About: The woods are my home...always.

A Short About Me:

I went to my first Renaissance Festival in Georgia, USA, last year and fell in love with them. From then on, I have been trying to improve my costumes and create something extraordinary! This was the first thing I found, and decided that I wanted to make a chain mail shirt. They say not to make a shirt as a first chain mailing project, but I did. I went all-out and even made my own jump rings. I didn't make the shirt for nothing, and I wore it to the next Renaissance Festival.

My only regrets is the tool I used to cut the rings. If you want to make your rings and good quality chain mail try to find something that will cut the rings as flush as possible, e.g. jewelry saw.

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Step 1: WHY 6-IN-1?

First, I want to make a comparison.

6-in-1 versus 4-in-1 made with the same ring size.

Notice the density difference between the two? For some wire gauges and ring diameters the 4-in-1 just doesn’t give your chain mail project the authenticity and functionality it needs. Would you be impressed with a hauberk that looked like you could almost poke your finger through it? No, not really. Don’t get me wrong, there is nothing wrong with 4-in-1 and in some projects it looks amazing and it is much easier to make. But if you wanted your chain mail to look much more defensive and resilient, larger rings and a denser weave would be what you are looking for.

Is European 4-in-1 all you know how to make? Then this Instructable is meant for you! It is time for you to progress to the next level.


Ample working space, whether it be the tabletop or the floor, as long as there is enough room to shuffle things around.

  • 2 Pairs of Pliers (make sure your pliers have good grip on jump rings and that they are comfortable to use, keeping in mind how many thousands of times you are going to use them)
  • Jump Ring Opener/Closer Tool (optional)
  • 3 Pans to Separate Jump Rings


  • Rings for Your Project (the rings featured in this Instructable are right-handed, mild steel, 12 gauge with a loose inner diameter of 3/8”)

In This Instructable: Term Glossary (only, it’s not in alphabetical order)
Row: The literal row of chain mail links in a straight line
Chain: This term is my reference to a three rowed piece of chain mail
Base Chain: The piece of chain mail you build on for the main portion of your chain mail project
Weave: Why we chain mailers call it “weave” I really don’t know but that is the term for making chain mail

NOTE: I am right-handed so for all the left-handers out there do what is comfortable and actually that goes for everyone. There is no right or wrong way as long as the weaving process is done correctly. Other than that, make it however works for you.


  • Start with 1 open ring and 6 closed rings.
  • Put all of the closed rings in the open ring and close the open ring.
  • Slide another open ring through the last four rings, add two closed rings and close the open ring. Continue this until you have a base chain long enough for your project.


This is my personal preference when adding to the base chain because it adds 4 rows to your project at once. However, there are other ways to add to your base chain (instructions in later steps). This one requires you to make another chain exactly like your original base chain. Lay them out on a table where the rings on the edges lay in the same direction.

Take an open ring (obviously) and insert it into three rings on each piece and close it using your pliers. Keep going until they're joined.

It is prudent to check your work periodically to make sure everything is as it should be and catch mistakes early.


With this method two rows are added to your base chain.
  • Start by placing an open ring thorough the first three rings on the top of your base chain and add three closed rings to it and close.
  • Next, insert one open ring through the next three rings on the base chain and through the last two you had just added.
  • Add one closed ring to open ring and close. Continue this until you reach the end of your base chain.


If only one row is needed to be added this method is what you’re looking for. It’s as simple as inserting one open ring through three rings and closing the ring. Just make sure you make the row you’re adding look exactly like the middle row of your base chain. However, be prepared to spend a lot of time opening and closing rings as every single one has to be!

What about adding a piece onto the end of your chain mail? I did call this a beginner’s guide so here’s how in the next step!


Match up the ends of the chain mail where it looks like a continuous chain. Using the rings already at the ends of the chain mail join the two pieces together by identifying the center row of the chains and opening the first ring and passing it through the four on the opposite piece. Next, take the second ring in the row and open it, passing it through the two opposite. Pretty simple, huh?


If you want to make your own rings but can’t afford the expensive wires or you want to try 6-in-1 and not waste your expensive wire then go to your local hardware store and by a spool of tie wire. It work-hardens as you wind it around the mandrel so it becomes strong enough to use for chain mail. DO NOT get a rusty spool. If you can, get a newer spool that still has the coat of oil on the wire. However, after you wind the coils and cut them all that oil is rubbed away. Be sure to coat your chain mail in some sort of rust proofing agent. I used linseed oil for mine. It dries and leaves a dark finish on the rings. However, if you’re looking for a knight in shining chain mail look, than this wire would not be suitable.

Have you ever put on a frame backpack? Did you notice how it took some of the weight off your shoulders? Wearing a tighter belt around your waist will do the same thing, making a chain mail shirt much more comfortable. It takes all the chain mail below the belt and puts it on your hips instead of ALL the weight being on your shoulders. Believe me, wearing a mail shirt for six hours straight (yes, I did), it makes a difference!

If you plan to make a sleeveless chain mail shirt consider making the shoulders wide, to give it more surface area to spread and even out the weight.

Also, if you’re really wimpy, shoulder padding might help. 

Now, boys ignore this next piece because it is completely irrelevant to you!
Girls, if you’re crazy like me and want to make yourselves chain mail shirts, keep this in mind. When you wear chain mail it tends to take all the flattering curves away from your figure. Sure, woman going into battle wouldn’t care if they were pretty or not. But we don’t have any real battles to fight so we do care how we look; it’s a fact of life.

