read the first Byte of EEPROM that stores number of cards slot = findIDSLOT( a ); // Figure out the slot number of the card to delete start = (slot * 4) + 2; looping = ((num - slot) * 4); num--; // Decrement the counter by one EEPROM.write( 0, num ); // Write the new count to the counter for ( j = 0; j < looping; j++ ) { // Loop the card shift times EEPROM.write( start + j, EEPROM.read(start + 4 + j)); // Shift the array values to 4 places earlier in the EEPROM } for ( uint8_t k = 0; k < 4; k++ ) { // Shifting loop EEPROM.write( start + j + k, 0); } BlinkLEDS(blueLed); lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print("Removed"); delay(1000); } } ///////////////////////////////////////// Check Bytes /////////////////////////////////// boolean checkTwo ( byte a[], byte b[] ) { if ( a[0] != 0 ) // Make sure there is something in the array first match = true; // Assume they match at first for ( uint8_t k = 0; k < 4; k++ ) { // Loop 4 times if ( a[k] != b[k] ) // IF a != b then set match = false, one fails, all fail match = false; } if ( match ) { // Check to see if if match is still true return true; // Return true } else { return false; // Return false } } ///////////////////////////////////////// Find Slot /////////////////////////////////// uint8_t findIDSLOT( byte find[] ) { uint8_t count = EEPROM.read(0); // Read the first Byte of EEPROM that for ( uint8_t i = 1; i <= count; i++ ) { // Loop once for each EEPROM entry readID(i); // Read an ID from EEPROM, it is stored in storedCard[4] if ( checkTwo( find, storedCard ) ) { // Check to see if the storedCard read from EEPROM // is the same as the find[] ID card passed return i; // The slot number of the card break; // Stop looking we found it } } } ///////////////////////////////////////// Find ID From EEPROM /////////////////////////////////// boolean findID( byte find[] ) { uint8_t count = EEPROM.read(0); // Read the first Byte of EEPROM that for ( uint8_t i = 1; i <= count; i++ ) { // Loop once for each EEPROM entry readID(i); // Read an ID from EEPROM, it is stored in storedCard[4] if ( checkTwo( find, storedCard ) ) { // Check to see if the storedCard read from EEPROM return true; break; // Stop looking we found it } else { // If not, return false } } return false; } ///////////////////////////////////////// Blink LED's For Indication /////////////////////////////////// void BlinkLEDS(int led) { digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW); // Make sure blue LED is off digitalWrite(redLed, LOW); // Make sure red LED is off digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW); // Make sure green LED is off digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH); delay(200); digitalWrite(led, HIGH); // Make sure blue LED is on digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW); delay(200); digitalWrite(led, LOW); // Make sure blue LED is off digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH); delay(200); digitalWrite(led, HIGH); // Make sure blue LED is on digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW); delay(200); digitalWrite(led, LOW); // Make sure blue LED is off digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH); delay(200); digitalWrite(led, HIGH); // Make sure blue LED is on digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW); delay(200); } ////////////////////// Check readCard IF is masterCard /////////////////////////////////// // Check to see if the ID passed is the master programing card boolean isMaster( byte test[] ) { if ( checkTwo( test, masterCard ) ) return true; else return false; } /////////////////// Counter to check in reset/wipe button is pressed or not ///////////////////// bool monitorWipeButton(uint32_t interval) { unsigned long currentMillis = millis(); // grab current time while (millis() - currentMillis < interval) { int timeSpent = (millis() - currentMillis) / 1000; Serial.println(timeSpent); lcd.setCursor(10, 1); lcd.print(timeSpent); // check on every half a second if (((uint32_t)millis() % 10) == 0) { if (digitalRead(wipeB) != LOW) { return false; } } } return true; } ////////////////////// Print Info on LCD /////////////////////////////////// void ShowOnLCD() { lcd.clear(); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print(" Access Control"); lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print(" Scan a Tag"); }

Step 4:

Use the above code for this project. Upload this to your Arduino board via ARDUINO IDE software.

THANK YOR READING THIS INSTRUCTABLE …………

For any doubts contact : aravind19072003@gmail.com

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