First Identify the format that your teacher, instructor or lecturer requires.
For most academic essays, your instructor or lecturer will tell you the format in which you are supposed to deliver your paper.
Some of the major Writing formats are APA (6th Edition), APA 7th Edition), AGLC, MLA, MHRA, Chicago, Turabian, Harvard, Oxford or OSCOLA, Open University and BMJ Vancouver.
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Step 1: Harvard
n-text citations start with writing the author first then the year of publishing General Format: Author (Year) or (Author, year) Example: Maya (1867) or (Maya,1867) Bibliography citations When citing books, the following format can be used: Author, Author’s initials, Year of Publishing, Name of the book, Edition of book, publication location, Publisher of the book. For instance: Whitney., (2006). Game Changer. Texas: Hiercy When citing Journals: The following format should be used Author, (Year) Title of the article. Journal’s full title, Volume number (Issue number), Page number rage Example: Le Pichon, X., 1968. Sea‐floor spreading and continental drift. Journal of Geophysical Research, 73(12), pp.3661-3697. During in text citations, for unknown pages; one should use n.p meaning that there is no page available. Intext citations should be like this; Author (Year: Page number) or (Author, year: Page number). Example: (Barlett and Coyne, 2014) Bibliography Format should be like; Book: Author, (Year) Title. Edition. Publication Location: Publisher For Instance; References Barlett, C. and Coyne, S. (2014). A meta-analysis of sex differences in cyberbullying behavior: The moderating role of age. Aggressive Behavior, 40(5), pp.474-488.
Step 2: APA
This writing format has many similarities with Harvard except for the indenting of every single line in every reference. During in-text citations.Iit is always proper to reference every author during every instance that there is some referencing. Example: Author (Year) or (Author, year) It is advisable to use & inside the parenthesis (Barlett, & Coyne, 2014) Bibliography reference References Barlett, C., & Coyne, S. (2014). A meta-analysis of sex differences in cyberbullying behavior: The moderating role of age. Aggressive Behavior, 40(5), 474-488. When there are more than seven authors, it is always advisable to use “et al” but that is after citing every author in the first instance then later on citing the first author then “et al” can be used. When the author has written more than two books, you can always use initials like 2014a or 2014b to represent the two different publications. To learn other formats of writing a paper, please contact our authors and they shall help you out.
I will be posting more regarding these formats soon.