Introduction: Car Alcohol Detection Device
--by Bhawna Singh, Prerna Gupta and Maninder Bir Singh Gulshan
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Step 1: Arduino NANO
The Arduino Nano is a small, complete, and breadboard-friendly board based on the ATmega328P (Arduino Nano 3.x). It has more or less the same functionality of the Arduino Duemilanove, but in a different package. It lacks only a DC power jack, and works with a Mini-B USB cable instead of a standard one.
The Arduino Nano can be powered via the Mini-B USB connection, 6-20V unregulated external power supply (pin 30), or 5V regulated external power supply (pin 27). The power source is automatically selected to the highest voltage source.
The ATmega328 has 32 KB, (also with 2 KB used for the bootloader. The ATmega328 has 2 KB of SRAM and 1 KB of EEPROM.
Input and Output
Each of the 14 digital pins on the Nano can be used as an input or output, using pinMode(), digitalWrite(), and digitalRead() functions. They operate at 5 volts. Each pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40 mA and has an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms. In addition, some pins have specialized functions:
Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. These pins are connected to the corresponding pins of the FTDI USB-to-TTL Serial chip.External Interrupts: 2 and 3. These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value. See the attachInterrupt() function for details.PWM: 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11. Provide 8-bit PWM output with the analogWrite() function.SPI: 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK). These pins support SPI communication, which, although provided by the underlying hardware, is not currently included in the Arduino language.LED: 13. There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. When the pin is HIGH value, the LED is on, when the pin is LOW, it's off. The Nano has 8 analog inputs, each of which provide 10 bits of resolution (i.e. 1024 different values). By default they measure from ground to 5 volts, though is it possible to change the upper end of their range using the analogReference() function. Analog pins 6 and 7 cannot be used as digital pins. Additionally, some pins have specialized functionality:
I2C: A4 (SDA) and A5 (SCL). Support I2C (TWI) communication using the Wire library (documentation on the Wiring website). There are a couple of other pins on the board:
AREF. Reference voltage for the analog inputs. Used with analogReference().Reset. Bring this line LOW to reset the microcontroller. Typically used to add a reset button to shields which block the one on the board. Communication
The Arduino Nano has a number of facilities for communicating with a computer, another Arduino, or other microcontrollers. The ATmega328 provide UART TTL (5V) serial communication, which is available on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). An FTDI FT232RL on the board channels this serial communication over USB and the FTDI drivers (included with the Arduino software) provide a virtual com port to software on the computer. The Arduino software includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the Arduino board. The RX and TX LEDs on the board will flash when data is being transmitted via the FTDI chip and USB connection to the computer (but not for serial communication on pins 0 and 1). A SoftwareSerial library allows for serial communication on any of the Nano's digital pins. The ATmega328 also support I2C (TWI) and SPI communication. The Arduino software includes a Wire library to simplify use of the I2C bus. To use the SPI communication, please see ATmega328 datasheet.
The Arduino Nano can be programmed with the Arduino software (download). Select "Arduino Duemilanove or Nano w/ ATmega328" from the Tools > Board menu (according to the microcontroller on your board). The ATmega328 on the Arduino Nano comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it without the use of an external hardware programmer. It communicates using the original STK500 protocol. You can also bypass the bootloader and program the microcontroller through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header using Arduino ISP or similar.
Automatic (Software) Reset
Rather then requiring a physical press of the reset button before an upload, the Arduino Nano is designed in a way that allows it to be reset by software running on a connected computer. One of the hardware flow control lines (DTR) of the FT232RL is connected to the reset line of the ATmega328 via a 100 nanofarad capacitor. When this line is asserted (taken low), the reset line drops long enough to reset the chip. The Arduino software uses this capability to allow you to upload code by simply pressing the upload button in the Arduino environment. This means that the bootloader can have a shorter timeout, as the lowering of DTR can be well-coordinated with the start of the upload. This setup has other implications. When the Nano is connected to either a computer running Mac OS X or Linux, it resets each time a connection is made to it from software (via USB). For the following half-second or so, the bootloader is running on the Nano. While it is programmed to ignore malformed data (i.e. anything besides an upload of new code), it will intercept the first few bytes of data sent to the board after a connection is opened. If a sketch running on the board receives one-time configuration or other data when it first starts, make sure that the software with which it communicates waits a second after opening the connection and before sending this data.