To evade embarrassing myself, I will simply leave it to your imaginations how wearing something heavy would work out. So, to solve the problem, and to make it more feminine and form-fitting, add a black string into the chain mail under the bust to create a drawstring.

Make sure the string you use is durable (or it will break under tension, like you inhaling) but small enough to not be seen in the chain mail. Find or make a needle (paper clips or chain mailing wire work well) that has an eye the right size for the string you choose and that can be fed easily into the chain mail links. Put on your chain mail shirt and find where the drawstring should be inserted. Keep note of how many rows from the neckline or arm it is and remove your chain mail shirt. Feed the needle into the row of rings, passing through the middle. The place you start is also where you finish so that is where the drawstring ends will be. Tie something bigger than chain mail to the ends of the string so it will not get pulled back through (like those annoying pajama pants that do that when you wash them).
Put it back on and synch it up to a comfortable tightness and tie it off. Goodbye boyish blob, hello girly curves!



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50 Discussions


Tip 1 year ago



Tip 1 year ago on Step 3

Had several mistakes that were hard to find doing it loose like this. Found using rods as a guide kept everything aligned and the prices faster with no errors

The Block Meister

2 years ago

I need to make some 6 in 1 mail for a science project, I want to keep it accurate, quick and cheap. Should I use homemade rings or prefab rings?


6 years ago on Step 8

Nice instruct-able. You may want to include in this:
• a shirt pattern(s)
• typical cost
• time to build
• and a side note that real chain mail links were individually riveted together by a blacksmith and not simply crimped--making them much stronger.

2 replies

The cost of this shirt was around $30.00 (I made this shirt last year so I'm not entirely sure about the cost anymore) because I bought tie wire from a local hardware store. If you want to buy the rings online I would suggest doing much research and expect the cost to be much higher.

The time was around 3 months but I was doing it basically whenever I felt like it.

The shirt pattern I made from paper, cutting it to fit me, and then fashioning the chain mail after it (with additional space to allow for putting it on and taking it off). I simply used square pieces that I joined together, because chain mail forms to you fairly well.

TenireShadow Ranger

Reply 3 years ago

This is a darn good instructable! However, when you say it cost you $30 to make it, you aren't projecting an accurate estimate.

I see $30 in materials, perhaps, but your time is easily another $300. Don't forget the hours you spent making rings, making a jig, and weaving.

Mail ain't cheap, and there's a reason why custom pieces are so expensive.


4 years ago on Introduction

Easy as to do this, but a bit tricky joining rings and strips of rings together at first.

Tie wire is easy to use, but also come apart more easily. Galvanised electric fence wire is the best so far and I have tried High Tenstile wire (HT) but that is too hard and it broke the tip of my bolt cutter that I used to cut the rings one by one from the mandrel. What I need is an easy way to cut the rings, and I am working on something now to work a bit like a stationary saw while sliding a coil of rings through it. Thin blade would work best, but it is still a work in progress, and any ideas would help. Thanks

3 replies

My dad has a metal cutting band saw that works from a tabletop (best way I can describe it) and basically he designed a cuttable mandrel using a long bolt and attached a guide to it to keep the blade cutting strait. (Now that I'm actually trying to describe this thing it is sounding more complicated than it really is and I'm almost confusing myself.) I apologize for not posting the pictures sooner but life seems the always get in the way of things. If possible, I'll post them in a few weeks. But keep at it, Richardperki!

RichardperkiShadow Ranger

Reply 3 years ago

Hi There

About posting a picture of the Cutting Mandrel, etc. Just a request / reminder to post a pic for us, thanks.


4 years ago

Great instruction and work. The thickness is the wire you are using;

You can purchase rings online from various suppliers or you can go for the cheaper option and make your own. I used simple tie wire for mine bought at some 5 dollars from my local hardware store. Of course this is more hassle and time consuming but for someone who would like to keep a hobby inexpensive it is the better option. But you will just have to look around to find what rings are right for your project and your budget.

Thanks for commenting and reading my instructable!


4 years ago on Introduction

Great instructable. I think ill be making me some chain. Still not sure if ill go for the 4 in 1 or the 6 in 1 above, although ill probably try it with anodized aluminium (as the colours can look awesome!)

For those who know, is there a reason why curved rings are used rarther than flat. I would imagine that it allows it to flow easier for the wearer...


I would like to add for those out there trying to find a good cutting method: If you happen to have a steel-cutting band saw just lying around your place, you can rig up a rod to slip the coil onto, attach it to the machine and cut them that way. My ingenious dad figured it up for me and has made making chain mail so much more enjoyable...and less painful. I'll post a picture later for anyone that would like to know how he did it.

1 reply

5 years ago on Step 7

Are those rings painted, or did you just color them with photo-editing software? At least in the last one, they definitely look like they could have been treated with an eggshell powdercoat or something like that.

2 replies

No, the rings are not painted, nor have I edited the photo. They are simply mild steel tie wire that had the oil cleaned from them during the coiling process. Tie wire tends to be dark to begin with, and I just kept the look. After the shirt was made I did coat it in linseed oil to prevent rust, but that is the only tampering I have done with the color of the rings. :)