DIY Flexible Printed Circuits




Produce your own single-sided flexible printed circuits using a solid ink printer, copper-coated polyimide film, and common circuit board etching chemicals.

You will find flex PCBs inside most cellphones or similar miniaturized gadgets. Flex PCBs are useful for making tiny cables and extremely lightweight circuits.

However, few shops yet make custom flex PCBs for reasonable prices in small volumes.

Step 1: Get Copper-coated Film

Get some thin sheets of polyimide which have copper on one or both sides. Polyimide is a yellow polymer with a high melting temperature and is sometimes called Kapton. A common type of copper-coated polyimide is DuPont "Pyralux" material.
Pyralux sheets come in many different varieties of polyimide thickness, copper thickness and adhesive thickness (the "adhesive" is between the copper and polyimide holding everything together.) Copper thickness is given in oz per square foot, while adhesive and Kapton thickness is given in mil (1 mil =0.001 inch).

Pyralux LF7062 (pictured) has 1/2 oz Cu, 1/2 mil adhesive and 1 mil Kapton. This works OK but is a bit thin and crinkly for the printer to handle.
LF9120 has 1 oz Cu, 1 mil adhesive and 2 mil Kapton - seems to work best in the printer
LF9210 has 2 oz Cu, 1 mil adhesive and 1 mil Kapton - stiffer, but works OK

Other options are double sided copper ( a sandwich of Cu/Kapton/Cu held together with adhesive) and a roughened surface, denoted by R at the end of the part number.

The roughened sheets and double sided sheet work OK. However, Pyralux with 2 oz or thicker copper can be difficult to feed to the printer, especially if there is copper on both sides.

See if you can get a free sample from DuPont. Occasionally, Pyralux sheets turn up on eBay.

Cut the Pyralux sheets to 8.5x11 or 8.5x14 inches with scissors or a knife. Avoid smudging the copper with fingerprints or oil, which can block the etch solution later. To protect the printer, try to keep the edges relatively flat and free of burrs.

Step 2: Use a Solid-ink Printer

For direct printing on the copper film, locate a solid-ink printer. These are commonly confused with laser printers, but instead print melted wax. Unlike most inkjets, the wax makes a good protective layer for copper etching, and unlike laser printers, solid ink printers don't rely on locally charging the paper surface, which could be troublesome when the paper is replaced by a copper sheet.

Some models are Tektronix Phaser 840, 850, 860, and Xerox Phaser 8200, 8400, 8500, 8560, and 8860. You might find one in an office. Most Phaser models are regular laser printers, so check under the hood for the solid ink blocks (pictured) if you're not sure.

If you don't have access to a solid ink printer, the "toner transfer" iron on method, using a laser-printed design, could replace this step.

Step 3: Print on Pyralux

Draw up a design in any graphics program, then use the manual feed tray to print it on your Pyralux sheet in black. Cyan, magenta, yellow, green (50/50 cyan+yellow), red (50/50 yellow+magenta) also seem to work, just avoid light shades that are composed of tiny dots on a white background. Printed areas will be protected with wax, and wind up as copper traces on your layout.

Note added 3-7-08: Use "high resolution" or "photo" mode when printing. This printer setting is typically available in the "Print Setup" menu of your graphics program. High-resolution mode prints more slowly and seems to promote better adhesion of wax to copper.

10 mil (250-micron) wide lines and spaces were printed from a Tektronix Phaser 850, which is an older model.

In most Phasers the copper side should face down when it goes in the manual feed and comes out upside down. Give a little push if the manual feed cog has trouble grabbing onto the sheet (more likely with thicker sheets)

Step 4: Etch It

Put the printed sheet in ferric chloride (copper etchant) for at least 5 minutes. Keep the etchant from getting on your eyes and skin. The etch time will depend on temperature, copper thickness and other conditions, taking up to 25 minutes, so keep watching for copper areas to dissolve and the polyimide film to show up. Bubbling with an aquarium pump, and heating up to 35-40 C will help the etch proceed faster and more evenly.

