As a bicycle mechanic I like to experiment with different designs for bicycle
wheels, especially since I got in contact with building custom bikes like:
Chopper, Cruisers and Full Customs.
I have written this instructable to my best knowledge, however no rights can be
drawn from the contents off these pages.
U build and/or use the shown wheel at your own risk.
Be warned, you will during this tutorial alter some parts in such a structural way
like drilling extra holes that all warranties provided by the manufacturers will
Step 1: Tools & Parts
1. Materials used:
rim: Alesa 26inch ( 22x559 ) aluminium
hub: Shimano fronthub HB-MN72
spokes: Union steel plated 14g 262mm
nipples: Union nickel-plated brass 14g
This hub is chosen because of the large flanges, this way there is enough space between the spoke holes to drill an extra hole between them.
If you want to use a donorwheel look for one with nice large flanges and you can measure the spokelength to go and buy the 33 extra spokes + nipples you need, the donorwheel must have a standard 3 cross spokelayout to meet the requirements for making this wheel.
2. Tools used:
Drills 2,5mm, 4mm and 8mm
Spoke wrench Park Tool
Marking tool steel
a Dremel drillingstand ( not in the picture )
Step 2: Setup the Hub
First off we measure the width of the flange from the outside of the spoke hole to the outside of the flange ( in this case that's 3,25mm )
After that we measure the diameter of the spoke hole ( in this hub that's 2,5mm )
With this information we can calculate that the center of the spoke holes is at: 3,25mm + 1,25mm = 4,5mm
Adjust your caliper to this.
If possible lock your caliper and use the back-end.
Put the bottom of the caliper against the side of the flange and hold your steel marking tool against the measure pen.
Let someone help you by gently turning the hub with the bottom flange.
The result, a nice parallel marking line.
Now measure the distance between 2 spokes holes.
On this hub that's 13,5mm divide by 2.
With the results of 6,75mm
Adjust your caliper to this and lock.
Mark the halfway between the spoke holes with the calipers top by holding it in the spoke hole and gently scratch on the parallel marking line.
Now you can center where the drilling holes are going to be.
If your center point is sharp enough you can slide it in a little sideways and you will feel the marking line.
Now upright the center point and gently hit it with the hammer, dont slam it the first time because if you are off the mark you can still correct it by doing it once more.
When you are happy with it slam it once more.
Ready to drill.
Not shown in picture, I used a dremel drilling stand. .
For the best results put a slight angle on the drilling stand to go with the flanges angle (about 5 degrees)
This hub can be clamped on the axle because of the flat sides. If the axle is round use a special axle clamp to not damage the thread.
Drill the holes using a 2,5mm drill.
Debur the holes by using a machine or hand drill.
Debur the inside of the spoke holes of the flange by using a oversized drill.
Step 3: Prepare the Rim
Measure the width of the rim and divide by 2.
In this case the rim width is 28mm divided by 2 = 14mm.
Adjust your caliper to 14mm and lock it.
Gently mark the center of the rim between the nipple holes.
Make small lines so that in the final product they wont show up as much.
Measure the distance between 2 nipple holes and divide by 2, here that's 51mm divided by 2 is 25,5mm.
Mark the center between the nipple holes.
You can do this with the calipers top.
Use the center point to mark them for drilling.
Drill the holes with a 4mm drill or whatever size your holes are.
Debur the holes with a hand drill or a lager machine drill.
Don't forget the inside of the rim.
Now you are ready to build this wheel.
Step 4: Lacing the Wheel 1 ( Start Inserting the Inner Spokes Into the Hub )
Insert the first 6 spokes from the outside of the flange towards the inside of the hub next to each other, skip 6 holes put in the next 6 and do this once more.
Turn over the hub and insert 1 spoke from outside in so that it matches the other side exactly.
Insert all spokes mirrored to the opposite flange into the hub group by 6.
Step 5: Lacing the Wheel 2 ( Start Putting the Spokes Into the Rim )
Take up the rim and start next to the valve hole (this is an original nipple hole ) by inserting the first spoke from one group of 6 spokes.
Screw the nipple on about 3 turns turning clockwise.
For the next hole in the rim (this is a drilled one) take the spoke from the opposite side of the hub, insert it and put on a nipple.
Take the next spoke from the side you started with and insert this into the next free hole ( you are working away from the valve hole )
Remember to fasten the nipples no more than 3 turns.
Keep going until the first group of 12 is setup.
Skip 12 holes in the rim and start over again with the next group of 12 spokes.
