Custom Ceramic Texture Molds for Fused Glass




About: Most people know me as "the cookie lady" :) , though I've been drawing, painting, sewing, fusing glass, and making other creative things for as long as I can remember. My two dogs and two cats think of me...

This tutorial will explain how I make custom ceramic texture molds to create fused glass art.

Items used in this tutorial:

1) Firing the clay, and glass:

Kiln: I use a Paragon Janus 23 multi-purpose kiln (capable of firing glass or ceramics with the flip of a switch!)

kiln shelves

kiln shelf wash: Hotline Primo Primer Kiln Shelf Wash

plastic lidded container to mix and store shelf wash in

paintbrush to paint shelf wash onto shelves & molds (I use inexpensive Chinese brushes that are often used for glazing ceramics as shown in the photo)

2) Clay: MCS Porcelain P'Clay Cone 6 available at


Bullseye coe90 glass available at and other retailers

glass marbles such as Panacea Marble Accents often available at craft stores such as JoAnn Fabrics & Michael's

recycled Glass such as wine bottles, window glass, etc.

4) Items for creating texture in clay:


clay carving tools

textured objects to press into the clay including commercial stamps, found objects, buttons, etc.

5) Items for rolling out the clay:

rolling pin

rubber rib for smoothing clay

two 1/4" or 3/8" thick strips of wood

plastic backed fabric drop cloth, or regular drop cloth

cornstarch- I keep mine in a sugar shaker to make it easy to powder the surface of my clay

paper towels

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Step 1: 1. Creating the Clay Texture Mold

I've chosen a cone 6 porcelain paper clay as my ceramic medium for making texture molds because it has a very smooth surface that captures texture in great detail. The clay dries quickly, and creates lightweight molds, which is great for loading fused glass projects into the kiln and also great for storing your molds once they've been bisque fired. Most companies ship clay in 25lb blocks with a 50lb minimum. Please note that paper clays are prone to mold if not used quickly, which doesn't affect the quality of your ceramic piece, but may cause problems for people who are sensitive to mold. Most websites selling ceramic paper clay explain the pro's and con's of their products, along with firing instructions.

Decide what texture and design you're going to create. I've created wonderful texture molds from items found in my yard: lotus leaves, lily pad leaves, tree leaves. I've also hand-carved textures to create specific designs. Once you have your design in mind you're ready to start.

1. Work Surface:

Cover your work table with a drop cloth. I love using a plastic-backed fabric drop cloth because it protects my wooden work surface from the damp clay.

2. Clay:

Open your bag of clay. Use your wire tool to cut the amount of clay you need to roll out for your project. For instance, to create the large texture mold of of the lotus leaf takes a greater amount of clay than to create a small soap dish mold.

3. Rolling & smoothing the clay:

For most of my texture molds I roll the clay out to around 1/4" thick. If you're creating a deeply textured fused glass piece like a hand-carved pattern, you'll want to roll the clay to around 3/8" thick.

Follow basic clay techniques for rolling clay by using your rolling pin to work the clay slowly into a flat consistent thickness: Roll, flip the clay over, roll, flip the clay in a new direction, roll again until you have the desired thickness and size for your mold. I try to make mine molds 1/2" to 1" larger than the finished textured design in case the glass flows beyond my design in firing.

If you come across any bubbles in your clay surface while rolling the clay, poke them with a pencil tip or clay knife tip to make sure that they're gone before you proceed with smoothing and texturing the clay.

Take your rubber rib and smooth the surface of your clay, stroking across the entire surface of the clay with the rib horizontally, then vertically. Flip the clay over and do the same procedure again, smoothing the surface of the clay with the rubber rib by stroking across both horizontally and vertically until smooth. Now you should have a beautifully smooth piece of clay, ready to decorate with your textural design.

4. Texture the clay:

Sprinkle the surface of the clay lightly with cornstarch to keep your tools and leaves from sticking. Keep in mind that you do NOT want to press or cut your design completely THROUGH the the clay. Be careful to leave at least 1/8" thickness of clay in the thinnest areas or your mold may be more prone to breaking. As you create your texture, the hollows/deeper impressions in your mold will be the raised areas on your glass surface, and the raised areas on your mold will be the hollows/impressions on your glass surface.

