This is a DIY at home project where quality headphones will be created.
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Step 1: Materials
1. Cylindrical stick (i.e. glue stick, marker, etc.): to have a round display to coil upon
2. Electrical tape: to keep all wire protected and covered
3. Scissors: to cut wire, electrical tape, etc.
4. Four neodymium magnets: for the sound to vibrate
5. Two small plastic, styrofoam, or paper cups: diaphragms
6. Aux phone plug: to plug into the music-playing device
7. A roll of 28 gauge insulated copper wire or magnet wire: for coils, wires, etc.
8. Sand paper: to sand the edges and full wires
9. Headband (preferably thick): for the head to comfortably be inside of with diaphragms on each side
10. Regular tape: to tape the diaphragms to the headband
Step 2: Procedure
1. Gather materials and attach the neodymium magnets on the outside and inside of the cups so that they are held together by the magnets themselves (do this to each cup).
2. Gather the glue stick and electrical tape. Cut a strip of the electrical tape to the length of the glue stick.
3. Cut a strip of regular tape to fit a little more than the width of the electrical tape and attach the electrical tape to the glue stick. Cut 2 equally 40-inch pieces of the the 28 gage insulated copper wire, 2 10-inch wires, and 2 20-inch wires.
4. Then sand 2 inches of each end of the 40-inch wires. Sand all of the 10 and 20-inch wires completely. (Video #2)
5. Lightly start to coil the 40-inch wires by wrapping the wires around the glue stick leaving out the entire sanded end. Try to keep the wire close together as you coil. The coiling will be finished when the end of the sanding is reached. Do 40 inches of coiling because that is just the right amount of coils for quality sound. (Video #1)
6. Remove the regular tape and the electrical tape to neatly remove the coil from the glue stick without ruining it. Repeat the process for another coil.
7. Gather one diaphragm (cup) and magnets. With the magnets, put one of them on the inside of the cup and one on the outside top of the cup so they are attracted and are stuck together. Put the coiled wire over the outside magnet so that the magnet is directly in the middle of the coil. Do this to each cup.
8. To hold the coil in place, attach electrical tape over the entire top of the coil and magnet to cover the coil, magnet, and most of the top of the cup leaving the sanded edges out. (Video #3)
9. Connect one end of the 20-inch wire to one of the sanded ends of one of the coils. Do this by twisting both ends together firmly multiple times. Do this to the other 20-inch wire as well. (Picture #1)
10. Then, connect both of the 20-inch wire to the aux phone plug in the two separate flaps.
11. Attach the headband to the to cups by taping them to the outsides of each.
12. Then, connect the 10-inch wires to the remaining ends of the sanded coil and wrap them around the headband until they meet and twist those ends firmly and tightly.
13. Use electrical tape to cover all of the wire including the 20-inch wire and the wire that is wrapped around the headband.
14. At this point, plug the phone plug into any device to play music and check for sound. If there is no sound, make sure of the following: the sanded wires are twisted firmly, the sanded wires and the unsanded wires are in no way touching, the 20-inch wires are pressed and wrapped firmly around the aux cord (phone plug) flaps, the 20-inch wires are not touching, and that you have coiled all of the necessary coils (40). (Video #4)
Step 3: The Three Main Components in a Speaker
The three most important parts of a speaker are the voice coil, magnet, and diaphragm. The voice coil is crucial because it provides a path for the current to flow through, provides the sound quality, and strengthens the magnetic field. The magnet is another very important component of a speaker because it makes the magnetic field that repels and attracts against the temporary magnetic field created by the voice coils. Lastly, the diaphragm contributes immensely by amplifying the sound created by the voice coil to drive the sound waves out in order for you to hear the sounds.
Step 4: How to Create a Better Sound Quality
Sound quality, as mentioned before, is created by the voice coils. The quality can be altered to any preference and to do so, increase the quantity of coils created. If you double the amount of coils used, the quality will improve gradually. In addition to quality, the sound will amplify when adding more coils. We recommend using fifty coils for each headphone or 100 for a speaker.
Step 5: Vibrations As Sound
Vibrations in headphones are created by the voice coils in them. The voice coils provide the vibrations when waves (from the wires that are connected to the aux which is connected to the music-playing device) pass through the magnetic field of the coils and the magnetic fields of the magnets. As the waves pass through, the magnetic fields are attracting and repelling creating the vibrations.
Sound is created through the vibrations by traveling through the molecules of the air and those, now particles, vibrate as well and create what we perceive as sound. This sound is now amplified through the diaphragm to make the sounds of music louder.
Step 6: Results of Prototyping
During prototyping, variables like coiling and sanding were crucial. The sound was clearer when the wires were very well-sanded and the coils were coiled neatly and closer together. As mentioned before, the sound was louder as more coils were coiled. We learned that wires that were sanded and the ones that weren't, couldn't touch in any way, that the tighter you wrapped the sanded wire around the aux jack, the more sound you heard, and that all twisted wire needed to be very firmly wrapped. This is all advice for any trouble in making these DIY Headphones. Good luck to you all!