It wasn't long before I decided to start messing around with capacitors and creating some sparks. Soon I noticed how time spending it was to connect the capacitor to the power supply, charge it, disconnect it and just then, short the leads.
So this came to me, a little device that will charge the capacitors and disconnect them for you. The best part is that the speed at which they are connected and disconnected from the power supply can be regulated.
Even though in this Instructable I will be using low voltages such as 20v, I believe you can, by using higher voltage capacitors do the same with much bigger sparks and fun.
So let's get started!
I am NOT responsible for any Zapping caused to you by this project. If you choose to add higher value capacitors and use a higher voltage I am not responsible for whatever the outcome of such ideas is. It might end up being fun or it might end with some nasty burns.
The Schematic is to be opened using Eagle Cad.
Step 1: Gathering It All
First of all you will need to get hold of all of this parts, I do not know what they cost in your country but here in Peru I paid about
S/. 34 which is about US $11.40
Materials you will need:
-1- DPDT Switch (Double Pole Double Throw)
-2- LED Holders
-2- LEDs (Your choice of color)
-1- 20k Potentiometer
-1- Knob for the Pot
-2- DC Barrel Connectors (Female, The ones you can screw on the enclosure)
-2- SPDT Relays 12v Coil
-1- DPDT Relay 12v Coil
-2- 1N4004 Diodes
-1- Perforated Board Small
-1- NE555 Timer IC
-3- 1/2 Watt Resistors
-1- uF Capacitor
-1- 0.1 uF Capacitor
-1- 3.3 uF Capacitor
-1- 22 uF Capacitor
-3- 1000 uF Capacitors 25v (You can choose a higher value if you want, I found 3000 uF was enough)
-2- Banana Female Jack
-1- Enclosure for the Project + Screws
-1- Strip of Female header Connectors
You will also need:
-Power Supply Capable of delivering 20v
-A second power supply from 12v - 20v
-A couple of pliers
Step 2: Principles of It
The project works the following way:
1.Electricity comes in from the 16v input and passes through a 12v regulator.
2.It then goes to a 555 timer which creates a signal that travels to 3 relays turning them on and off.
3.The 2 SPDT relays do the following:
-One Is switching on and off the connection between the 1000 uF capacitors and the 20v Supply
-The other is switching on and off the connection between the Output to Discharge the capacitors from them
So When the relay allows current to flow to the capacitors, the Output is disconnected. When the connection to the 20v is blocked to the capacitors, the Output is switched on so you can short circuit the leads.
4.The other DPDT relay switches the LEDs on and off. One LED will the lit and the other will be off.
5. If the User decides to vary the speed at which the relays switch on and off, he can do so by moving the potentiometer to the left or to the right. This will affect ALL of the relays.
6.Once the capacitor is discharged, it charges back again to repeat the process over and over again.
Step 3: Step One
Now you have to take a decision here.
Depending on which perforated board size you have you might be able to fit everything on the board.
If you are like me, you will need to place the two SPDT relays glued on the inside of the enclosure.
Quick Note here:
You CAN replace the two SPDT relays for one DPDT and connect it the same way those were connected, in that case you might just get everything on the board.
So, First of all, choose where to put those 3 capacitors. I Would recommend you to put the components in the same places I did as that way you can ensure you will have just enough space for everything.
Step 4: The Relay Part One
Now its time for the DPDT relay to find its place on the board.
It will have the role of controlling both LEDs. It will have to switch one ON and the other one OFF.
Along with it place the 1k resistors near to the rear outputs of the relay as they are the ones who will keep the LEDs from burning at 12v.
Step 5: The Regulator Part 1
Next add the L7812CV Voltage Regulator, preferably near one the edges of the board so that you can add the heatsink without having space issues with other components.
It will have to take the First Input as I like to call it, in my case it is a 16v transformer, and take that voltage down to 12v so that once it is connected to the 555 timer, you will have the relays switching on and off to charge the capacitors and disconnect them from the Secondary Input, which is the 20 Volts.