A) If you're pressing leaves into the surface, arrange the leaves on the surface into the pattern you desire, then roll over the surface with even pressure with a rolling pin. I then like to take my fingers and press the leaves more deeply into the surface of the clay to make a deeper impression.

B) Add carved details, rubber stamps, press in objects as desired

C) It's a good idea to create a rim to contain the melted glass by slightly raising the edges of your clay from your table.


-Make sure that your design does not include "under-cuts", or places where the surface of the clay mold juts out over carved hollowed-out areas. The glass will melt into these areas and get stuck.

-If you want to create a thicker piece of fused glass, you'll need to create a rim to contain the glass in your mold. If you do create a rim, be sure that it gently slopes OUTWARD so that the glass will release easily out of the mold.

-The smoother your mold, the smoother the glass. I like to make sure that all of the edges of my textured pattern feel smooth, and that there are no areas in my design that could create a jagged or sharp glass surface.

5. Dry your mold:

Follow the clay manufacturer's instructions. Paper clay is very forgiving, though all clay is prone to warping if dried to quickly. I like to leave my mold on my work table for a few hours covered loosely with a layer of paper towels. Once it is firmly leather hard I carefully move it to a kiln shelf in my garage and wait until the ceramic mold is completely bone dry. During the colder winter months I dry the molds indoors rather than in the garage.

Step 2: Firing the Ceramic Texture Mold

Once the mold is completely bone dry - about 1 week for a 1/4-3/8" thick mold under normal weather conditions I bisque fire my clay texture molds to Cone 04 by following the pre-set firing schedule on my kiln. Please refer to your kiln's instruction manual for loading suggestions and firing schedules. Ceramics can be loaded into the kiln on more than one shelf, though I always make sure to have about 1/2" of space between pieces, and at around 2" at least between the tallest ceramic piece and the shelf above it.

You may remove the ceramic texture molds from your kiln when the kiln temperature has returned to room temperature, usually around 18 hours or more after starting your kiln's firing program.

Step 3: Fusing Glass Onto Your Mold

1. Kiln Wash:

Following the manufacturer's instructions apply 2-3 coats of kiln wash evenly to your mold. Allow the mold to dry between coats and especially before you start loading the glass onto the mold, or the kiln wash may stick to your glass.

Apply 2-3 coats of kiln wash to your kiln shelf prior to loading it into the kiln. This will help to protect your shelf from damage if the glass flows beyond the mold you've created, or if the mold breaks while firing inside the kiln.

2. Wash your glass:

Wash your glass in hot soapy water with liquid dish detergent, rinse thoroughly, and dry with clean towels. Bottles must have all label residue removed prior to fusing. I find a kitchen colander helpful in washing glass marbles. Fingerprints and dirty or oily residue will dull the surface of your glass.

3. Glass compatibility:

For glass to successfully melt together into a strong finished piece, it must all be of the same COE (coefficient expansion). This is a complicated issue, but can be more simply accomplished by doing the following:

a) use glass by a single art glass manufacturer such as 90 COE, or Spectrum's System 96 COE glass from These companies test all of their own glasses to be compatible.

b) use glass from one single piece of glass:

-bottles: Use the glass from one bottle only, as even bottles by the same manufacturer are not the same

-windows: Use one large sheet of glass to cut 2-3 smaller pieces of glass that you can layer onto your mold

c) marbles: I have better success using flat-sided marbles in one solid color from one large bag if possible, or bags from the same manufacturer. They're inexpensive, and widely available, though there's no guarantee of compatibility. Combining colors has often resulted in stress fractures in the glass after firing.