Watch out !! Start this group with the same flange-side as you did starting next to the valve hole.
Repeat the last step to do the last 12 spokes.
If everything works out you will get a result similar to the photograph. Use this moment to check if you didn't make any mistakes, at this time it's easy to correct them.
3 times 12 spokes & 3 times 12 holes free in the rim with one being 11 nipple holes and one valve hole.
Step 6: Lacing the Wheel 3 ( Determine How the Hub Twists )
Now determine what way you should turn the hub to make the most room for the valve.
Image 1 is wrong, image 2 is the the way it should be.
Look at the top of the pictures.
There is the valve-hole.
Step 7: Lacing the Wheel 4 ( Insert the Outer Spokes Into the Hub )
Now we start with the spokes that are inserted from the inside out.
Take a close look, you want to start with the same side of the hub with the spoke that is closest to the valve-hole.
Insert one spoke from the inside out into the hub at the exact spot shown in the picture.
This spoke sits next to the group of 6 already placed in the wheel, cross over these 6 spokes and insert it next to the valve-hole, put a nipple on it turning it about 3 times.
Sometimes it is hard to get the first nipple on, this is because the other nipples from the spokes already inside the wheel havent fallen far enough into the rim when you turned the hub making space at the valve-hole. ( the way described on the previous page )
Turn the wheel over and insert all spokes on the side of the hub where you just inserted the previous spoke.
I think this is the easier way but you can also insert them one by one if you wish.
Turn the wheel back gently holding the loose spokes and lay them flat on the hub.
Starting at the spoke you already put in there next to the valve-hole you insert the spokes skipping one nipplehole in the rim at the time.
Do them all.
Turn the wheel over and start on the other side.
Watch out we leave one hole in the hub free and start at the next free hole in the rim away from the valve-hole.
We do this with the 3 groups we are about to do, so instead of 6 spokes per group we only use 5.
If everything is in order it will look similar to the last photo in this step.
Step 8: Truing the Wheel 1 ( Fastening the Spokes Up to First Tension )
Now we start fastening the nipples up to the end of the thread on the spokes, do this as accurate as possible.
Start and stop at the valvehole.
Accurate work will make a big difference later on at the truing stage.
A screwdriver is easiest for this job.
With the wheel I made the spokes where bulging a bit.
No fear this will be fine.
If there is a lot of space on the nipples you can start fastening them by turning them 1 full turn at the time, and when tension start mounting half a turn.
Do a full round every time.
Now we get an exceptional situation, on and off one spoke will have tension and the next one will be very loose, with a normal spoke layout all spokes would have about the same amount of tension.
This is because of the extraordinary spoke layout.
Before we start correcting this we first want to check if the wheel is fairly true.
It is better to correct this before going on.
The way you do this is a little bit further on in this instructable.
When this is done you can start fastening the spokes that are loose.
Only fasten them up to the point where they start building tension.
Step 9: Truing the Wheel 2 ( Make It Straight )
After this we are start truing the wheel.
First off find the spot where the wheel is centered best.
This is very important due to the lining of your bike, adjust your truingstand-marker to match this spot.
With a good truing stand this is no problem but as many of you readers wont have tools like this you can use a makeshift stand by using an old front fork and use a tape measure or your caliper to find the right spot.
There are some good instructables on making your own truingstand.
Start turning the wheel to see where the rim is further away from the marker, like in this picture.
Here we want the rim to be closer to the marker.
Determine how long the offset is (how many spokes)
Remember where the start and finish is.
You now need to fasten those spokes on the side where the rim is too far away from the marker.
Or if the tension is too much you can loosen the spokes on the other side, this is basically some sort of feel you need to get / learn on what is best.
Pay attention to the turning direction for fastening of the nipple as in the picture ( looking at the nipple from the rim side ) you need to fasten the nipples counter clockwise.
Always think about the way you would fasten the nipples, this will become second nature when making more wheels in the future.
Before you can mount your tire you need to check if the spoke-thread is showing on the inside of the rim, as is the case here.
This thread showing needs to be removed with, for example a Dremel with a grinding stone or with a grinder.(be careful not to damage the rim or yourself).
Step 10: The Endresult
This rim was already prepared to make another wheel, because of this there where two extra holes in it.
These holes I filled with dummy valves, in my opinion this gives a nice look to the wheel, decide for yourself.
Even with completion this wheel feels very solid I want to remind you that you make/use these wheels at your own risk.
Have fun building.
Participated in the
Craftsman Workshop of the Future Contest