Step 6: The 555 Timer
Okay, it is time for everyone's favorite IC to get his own place on the board.
Place it near the DPDT relay so that you won't need a long wire to connect it to the Output pin of the Timer (Pin 3). Even though You might want to place it facing one of the longer sides of the board so that you can easily route a cable from Pin 3 to the SPDT relays.
This little guy will have to create the signal that will switch the relays on and off. It is imperative you place that 3.3 uF Capacitor between pins 1 and 8, else you will find out that the output will not be 12v, it will be lower and not enough to switch the relays on and off. Something that took me quite a while to figure out.
Do not miss the 22 uF Capacitor between pins 1 and 2, the negative side goes on pin 1 same for the 3.3 uF Cap.
Step 7: The Regulator Part 2
Next to finish the 12v regulating circuit, add the 1 uF and the 0.1 uF capacitors next to the 12v Regulator.
Between pins 1 and 2 goes the 0.1 uF one and the other between pins 2 and 3.
Make sure you connect the negative side to the middle unless you want to get POPS! Instead off Sparks.
Step 8: Down to Soldering
The time has come for you to turn that soldering iron on and get down soldering.
You can take a look at the schematic and wire the components as shown. Nevertheless I will list the connections to be made as we move on.
In this step;
-Solder the two capacitors as I mentioned before to the 12v regulator.
-Solder those 3 1000uF Caps in PARALLEL.
-Connect the 3.3 uF Capacitor to pins 1 and 8 of the 555 and the 22 uF to pins 1 and 2. Negatives go on pin 1.
-Make a connection between the input pins on the relay, not the ones of the coil, the ones below.
-Connect one 1k resistor to the normally open output and the other to the normally closed.
Step 9: Preview - What You Should Have by Now
By Now you should have:
The Regulator Connected
The 555 Connected - Missing Power Connections
Relay Wired Missing Negative on Coil and Input pins need Connection
3 1000uF Capacitors in Series
2 1k Resistors connected to the relay
This is What you have to add now:
-A connection between Pin 4 and Pin 8
-A Connection Between Pin 6 and Pin 2
-Connect Pin 3 to one of the Coil pins on the relay.
-Connect a 1k Resistor Bewteen Pin 7 and Pin 8 (Not shown on the underside of the Perforated Board)
And here is a Preview, What my Circuit Looked at that Point
Step 10: Drillin' Some Holes
Time to pick up your Dremel Tool/Rotary Tool and drill holes to this board.
In the short time I have been in electronics I have found out that wires connected to boards normally break off at the connection after they have been pulled or moved.
The solution to this problem is drilling a couple of holes in the board through which those cables will pass and so the connection will not receive any stress from movement of the cable.
You will need a drill bit a little thicker than the one that of the holes on the perforated board. Drill the holes one infront of the other. Make sure you drill them near the components that will have a wire attached to them.
Step 11: The Potentiometer
Now it is time for us to be able to regulate the Wave Length of the signal generated by the 555.
Take your 20k Potentiometer and a short piece of wire, you can use what is left of a components lead after you have clipped the excess off.
-Place the wire between pins 1 and 2
-Clip the Excess
-Solder wires to Pins 1 and 3
-Place some Heatshrink to cover the pins and help to stop the cable from breakin off so easily with movement.
Step 12: The Relay Part 2
Time to Solder those two SPDT relays together.
First lets put them one next to the other and wrap them with some electrical tape.
-Now that they are together, place a wire connecting the 2 pins closest to each other. They belong to the Coils of the relays.
-Now wire the other two Coil pins together.
-Place a diode on the normallyclosed pin of one of the two relays, I chose the left one. The Diode should have the line facing away from the pin.
-Connect the normally open pin of the other relay to the Input pin of that one you chose that has the diode.
-Also add a wire comming out from that normally open pin (later you will see why).
-Add another diode to the Input Pin of the other relay, the line facing towards the relay.