You can use a polarizing filter to check glass compatibility. Instructions can be found here:

4. Filling the texture mold with glass:

Glass wants to be 3/8" thick when melted, which means that if you fill your mold with glass thicker than 3/8" thick, it will flow and spread outward to level itself out to 3/8" thick. If you fill the mold with less than 3/8" thickness of glass, the glass may pull together into 3/8" thick areas as it melts, leaving open gaps in the glass. I have had good results filling the molds with any one of the following:

a) 2 layers of Bullseye 90COE 3mm glass, Spectrum 96 glass, or approximately 5/8" thick of compatible glass frit

b) one wine bottle- you can cut the top or bottom off of the bottle to better suit your mold size if you prefer, or make your ceramic texture mold sized to fit the entire flattened bottle

c) 2 to 3 layers of window glass (again, remember it must all be cut from one original sheet of glass)

d) 2 layers of flat-sided glass marbles are my favorite. Flat-sided marbles stack on top of each other easier than round marbles. I find round marbles must be contained within the mold by designing a higher rim around the edge of the mold, or they may roll off the mold and onto your kiln shelf.

5. Loading the kiln:

Carefully transport your project to the kiln, and place onto the prepared kiln shelf. I find glass fires best using just one shelf in your kiln, rather than stacking shelves to fire multiple layers of fused glass projects at once.

6. Firing Schedule:

The firing schedule for your project will depend on the type of glass you have used, it's dimensions and thickness, plus the desired level of melting that you're looking for. I often look to the glass manufacturer and the Internet for suggested fusing schedules for my projects, but here are a few tips and resources:

a) My favorite reference for firing schedules from :

b) The schedule I frequently follow for many of my projects (2-3 layers of marbles, art glass, or a bottle ) is as follows:

segment 1) 400 degrees per hour to 1,000 degrees. Hold for 20 minutes

segment 2) 200 degrees per hour to 1,150 degrees. Hold for 15 minutes

segment 3) 900 degrees per hour to 1,450 degrees. Hold for 20 minutes

segment 4) AFAP (as fast as possible) to 960 degrees. Hold for 1 hour

segment 5) 200 degrees per hour to 800 degrees. Hold for 10 minutes

segment 6) 400 degrees per hour to 300 degrees. 0 hold, and do not open your kiln until the temperature inside the kiln has returned to room temperature.

It's always good to have a sense of humor when working with glass, as what happens during firing inside the kiln can be unpredictable. There are entire books written on firing schedules, etc, and all kilns are a little different.

Step 4: Finished Products

There are lots of options for finishing your textured glass art:

1) Leave it as a beautiful plate

2) Create or purchase a stand for your piece. I created a stand using unfinished wood components purchased at a craft store, and painted them to coordinate with my glass art piece.

3) Slump your glass into a bowl or other shape by firing it once again in the kiln. Refer to your kiln instructions for firing schedule, or to

4) Create an instant cake plate by finding an interesting glass candle stand with one end large enough to securely adhere to your glass art piece, and the other end large enough to support and stand steadily. Rough up the two surfaces of glass where they will meet (I use a Dremel tool). Wipe away the dust with a clean cloth, then apply E6000 glue neatly to both surfaces where the glass will meet. Wait a couple minutes, then stick them together. I often use masking tape to hold the surfaces together until the glue has set, otherwise they may slide out of position.

I hope this Instructable helps inspire you to create your own custom texture molds for original works of fused glass art.

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    18 Discussions


    1 year ago

    These are wonderful.. I read somewhere that I do not have to bisque fire my molds first. What is your opinion on this? Do I really have to bisque fire first before I use it to fuse my glass? Thanks for any thoughts on this. Treyads


    Question 1 year ago on Step 2

    if the glass (2 sheets) were already taken to a full fuse before slumping, would this work as a slump mould to get the full impression from the bisque clay mould?
    Hoping to extend the life of the mould by 'not' taking it to full fuse every time.


    Reply 2 years ago

    Yes, they can be used multiple times. They are as sturdy as commercial molds, and like commercial molds, make sure to follow your kiln wash instructions each time you use them so that the glass doesn't stick, and don't stack your molds when you're not using them, as this can lead to breaks. Occasionally a mold will crack in firing, as also happens with commercial molds, due to either the changes in heat, or glass sticking/expanding/contracting.


    3 years ago

    Having made a slab of clay with various patterns on it, I would like to make various items from it i.e. a coaster, hanger, or a small round clock. I have found in making a coaster with using 6mm transparent glass that I lose the profile as the glass melts into the pattern on the edges. I use Bullseye transparent glass. I fire 190 - 670 - 1hr hold then 222 - 804 with 30 min hold skip to cool etc. The shape of the coaster not only has totally run out of shape but that the edges have flowed out in places and made spikes.

