BYJ48 Stepper Motor

Introduction: BYJ48 Stepper Motor

About: Maker, PCB designer , electronics instructor from Jordan just one word ! I Adore electronics follow me on FB

Stepper Motor  is a motor controlled by a series of electromagnetic coils. The center shaft has a series of magnets mounted on it, and the coils surrounding the shaft are alternately given current or not, creating magnetic fields which repulse or attract the magnets on the shaft, causing the motor to rotate.

This design allows for very precious control of the motor,There are two basic types of stepper motors, unipolar steppers and bipolar steppers .

In This instructable , I will talk about an Unipolar Stepper Motor 28-BYJ48 .

The unipolar stepper motor has five or six wires and four coils (actually two coils divided by center connections on each coil). The center connections of the coils are tied together and used as the power connection. They are called unipolar steppers because power always comes in on this one pole.

Step 1: Specification , Motor Driver

There are many Types of Drivers , L293 , ULN2003 , A3967SLB , And More , 

The 28-BYJ48 Even comes with Breakout using ULN2003 As a Motor driver chip .

Specification for this Motor  " And you can download datasheet from the attachment "

Rated voltage : 5VDC
Number of Phase 4
Speed Variation Ratio 1/64
Stride Angle 5.625° /64
Frequency 100Hz
DC resistance 50Ω±7%(25℃)
Idle In-traction Frequency > 600Hz
Idle Out-traction Frequency > 1000Hz
In-traction Torque >34.3mN.m(120Hz)
Self-positioning Torque >34.3mN.m
Friction torque 600-1200
Pull in torque 300
Insulation grade A

and the schematics of  This breakout shown like the Pictures on the attachment 

Note that if you want to use L293 Instead of ULN2003 , You will need to leave Red wire No connection .

Materials :

you will need :

1) Arduino Board .

2) BYJ48 Stepper Motor 5v

3) ULN2003 Moror driver Module

4) Jumper .

5) 5v voltage source  "Optional" .

Step 2: Arduino Code .

The Arduino IDE Support a Library for Stepper Motor , Very Easy to use , After Connect Motor with arduino You can Upload the Sketch on to the arduino .

But ...

You must take something  in consider :

This Motor has a Gear ratio of 64 , and Stride Angle 5.625°  so this motor has a 4096 Steps .

 steps = Number of steps in One Revolution  * Gear ratio   .

 steps= (360°/5.625°)*64"Gear ratio" = 64 * 64 =4096 . this value will substitute it on The arduino Sketch 

For adafruit Stepper Motor , the Stride Angle 7.5° and Gear ratio is 16 , So number of steps in 1 Revolution is :

steps in One Revolution  = 360 / 7.5 = 48   .

steps= 48 * 16 = 768 

That's will be different depend on what motor you are using , So check The Datasheet for Your stepper Motor to calibrate this values 

28-BYJ48 Motor Datasheet .

Motor Driver ULN2003 BreakOut Connected To Arduino From IN1 - IN4 To D8 - D11 Respectively 

To Power you Motor ,  Recommanded to use external Power Supply with 5V-500mA  at least , Don't power it directly from arduino Board 5V .

Step 3: Library Direction Issue ... and How to Fix It .

When You Upload the sketch to the arduino , The Motor will Be rotate in  one direction By type the command :


So you must Put the Number of step to turn the motor .

The reference  said You can put the positive value to turn one direction, negative to turn the other.

If that's  OK With Your stepper Motor , You  don't need to read the following .

If Not , Your Motor turn to same direction even you Put the steps Positive Value or negative , What is the issue ?

This Motor need to operate as the Table on the attachment .

the arduino Stepper Library need to modify to match this requirement .

I wrote a code which is allow to this motor to Move clockwise and counter clock wise 

Code in the next step :

Step 4: Modify Code

the final code for this Stepper motor :

   BYJ48 Stepper motor code
   Connect :
   IN1 >> D8
   IN2 >> D9
   IN3 >> D10
   IN4 >> D11
   VCC ... 5V Prefer to use external 5V Source
   written By :Mohannad Rawashdeh

#define IN1  8
#define IN2  9
#define IN3  10
#define IN4  11
int Steps = 0;
boolean Direction = true;// gre
unsigned long last_time;
unsigned long currentMillis ;
int steps_left=4095;
long time;
void setup()
pinMode(IN1, OUTPUT); 
pinMode(IN2, OUTPUT); 
pinMode(IN3, OUTPUT); 
pinMode(IN4, OUTPUT); 
// delay(1000);

void loop()
  currentMillis = micros();