-Finally add a cable going from the two outmost pins of the coil, it will be a ground connection and a cable to the middle coil pins which will go connected to the Pin 3 of the 555 timer
Step 13: First Connections to Board
Now that you have both the potentiometer and the relays with their connections ready you can go ahead and connect them to the board.
This is how it goes:
Pass the wires through the first hole from the underside of the board.Pass them back through the other hole and pull so that you dont have a giant loop at the top.
Those two cables will go connected to Pins 6 and 7 of the 555 timer
Now do the same for the relays, there are 3 wires to be connected to the board, two from the coils and one for the input pin. Remmember I told you to add that extra wire?
Step 14: Connections Under the Board
Now follow some of the missing connections between components.
If you placed them the same way I did I recommend you to use flexible wire not single core wire as they easily break.
-The capacitors are missing a connection to ground, add a cable there.
-Take a cable from the middle pin of the Voltage regulator (Ground) and take it to the coil of the DPDT relay and from there to Pin 1 on the 555 timer.
-Take another wire and make a connection from the output of the regulator to pin 8 of the 555 timer.
Step 15: Drillin' Some More Holes
Time for the enclosure to take shape.
Take a couple of thicker drill bits and start drillin' the holes for:
-The Potentiometer (1)
-The LED Holders (2)
-The Barrel Jacks (2)
-The Switch (1)
-The Output Banana Jacks (2)
Step 16: Connecting the Barrel Jacks
Take those two barrel jacks and 5 lengths of wire.
The 3 negative wires, let them be long. The other 2 make them short as they will go to the switch which is very close to the jacks.
On the First Jack take Two wires and connect them to the negative tab. Don't Forget to add some heatshrink to cover the connections.
Now add a short wire to the positive tab.
Do the same with the other Connector.
Now take both positive ends and connect them to the switch, the middle pins of the switch.
Add 2 more wires to the switch, one will be going to the relay to charge the capacitors and the other to the board, to the regulator.
This step is actually optional, if you do not want to use LED holders you may skip it.
Take the LEDs and add just a tiny bit of solder to the tip of the leads to ensure they will not accidentaly disconnect from the connectors we are going to make in a moment.
Take a strip of femaly header connectors, count two pins and remove the third one and repeat with the sixth one.
Now using a cutting tool, can be a saw or a cutting disk on a dremel, cut through the header strip in the space you have just created.
You should now have two, two pin female header connectors.
Add some wire to the pins and take them to the board, where the two 1k resistors are.
Insert the LEDs on the connectors after putting them inside the LED holder.
Step 18: The Banana Connectors
Depending on which type of connector you have, you might need to dissasemble it to put it on the enclosure.
Anyways, solder a wire comming from the diode on the SPDT relay to the banana jack. This is going to be the positive connection.
Now do exactly the same but this time use the second wire on the barrel connector, the one that has two wires comming from the negative tab. This is going to be the negative connection for the output.
Re-assemble your banana connectors and place them in your enclosure.
Step 19: The Final Touches
If everything has gone right you will probably have quite a mess of wires
Take a couple of safety seals to group the wires depending on which side of the board to they end up on.
After doing so, the box should look nicer.
To finalize take a hot glue gun and glue the relays and the board to the enclosure.
Step 20: The Decisive Moment
It has come down to this, the moment when tension rises...
Connect the 16v Power supply to the right barrel connector.
Connect the 20v Power supply to the left baller connector.
Flip the switch.
You should, as soon as you flip the switch, hear the relays go on and off.
Carefully connect a couple of wire to the banana connectors.
-Slowly and Dramatically make the two wires touch each other and Hopefully, the spark will come out-
Step 21: Time for Fun!
If you have reached this step it means you have created your very own Sparkin' Fun Maker
Go and Show it Off!
Most important of all, turn the lights off, and check out the spark in the dark, They look amazing.
And To Finish Off here's Kiara To Make your day even Happier :)