This instructable shows how to construct a simple battery powered motor using magnet wire, paper clips, elastics, a magnet, and a battery.
Step 1: Gather Materials
- 2 paper clips
- 3 rubber band elastics
- 1 D battery
- 1 small magnet (about the size of a quarter)
- arms length of 26 gauge magnet wire
- wire cutters
Step 2: Bend the Paperclips
Step 3: Cut the Wire
Cut the wire about an arm's length measuring from the shoulder to fingertips.
Step 4: Coil the Wire
Take the long piece of wire and starting from one end of the battery, start to coil it around until there are about 2 inches left at either the end of the wire. Remove the coil from the battery by sliding it off either to the left or right.
Step 5: Start to Assemble the Coiled Wire
Pinch together the coiled wire so it starts to look like a ring where the coiled parts are all touching together. Make sure the 2 inches of straight wire are extending from each side.
Step 6: Tying the Coiled Wire Together
Starting from the right side, take the straight wire and coil it around the ring you just made about 3 times. After it is looped 3 times, there should be excess wire coming from that side roughly 1 ½ inches (or a little more/less). Repeat for left side. Cut off any excess wire if one side is longer than the other.
Step 7: Strip the Wire
Take the sandpaper and remove all of the enamel on one side of the coil. On the other side of the coil, strip half of the enamel off of the wire. To do this, take the sandpaper and run it down one side of the wire, be careful not to strip off more than half.
Step 8: Preparing the Battery
Put the 3 elastics around the battery (wrap around twice). Then place the paper clips on each side of the battery underneath the elastics touching the charged ends. Make sure the curved parts are facing up and the same way.
Step 9: Placing the Magnet
Place the magnet on the battery directly. You may want to hook it underneath one of the elastics to help it stay in place better.
Step 10: Placing the Wire
Place the coiled wire in between the grooves of the 2 paper clips. (The straight ends should be evenly resting on the paper clips) The wire should start to spin.
Step 11: Troubleshooting
If the coiled wire starts to rock instead of spin, shift the magnet underneath to be slightly more off the side of the battery. If this doesn’t work, make sure that all of the enamel on the wire is completely stripped all the way to the coil on one side and that the side with half of the enamel has half the enamel stripped all the way to the coil. Make sure that the ends coming off of the coil of wire are directly across from each other and are straight. Also make sure that the paperclips are parallel to each other and the wire is evenly placed on them.
Step 12: Why It Works
This motor works because when the electrons flow through the battery into the paperclips on the end, the energy is transferred to the magnet wire that it is touching which creates a magnetic field around the curve of the wire. The magnet positioned underneath it causes repulsion of the pole that the curved wire produces, causing it to turn.
Step 13: Improving on the Design
If you would like to improve on the design, you may want to hook the ends of the magnet wire slightly so that it stays resting on the paperclips better. Hooking the magnet under one of the elastics will also improve the design. If you want the motor to stand upright on its own, position the elastics so that two of them are on the underside of the battery preventing it from rolling. Making sure that your coil is a perfect circle will also help it spin better and faster.