This torch was created as I was trying to teach my kid about 101 of electronics.
AA pencil battery
Heavy gauge insulated copper wire.
Incandescent torch bulb (don't use LED)
Safety blade to strip the wire.
Scotch tape to hold everything in place.
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Step 1: Start With Stripping the Wire
Take the copper wire and strip 2 inches on both sides. Just use the blade. Length of the wire can be decided after you go through the whole instructable. I did it with judgement.
Step 2: Shaping the Wire
Make a loop in one end. This will get attached to the negative terminal. Make a jump loop using the battery as a template. See the image for reference.
Step 3: Connect Everything
Twist and attach the open end of the wire to the incandescent bulb. And attach the small loop to the negative terminal. You need to solder the terminals. Be sure to solder fast and don't overheat the battery as they might pop open (explode). I have used the scotch tape to hold the free side of the wire in place.
Step 4: Done + Learnings
So you are done. Hold the newly created torch and press the large jump loop to make the connection.
1. Insulators help to keep the electricity away from body and the body from harm.
2. Electricity flows from the negative terminal to the positive terminal.
3. Due to high high resistance in the bulb heat is generated and in-turn converts to light.
4. Air is a good insulator as the bulb and the terminal are so close, still the electricity doesn't pass.
Now make 50 of these and teach a class.