ABSTRACT: The drinking water crisis in India
is reaching alarming proportions. It might very soon attain the nature of global crisis. Hence, it is of utmost importance to preserve water. In many houses there is unnecessary wastage of water due to overflow in Overhead Tanks. Automatic Water Level Controller can provide a solution to this problem. The operation of water level controller works upon the fact that water conducts electricity. So water can be used to open or close a circuit. As the water level rises or falls, different circuits in the controller send different signals. These signals are used to switch ON or switch OFF the motor pump as per our requirements.
There are four parts in this project:-
(i) The Sensor Part
It is generally a fixed support inside the tank having some nuts and bolt with wires coming out.
(ii) The Circuit Part
It comprises the brain of the module, where in all the various inputs from the sensors are fed. It is the unit from where you will get all the information of how much of water is in the tank.
(iii) The Power Supply
It is a 9v battery connected to the cicuit
(IV) The Buzzer Part
It is responsible for bringing up the sound when the water level fills up in the tank. It will also be having a speaker or a buzzer to alert.
V. COMPONENTS LIST:
i. Transistor BC547
vi. Connecting wires
viii. General purpose PCB
ix. Box enclosure
Basically the unit is made up of BC547 which acts as sensors. When we turn on the water pump, the water starts to get pumped from the underground reservoir or from the underground water supply from the pipes to water tank. In the tank there is a set of sensors (to be precise there are 7 sensors),in the water tank. They simply act as a switch, as the work of the sensor will be to complete the circuit and make the LEDs glow. So the water starts to get filled in the tank and when the water level in the tank starts to rise up, what happens is that the bases of all transistors get connected one by one to the Vcc and one by one all the bjts that are acting as a switch, get activated one by one thereby indicating the water level in the tank.All the base terminals of 7 bjts are placed in such a way that they indicate the 7 required levels of the tank.The VCC terminal completes the circuit by connecting to base terminals through water medium thereby providing a very small current to the base, which activated the base to let large current flow through the emitter and collector as the water level rises gradually. As the water level keeps rising,one by one,bases of transistors start getting connected to vcc(through water medium) and this makes the respective leds glow,thereby indicating the respeftive water levels.And finally when it reaches to its top most sensor, there will be a visual display as well as a sound from the unit indicating that the water has filled in the tank and one can be alerted that the tank has been filled up and the water pump has to be switched off saving the electricity bill as well as over flow of water from the tank.
Step 1: Circuit Diagram
connect the components as per the circuit diagram shown above
Vcc can be any around 4V to 12V.the switches shown in the above circuit diagram are nothing but only two wires which are to b dipped into the water tank..as the water level will go on increasing.. one by one each wire will get dipped in water n thereby connect its respective transistor to run the led n finally the buzzer which is to b placed at the topmost level indicating that the tank is full.SWITCHES SHOWN IN THE ABOVE CIRCUIT ARE ONLY FOR INTERPRETATION. THEY ARENT SWITCHES IN REAL .ITS JUST FOR REPRESENTATION PURPOSE.
Step 2: Enclosure
Add a switch and a power source to it n encase the above circuit into a transparent plastic box so dat the LEDs are visible.And with this,your cheap n easy water level indicator is ready.So now no water overflows ..
"Save Water,Save Life."