## Introduction: Design of Linear AutoTransformer

This is an innovative design of three-phase linear autotransformer with variable voltage. The design of three phase autotransformer by changing the conventional design we can reduce the costing, size, and inrush current as well as increased in efficiency.

Linear Autotransformer As compared to laminated E-I types lamination because of the lack of a residual gap in the magnetic path, toroidal transformers take higher inrush current, Toroidal core transformer needs higher labor cost of winding, costly equipment. In toroidal core, it is necessary to pass the entire length of a coil winding through the core aperture each time a single turn is added to the coil.

In this prototype work by using I lamination we are going to design linear autotransformer to improve the cooling, efficiency, to reduce labor cost and also to reduce inrush current.

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## Step 1: Transformer Core Assembly

1) Calculate volt ampere (VA) (Vs*Is)

2) Calculate Turns/volts (Te) From the given table below

3) Calculate flux Φm = 1/ 4.44*f*Te

4) Consider maximum flux density Bm= 1wb/mm2

5) Calculate net area of core Ai= Φm/Bm

6) Gross area of core Agi= Ai/0.9 (where 0.9 is stacking factor ) (Note:- Stacking factor gives an approximate number to how much of core is effective when calculating flux)

7) Width of central limb 8) Wd= (Agi)1/2

More detailed calculation visit innovatorsguru.com

**Transformer ****Core(CRNO AND CRGO)**

Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Electrical Steel (CRGO) and Non Cold Rolled Non Grain Oriented Electrical Steel CRNGO. Grain oriented Electrical Steel CRGO is undoubtedly the most important soft magnetic material in use today. Whether in small transformer, distribution transformer or in large transformer & generator, grain oriented electrical steel CRGO is a must for the production of energy saving electrical machines. Grain oriented Electrical Steels are iron-silicon alloys that provide low core loss and high permeability needed for more efficient and economical electrical transformers.

**Core Material: **0.5mm thick CRNO (Cold Rolled Non-Grain Oriented ) Grade of 50C530, coating C6A. and Watt losses of 4.09 watt/kg.

## Step 2: Design of Primary Winding

1) Calculate current in primary winding

Ip= VA/Vp*η

Where,

VA =Volt ampere

η = Efficiency and its value is to be considered inbetween 80 to 96%)

2) Calculate area of primary winding conductor

Ap= Ip/δp mm2

Where,

δp – Current density of primary winding conductor in A/mm2 value is generally taken as 2.3 A/mm2

3) From the area diameter of bare conductor is calculated as

d = (4*Ap)/π mm

1) Diameter

of insulated conductor is calculated from given table (di)

2) New Area of primary conductor used

Ap= (π/4)*d2

3) Number of primary turns

Tp= Primary voltage* Turns/volts

Tp= Vp*Te

4) Window space required

= (Tp*Ap) mm2

## Step 3: MATERIAL SELECTION

After calculation to design transformer which is cost effective, durable, and as per standard specification it is very challenging work. for the best optimum design the material selection plays the important role.

Following three basic materials required to design transformer

• Magnetic Material (Core Material)

• Electrical Material ( Winding Material)

• Dielectric Material (Insulation Material)

## Step 4: Working of Linear Autotransformer

The whole three phase winding of the transformer is divided into three limbs with equal no of turns.

Advantages

- Reduce the inrush Current·
- Reduction in cost of less labor and core material·
- Because of less leakage flux, it gives Higher efficiency

Application

- Adjusting AC voltage·
- Induction Motor Starter·
- Lab testing power supply

## 5 Discussions

2 months ago

Really good article you have explained the design of linear transformer very well also you could have given detailed calculation based on the proven formula of transformers. This article is going to be helpful electrical projects for students. Here is the best article in my knowledge students can refer this article regarding the magnetic core selection while they are working on any electronic project https://nicoreindia.com/magnetic-cores-selection-criteria-electronic-winding-components/

1 year ago on Step 4

This is an excellent student project, well done! It would be nice if you could provide the actual values of your calculations based on the formulas you have used as a validation of your design. And, you need to be more careful regarding safety.

Question 1 year ago on Introduction

Can you give me problem stetment of three phase linear autotransforme using rectangular core

2 years ago

This is most interesting, thanks for sharing.

Reply 2 years ago

Thanks for your appriciation