We always face across dustbins in streets where we either have to touch or press the lid by our feet to make it open, or in many cases we come across uncovered dustbins. So to improve the cleaning system here I'm presenting here a dustbin which opens its lid automatically when we bring our hands near it and closes automatically after the hand is removed. Also there is a warning system when the bin is full so that the municipality can clean it with ease.
The Arduino that is AtmelMega328P here is the brains of the organisations.So lets get started.
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Step 1: Parts Required
1. Aruino Uno/Nano/Mega/Micro
2. 1 Servo motor
5. 9V battery
6. Small cut out breadboard piece( you will see it later in pics)
8. 2pcs IR obstacle sensor module
9. Tapes,Scissors,Double Sided tapes
10. Small Shaft( Can preferably of metal)
12. A cylindrical basket like thing for the Bin itself.
Step 2: Basic Theory Behind the Operation
The IR obstacle is used here to detect the human hand. The IR module has a IR LED which always glows and a photodiode is attached just beside it.When the IR falls on the photodiode electron hole pairs are released and hence a current flows and hence a small voltage.So when hands are brought over the IR led it reflects the light back to the photodiode and can provide a voltage change and hence can detect obstacle. Now there is a potentiometer in it to adjust the sensitivity( how far or close our hands might be over the module so that it will give output).The Comparator inside the circuit do the job to convert the analog values into digital logic 5V or 0V. Here we have used 2 of them, one for detecting hand and another one to warn of the garbage level inside it after it's overfilled value.
The Servo is used to rotate the lid of the bin.The Servo has a controlled angular positioning shaft. That is unlike ordinary motors it can be specified to move by certain defined angles.The Shaft can be configured to rotate from 0 to 180 degrees. In our system 0 degree is configured as lid closed and 180 as lid open.The control IC inside it takes care of the positioning of the motor.
Step 3: Connecting Everything and Uploading Code
Now connect everthing as given in the circuit diagram.You can add notifying LEDs Buzzers and lots more.Changes must be done in the code too( attached ). Take a cylindrical structure for the bin .Cut out a Circular disc made of Cardboard as the Lid.Use double sided tape and packing tapes to secure everything.Take a Shaft and attach the hand detecting IR module on the top of the shaft.The other end of the shaft has to be attached on the side of(walls) of the bin. Attach the garbage monitoring IR module inside it with double sided tapes or anything you like.Details can be found in the pics attached.It will be more clear.
Now upload the code attached here.Upload it. First check whether everything is working or not.Check your connections again if not working. Now rotate the potentiometer slowly as long the LED of it glows. Then slowly rotate it keeping your hands over it so as to adjust the distance as per the requirement.It is just a work of calibration. Do it slowly with patience. You can see more articles about adjusting it too.
You can see this for your help.
Step 4: Giving Power
Now after everything is complete, attach everything to make it full ready.Now attach 9V at Vin and GND, to make it portable.See the video attached here for the working of this bin. You can now add sound display,etc to make it more user interactive.There is also a proposed design which you can use(see pic).You can also add motors so that you can make it movable in your room.
So build this now and keep your environment clean.