The remaining wax can be scrubbed off with a ScotchBrite pad and warm water, or isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol). This can take some effort.

Step 5: Populate the Board

The flex PCB is now ready to cut apart into small circuits (if that's your plan) and to solder. You can tape it onto a piece of metal or a regular fiberglass circuit board to hold it steady while working on it. "Tinnit" nickel plating solution or similar can be used to make it easier to solder to, but the freshly etched and cleaned flex PCB is easily soldered as is.

Because it is a 1-sided PCB, without holes, it is most useful as a tiny cable or as a board for surface mount parts. Use jumpers if necessary for traces to cross on your layout.



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    104 Discussions


    11 years ago on Introduction

    Hi! Where could I find this product (Pyralux). I´ve tried at ebay and other websites but I cannot find anything. I also asked Dupont about a sampler order but I haven´t received any answerd from them. Thanks.

    2 replies

    Reply 11 years ago on Introduction

    Hmm, I am wondering if I combine kapton tape and copper tape if this can be used instead. Making your own flex circuits would be EXTREMELY helpful for when you are hacking something and break a flex. Normally, that pretty much ends your project right there. I am going to pick up some copper tape and kapton tape to try (or snag a piece of each from work.) I see kapton film on ebay and adhesive copper sheets. If the above works, it should work for that as well. I just wish I had a solid-ink printer! That sounds REALLY useful for circuit board design.


    Reply 7 weeks ago

    RetroPlayer I know this post is so old I'm hoping you're still in contact with it or you even get this message.. I was actually looking to do the same thing get some kapton sheets and some copper sheets stick them together and try that... I was wondering if you ever did this if you had any success or if it worked? Really look forward to hearing from you!! -Larry


    Question 6 months ago on Step 5

    Can we print antenna on flexible circuit? Thanks!


    3 years ago

    Just found a good source of Pyralux 9" x 12" on ebay, going to order some this weekend will report back:


    4 years ago on Introduction

    Has anyone found a source for this sort of copper-kapton material, except with nichrome foil? Thanks..


    7 years ago on Introduction

    I got the film and the solid ink printer, but I have a problem. Do I need to clean the pyralux or something because I am having a hard time soldering on there? I mean is there a coating on there that is not letting me solder it. After I print it and cleaned it with some acetone for the ink, do I need to clean the wax some other way. I tried with the rubbing alcohol but it seems to take the copper off with it? Any suggestions?

    1 reply

    Reply 4 years ago on Introduction

    putting liquid tin on copper boards makes it easier to solder to them. Probably would help with pyralux too. you can get bottles of "liquid tin" on amazon.


    4 years ago on Introduction


    5 years ago on Step 5

    just what i needed , i am building a voice changer circuit to integrate into a Halloween mask, but using a regular circuit board is not good as i would like it to comform to the mask , and with this i can build it to fit in the nooks of the mask, very stealthly

    1 reply

    4 years ago on Step 4

    For small PCB's (which many flexible ones are) I wonder if the cheap small format photo dye sublimation printers would work? I.E. the ones that print at A6 or Postcard size.


    4 years ago on Introduction

    wow, did this company just rip off this entire instructable?

    Mark Rehorst

    5 years ago on Introduction

    Great! This would be really useful in 3D printers where you have to run multiple wires (up to 10 for a single extruder) to the extruder and have the thing free to move back and forth easily. Using wide lines would let you carry the current for the heater and thinner lines could be used for the motor, thermistor, and fan(s).

    1 reply

    With the right pattern, you could use this to make custom printbed heaters that are much lighter than the silicone covered nichrome wire things.


    9 years ago on Introduction

    Hi *, do anyone know where I can find the pyralux or kapton in Italy or some website tha ships to italy? Cheers, Enrico

    3 replies