Step 2: MQ-3 Sensor
The Grove - Gas Sensor(MQ3) module is useful for gas leakage detection (in home and industry). It is suitable for detecting Alcohol, Benzine, CH4, Hexane, LPG, CO. Due to its high sensitivity and fast response time, measurements can be taken as soon as possible. The sensitivity of the sensor can be adjusted by using the potentiometer.
The output voltage from the Gas sensor increases when the concentration of gas increases. Sensitivity can be adjusted by varying the potentiometer. Please note that the best preheat time for the sensor is above 24 hours. For detailed information about the MQ-3 sensor, please refer to the data-sheet provided in Resources section.
- Concentration : 0.05 mg/L ~ 10 mg/L Alcohol
- Operating Voltage : 5V ±0.1
- Current Consumption : 150mA
- Operation Temperature : -10°C ~ 70°C
- VCC – Input Power Supply
- GND – Supply Ground
- DO – Digital Output
- AO – Analog Output
- High sensitivity to alcohol and small sensitivity to Benzine
- Stable and long life
- Fast response and High sensitivity
Step 3: DC-DC Buck Converter
A buck converter (step-down converter) is a DC-to-DC power converter which steps down voltage (while stepping up current) from its input (supply) to its output (load). It is a class of switched-mode power supply (SMPS) typically containing at least two semiconductors (a diode and a transistor, although modern buck converters frequently replace the diode with a second transistor used for synchronous rectification) and at least one energy storage element, a capacitor, inductor, or the two in combination. To reduce voltage ripple, filters made of capacitors (sometimes in combination with inductors) are normally added to such a converter's output (load-side filter) and input (supply-side filter).
Switching converters (such as buck converters) provide much greater power efficiency as DC-to-DC converters than linear regulators, which are simpler circuits that lower voltages by dissipating power as heat, but do not step up output current.
Buck converters can be highly efficient (often higher than 90%), making them useful for tasks such as converting a computer's main (bulk) supply voltage (often 12 V) down to lower voltages needed by USB, DRAM and the CPU (1.8 V or less).
The basic operation of the buck converter has the current in an inductor controlled by two switches (usually a transistor and a diode). In the idealised converter, all the components are considered to be perfect. Specifically, the switch and the diode have zero voltage drop when on and zero current flow when off, and the inductor has zero series resistance. Further, it is assumed that the input and output voltages do not change over the course of a cycle (this would imply the output capacitance as being infinite).
Efficiency factors and Switching losses
- Conduction losses that depend on load:
- Resistance when the transistor or MOSFET switch is conducting.
- Diode forward voltage drop (usually 0.7 V or 0.4 V for schottky diode)
- Inductor winding resistance
- Capacitor equivalent series resistance
- Voltage-Ampere overlap loss
- Frequency*CV2 loss
- Reverse latency loss
Step 4: 2-Channel Relay Module
A relay is basically a switch which is operated by an electromagnet. The electromagnet requires a small voltage to get activated which we will give from the Arduino and once it is activated, it will pull the contact to make the high voltage circuit.
The relay module we are going to use is the SRD-05VDC-SL-C. It runs on 5V and we can control it with any micro-controller but we are going to use Arduino.
The Arduino relay module has total of six pins: three on one side and three on other side.On the bottom side, there are three pins which are signal, 5V and ground. We will connect these pins with the Arduino. While on the other side, there are NC (Normally close), C (Common) and the NO (normally open) which are the output pins of the 5V relay. There, we will connect the output device.
The Arduino relay module can be used in two states which are
- Normally open state (NO)
- Normally closed state (NC)
Normally open (NO)
In the normally open state, the initial output of the relay will be low when it will be powered. In this state, the common and the normally open pins are used.
Normally closed state (NC)
In the normally closed state, the initial output of the relay will be high when it will be powered. In this state, the common and the normally close pins are used.
Step 5: LCD (Liquid Crstal Display)
A liquid crystal display or LCD draws its definition from its name itself. It is combination of two states of matter, the solid and the liquid. LCD uses a liquid crystal to produce a visible image. Liquid crystal displays are super-thin technology display screen that are generally used in laptop computer screen, TVs, cell phones and portable video games. LCD’s technologies allow displays to be much thinner when compared to cathode ray tube (CRT) technology.
Liquid crystal display is composed of several layers which include two polarized panel filters and electrodes. LCD technology is used for displaying the image in notebook or some other electronic devices like mini computers. Light is projected from a lens on a layer of liquid crystal. This combination of colored light with the grayscale image of the crystal (formed as electric current flows through the crystal) forms the colored image. This image is then displayed on the screen.