void stepper(int xw){
  for (int x=0;x<xw;x++){
   case 0:
     digitalWrite(IN1, LOW); 
     digitalWrite(IN2, LOW);
     digitalWrite(IN3, LOW);
     digitalWrite(IN4, HIGH);
   case 1:
     digitalWrite(IN1, LOW); 
     digitalWrite(IN2, LOW);
     digitalWrite(IN3, HIGH);
     digitalWrite(IN4, HIGH);
   case 2:
     digitalWrite(IN1, LOW); 
     digitalWrite(IN2, LOW);
     digitalWrite(IN3, HIGH);
     digitalWrite(IN4, LOW);
   case 3:
     digitalWrite(IN1, LOW); 
     digitalWrite(IN2, HIGH);
     digitalWrite(IN3, HIGH);
     digitalWrite(IN4, LOW);
   case 4:
     digitalWrite(IN1, LOW); 
     digitalWrite(IN2, HIGH);
     digitalWrite(IN3, LOW);
     digitalWrite(IN4, LOW);
   case 5:
     digitalWrite(IN1, HIGH); 
     digitalWrite(IN2, HIGH);
     digitalWrite(IN3, LOW);
     digitalWrite(IN4, LOW);
     case 6:
     digitalWrite(IN1, HIGH); 
     digitalWrite(IN2, LOW);
     digitalWrite(IN3, LOW);
     digitalWrite(IN4, LOW);
   case 7:
     digitalWrite(IN1, HIGH); 
     digitalWrite(IN2, LOW);
     digitalWrite(IN3, LOW);
     digitalWrite(IN4, HIGH);
     digitalWrite(IN1, LOW); 
     digitalWrite(IN2, LOW);
     digitalWrite(IN3, LOW);
     digitalWrite(IN4, LOW);

void SetDirection(){
if(Direction==1){ Steps++;}
if(Direction==0){ Steps--; }
if(Steps<0){Steps=7; }

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110 Discussions


You sayed "... To Power you Motor , Recommanded to use external Power Supply with 5V-500mA at least , Don't power it directly from arduino Board 5V ..." but in the photo attached to your article I don't see any external source. Why?

3 more answers

As m4biz sais it would be good to know why and when you need to connect with external power. Also an image of how to connect with external power would be nice to get started faster for people who are very new to the Arduino.

I would also appreciate an image of how it is connected to an external source!

because in my case I ran the motor without load connected to the shaft so it will need a few milli amps to works

if you want to connect an external load to the shaft so you need to use external power supply

Excelente post, tengo un par por ahi; no sabia de cuantos pasos eran :)
gracias por tu magnifico post.


I cut the code size down and modified it so you can specify Speed and don't need direction. Just call 'stepper()' and give it the number of steps you want to rotate. Use negative numbers to reverse the direction. You'll probably need to change the values for IN1-IN4 to match the pin numbers on your Arduino:

#define IN1 5

#define IN2 4

#define IN3 3

#define IN4 2

#define FULL_ROTATION 4076

const int phases1[] = {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1};

const int phases2[] = {0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0};

const int phases3[] = {0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0};

const int phases4[] = {1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1};

int Phase = 0;

int Speed = 100; //MUST BE 1 - 100

void setup()


pinMode(IN1, OUTPUT);

pinMode(IN2, OUTPUT);

pinMode(IN3, OUTPUT);

pinMode(IN4, OUTPUT);



void loop()





void stepper(int count)


int rotationDirection = count < 1 ? -1 : 1;

count *= rotationDirection;

for (int x = 0; x < count; x++)


digitalWrite(IN1, phases1[Phase]);

digitalWrite(IN2, phases2[Phase]);

digitalWrite(IN3, phases3[Phase]);

digitalWrite(IN4, phases4[Phase]);





void IncrementPhase(int rotationDirection)


Phase += 8;

Phase += rotationDirection;

Phase %= 8;


2 replies

Thanks Curtis! This is lovely, elegant code, and it's now my go-to for stepper control -- works like a charm!

Great Post! Great explanation - you helped me get a better understanding of fine control of unipolar steppers. Well done!


4 months ago

I need a stepping motor 28BYJ48 12VDC 1/32 NO.171029A. All I can find is one that's 5VDC 1/64


I would be grateful if someone could help me, I have 2 of these motors and 2 drivers, I would like both motors to start clockwise 8 turns at 10 revs increasing to 18 revs for a further 8 turns and then the same in anti-clockwise and go back to start pause for 20 seconds and then repeat and so on.

Thank's in advance.

I want to run 24byj48 12v dc stepper motor at 100 pps then what is it's code....

Can I use 9v battery (external) to supply power for the motor via driver? Well, you said min 5v 0.5 amp, so I guess it's not a problem. Am I right?

Or is it better if I use 4 common 1.5 v batteries?

Hi guys, I want help from you, i need to made elevator with steppr motor j48 and control diraction with push buttons and to screen the number of etage in lcd so i need circuit diagram + code plaese if you can help me , im waiting you help

I have a question.

how can i set working time. if i want it works for example 2 munites

I have a question. how can I set the working time if I want it works 5 minutes?

how can add to the code?

Thanks for the code, but how do we get the motor to spin after we do a successful upload to the uno?

you mentioned we need to "type the command steps(step);"

Where do we type this command? I assume it means we type "steps(25);" to spin one direction 25 steps, but I am lost where I type this.

1 reply

after you upload your code , you must see the motor rotating 360 degree and will do forever , if you open the serial terminal you can see the time and a word (wait!) .

to make a motor rotate for half a cycle , just go to a variable called (steps_left) and change it , you will find it on the beginning and in the end of void loop

thanks for having this site to help Arduino beginners. One thing i ask maybe it was asked before, can i use printer stepper motor with 27 volts power supply. instead of BYJ48. i will use separate power supply on it.

I noticed some comments about the stepper getting hot. This is a unipolar stepper so you always have 5V on the center of each coil. Mohannad's code sets these to LOW as the the default/reset. This will energize both coils causing a lot of heat. You should set all 4 inputs IN1->IN4 to HIGH to turn off both coils. If you do this it will run much cooler.