    What am I doing wrong please. I would very much like your advice on this.

    Also I have been rolling the clay to approx 1/2 " - 3/4" to hopefully avoid too much warping whilst drying and a stronger mould to store for future use. I also prop the mould up on small blocks to help with circulation of heat whilst firing. I notice your moulds are much thinner and are placed directly on the kiln shelf.

    I would be most greatful to hear from you as I have so many orders from people who want a glass piece made in this way of their dog paw imprint surrounded by different patterns and their name. Many thanks, Maureen, Bucks, England


    3 years ago

    I am very interested in making some textures molds and your article was really helpful! You make it sound so easy! I am fusing Spectrum Glass that I bought years ago when I used to do stained glass. Thanks for your info!


    4 years ago on Introduction

    ...I also use the texture molds in making pretty ceramic pieces.This is a stoneware clay bowl in progress. I made it by rolling the clay out to the size of my texture mold, about 3/8" thick. Then I dusted the surface of the clay that would touch my texture mold with cornstarch, and pressed it gently onto my bisque fired ceramic texture mold. I rolled it a couple times with my rolling pin. then draped the textured clay gently into one of my favorite salad bowls!

    2 replies

    Reply 3 years ago

    Lovely! How'd did you deal with the 'folds' that must have occurred when you draped the clay over the mold..??..


    Reply 3 years ago

    I lay the textured clay slab circle centered over the salad bowl mold, then very gently began tapping the bottom of the bowl onto the table. As the clay slab began to relax and slump into the bowl, I kept smoothing out the wrinkles that wanted to form by mostly compressing the clay with my fingers a bit. The goal was sort of like gathering fabric, where you want the excess fabric to be spread evenly around to create little uniform gathers rather than a couple of large pleats. Once the clay was soft leather hard and could be removed from the bowl mold, I smoothed out the few wrinkle lines that were on the outside of the bowl, and decided upon a thicker opaque glaze that would cover them.


    3 years ago

    Thanks for creating this instruction... very helpful. I'm researching whether I want to delve into 'glass' projects. I'm mostly interested in using 'recycled' glass... ie; from wine and colored water bottles ... for example. Are these molds still usable with only recycled glass from various bottles..??..

    1 reply

    Reply 3 years ago

    Yes, absolutely. I make different molds for the different types of recycled glass that I'm trying to melt, and depending upon what I want to make for my finished glass piece. For instance, if you plan to cut both the top and bottom off your wine bottles, you're left with a glass cylinder that will slump into a flat square or rectangle depending upon your measurements (take the circumference of the bottle, and divide by half to figure out the approximate width that your bottle will be once it has flattened out). These make great little sushi dishes, soap dishes, etc.

    I also LOVE melting little round and flat glass marbles into the molds. If you're melting round ones, be sure to add a slight lip/rim around the edge of your mold in order to keep the marbles from rolling off your mold in the kiln...and also remember that when you make your mold, you don't want any "undercuts". The glass will melt under and into any little undercut pockets and be impossible to get off your mold.

    Have fun!

    Great! I find it pretty exciting and liberating when you have the ability to make your work stand out as unique rather than using stock molds like everyone else!


    4 years ago

    Thanks for your quick response. My son had been digging up tons of very old glass from downtown Charleston. He is trying to think of things to do with the glass. Thought slumping or molding would be something he could do. The Craigslist thing hasn't worked out, people want too much money. Been looking at a new skutt 15x15 in the 600 range. But love the idea of making own molds.


    4 years ago on Introduction

    Hi Lynner4! Thanks for your question. I've been thrilled with the Paragon Janus 23 particularly because I can easily change from fusing glass to ceramics, but I bought my first kiln- a little Paragon Sentry Express 3.0 on Ebay. I also frequently search through Craigslist and local newspaper listings for studio equipment and have gotten some amazing deals from local people on things I want but couldn't justify spending full retail for. Good luck!


    4 years ago

    Wonderful! Been researching glass fusing and slumping for the last couple weeks. The kiln is my biggest question. I don't want to spend a fortune. The automatic settings put it more than I want to spend. Do you have any suggestions?