The principle behind the LCD’s is that when an electrical current is applied to the liquid crystal molecule, the molecule tends to untwist. This causes the angle of light which is passing through the molecule of the polarized glass and also cause a change in the angle of the top polarizing filter. As a result a little light is allowed to pass the polarized glass through a particular area of the LCD. Thus that particular area will become dark compared to other. The LCD works on the principle of blocking light. While constructing the LCD’s, a reflected mirror is arranged at the back. An electrode plane is made of indium-tin oxide which is kept on top and a polarized glass with a polarizing film is also added on the bottom of the device. The complete region of the LCD has to be enclosed by a common electrode and above it should be the liquid crystal matter.
Next comes to the second piece of glass with an electrode in the form of the rectangle on the bottom and, on top, another polarizing film. It must be considered that both the pieces are kept at right angles. When there is no current, the light passes through the front of the LCD it will be reflected by the mirror and bounced back. As the electrode is connected to a battery the current from it will cause the liquid crystals between the common-plane electrode and the electrode shaped like a rectangle to untwist. Thus the light is blocked from passing through. That particular rectangular area appears blank.
Features of 16×2 LCD module
- Operating Voltage is 4.7V to 5.3V
- Current consumption is 1mA without backlight
- Alphanumeric LCD display module, meaning can display alphabets and numbers
- Consists of two rows and each row can print 16 characters.Each character is build by a 5×8 pixel box
- Can work on both 8-bit and 4-bit mode
- It can also display any custom generated characters
- Available in Green and Blue Backlight
Step 6: SIM800l Module
At the heart of the module is a SIM800L GSM cellular chip from SimCom. The operating voltage of the chip is from 3.4V to 4.4V, which makes it an ideal candidate for direct LiPo battery supply. This makes it a good choice for embedding into projects without a lot of space.
All the necessary data pins of SIM800L GSM chip are broken out to a 0.1″ pitch headers. This includes pins required for communication with a microcontroller over UART. The module supports baud rate from 1200bps to 115200bps with Auto-Baud detection. The module needs an external antenna to connect to a network. The module usually comes with a Helical Antenna and solders directly to NET pin on PCB. The board also has a U.FL connector facility in case you want to keep the antenna away from the board.
There’s a SIM socket on the back! Any activated, 2G micro SIM card would work perfectly. Correct direction for inserting SIM card is normally engraved on the surface of the SIM socket. This module measures only 1 inch² but packs a surprising amount of features into its little frame. Some of them are listed below:
- Supports Quad-band: GSM850, EGSM900, DCS1800 and PCS1900
- Connect onto any global GSM network with any 2G SIM
- Make and receive voice calls using an external 8Ω speaker & electret microphone
- Send and receive SMS messages
- Send and receive GPRS data (TCP/IP, HTTP, etc.)Scan and receive FM radio broadcasts
- Transmit Power:
- Class 4 (2W) for GSM850
- Class 1 (1W) for DCS1800
Step 7: Circuit Diagram and Printed Circuit Board
This is connection diagram between all the components listed above and following with the PCB layout.
Step 8: Ordering the PCBs From JLCPCB
Full Process is shown using Screenshots Step-wise.
Now we have got the PCB design and it’s time to order the PCB’s. For that, you just have to go to JLCPCB.com, and click on “QUOTE NOW” button.
JLCPCB are also sponsor of this project. JLCPCB (ShenzhenJLC Electronics Co., Ltd.), is the largest PCB prototype enterprise in Chinaand a high-tech manufacturer specializing in quick PCB prototype and small-batch PCB production. You can order a minimum of 5 PCBs for just $2.
To get the PCB manufactured, upload the gerber file you downloaded in the last step. Upload the.zip file or you can also drag and drop the gerber files.
After uploading the zip file, you’ll see a success message at the bottom if the file is successfully uploaded.
You can review the PCB in the Gerber viewer to make sure everything is good. You can view both top and bottom of the PCB.
After making sure our PCB looks good, we can now place the order at a reasonable price. You can order 5 PCBs for just $2 but if it’s your first order then you can get 10 PCBs for $2.
To place the order, click on “SAVE TO CART” button. My PCBs took 2 days to get manufactured and arrived within a week using DHL delivery option. PCBs were well packed and the quality was really good.