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This year I had the interesting task of teaching electronics to kids in Year 3 and 4. After a lot of experimentation I came up with a very short course that gets them up to speed with the fundamentals in record time!

Basically it consists 11 short circuits designed to get beginners proficient with bread-boarding. . . . they start with very basics and build up one skill at a time. Once complete you should be able to tackle various Arduino projects safe in the knowledge that your fundamentals are sound!

### Teacher Notes

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## Step 1: Buzzer Button Circuit

Description:

The most basic circuit consists only of two things: a power supply and an output device. These need to be connected in such a way that the current flowing through the output device produces an effect: light, sound motion or something else. We initially produce sound through a buzzer and then include a push button to control the triggering of a buzzer.

Components:

· Arduino power supply

· Jumper Wire

· Push Button

· Buzzer

## Step 2: Button LED Circuit

This is a circuit where we use a button to turn an LED on and off. It requires the use of a resistor because the 5V 40mA supplied by the Arduino burns out regular LED’s. (see video for demonstration)

Components:

· Arduino power supply

· Jumper Wire

· Push Button

· LED x 2

· Resistor 330Ω

## Step 3: RGB LED Circuit

This is a circuit where we use a button to turn an LED on and off. It requires the use of a resistor because the 5V 40mA supplied by the Arduino burns out regular LED’s. (see video for demonstration)

Components:

· Arduino power supply

· Jumper Wire

· Push Button

· RGB LED Module or RGB LED

· Resistor 330Ω X 3

## Step 4: The Current Amplifier

This is a device that uses a transistor to amplify a small current into larger one. So we make the small current flow through our bodies and then use the larger one to light an LED!

Components:

· Arduino power supply

· Jumper Wire

· LED

· Transistor (2N3904)

## Step 5: The Super Amplifier

It is a very simple device that does something truly amazing; it amplifies a current 1600 times. This means that the tiny currents flowing in your skin can be used to light an LED

Components:

· Arduino power supply

· Jumper Wire

· LED

· Transistor (2N3904) x2

## Step 6: Glow in the Dark Circuit

It is a circuit which lights up an LED once a sensor is in

the shade or in darkness. It works by setting up 2 channels from 5V to the GND in bright light the low resistance of the LDR makes current flow around the LED, while in darkness the current has only the channel with the LED available to it, thus turning it on.

Components:

· Arduino power supply

· Jumper Wire

· LED

· Transistor (2N3904)

· Variable Resistor 10K

· Light Dependent Resistor

· Resistor 330Ω

## Step 7: AND Logic Gate

Description:
It is an electric circuit that represents the logical AND statement. Basically it has two inputs and one output, Both inputs need to be On (1) for the output to be On (1). See table on the right:

Components:

· Arduino power supply

· Jumper Wire

· LED

· Transistor (2N3904) X 2

· Resistor 330Ω

· Resistor 11K X 2

## Step 8: OR Logic Gate

Description:

It is an electric circuit that represents the logical OR statement. Basically it has two inputs and one output, only of the inputs needs to be On (1) for the output to be On (1). See table on the right:

Components:

· Arduino power supply

· Jumper Wire

· LED

· Transistor (2N3904) X 2

· Resistor 330Ω

· Resistor 11K X 2

## Step 9: NOT Logic Gate

Description:

It is an electric circuit that represents the logical NOT statement. Basically it has only one input and one output, If the input is On (1) for the output will be Off (0) and vice versa. See table on the right:

Components:

· Arduino power supply

· Jumper Wire

· LED

· Transistor (2N3904)

· Resistor 330Ω

· Resistor 11K

## Step 10: NAND Logic Gate

Description:

It is an electric circuit that represents the logical NAND statement. This means that there are 2 button inputs and one LED output. The LED is on in all cases other than when both the inputs are on. (see truth table)

Components:

· Arduino power supply

· Jumper Wire

· LED

· Transistor (2N3904)

· Resistor 330Ω

· Resistor 11K

## Step 11: NOR Logic Gate

Description:

It is an electric circuit that represents the logical NOR statement. This means that there are 2 button inputs and one LED output. The output LED is on when both inputs are off. The output LED is OFF in all other cases

Components:

· Arduino power supply

· Jumper Wire

· LED

· Transistor (2N3904)

· Resistor 330Ω

· Resistor 11K

## Recommendations

• ### Large Motors Class

13,154 Enrolled

## 3 Discussions

This is kinda off topic but I need some help. I am new to this kind of stuff and I know nothing about this. I am trying to use a phototransistor to power and LED light and I can't figure it out. Can anyone help me with this?

Very easy to understand the concepts, quick to build, and instant rewards, everything a talented teacher needs to be doing to instruct a student- thanks for sharing.