As we know, Peru is not a developed country like the USA and other European nations, which have complex cable systems that reach the entire country. As a result, most of its population has access to cable television, instead of having to rely heavily on antennas to watch TV and use it for other electronic devices. In our case, most telecommunications are transmitted by radio signals instead of ground wires. It is known that out of a total of 31,770 million people, 83.1% have access to TV (INEI, 2016); which is 26,400,870 million people. Of the previous number, only 37.1% of the Peruvian population has access to cable television. That's approximately 9,794,723 million people compared to the rest of its population, 16,606,147 million people who depend on antennas or radio signals by air. As a result, we can infer that the majority of Peru's population depends on the antennas to watch television and use other devices, such as radios.
On the other hand, Peru is a capitalist country, in which its riches are poorly distributed among the population. As a result, of the total Peruvian population, approximately 8.3 million suffer poverty, while 1.9 million are in extreme poverty; with an approximate total of 10.2 million people (32.1% of the peruvian population). Due to that, we can infer that all these people do not have access to cable TV, which means that they depend on antennas. As a consequence, half of the population that does not have access to cable television (62.9%) is low income, which means that they cannot buy a reliable antenna that can provide them with a good signal and resist climate changes.
Having considered all these statistics, we chose this project because we consider it urgent to provide the entire Peruvian population with good quality, cheap and easy access to information sources through antennas (not only cable) that can provide them access to radio and television.
The main objective is to provide the entire Peruvian population and many other users around the globe with good quality, cheap and easy access to information through radio signals (antennas), which can keep them informed by giving good signal on televisions and other electronic devices, such as radios.
Build a rugged antenna that can withstand climatic changes, strong winds and extreme temperatures, such as 3 degrees Celsius in Ticlio (peak city in the Andes) or 43 degrees Celsius in the Peruvian Amazon.Build an antenna that can provide good radio and TV signal despite its location and other geographical features of the place where it would operate.Create a cost-effective antenna that can be affordable for poor people and that anyone could easily build. It should be more economical than other high quality antennas, but it could compete with them due to its resistance and efficiency.
Step 1: Theoretical Support (you Don´t Need to Read It):
To understand how an antenna works, we need to read about the following topics:
What is a signal? Types of telecommunication signals, How signals are received and transmitted? What is an antenna and how it works? and Antenna vs. Cable TV
What is a signal?:
It refers to the means of data transmission that is distributed in the form of electromagnetic and audiovisual waves (telecommunications). Is any means where it can be transferred information, as cell phones, computers, telephones, etc.
Type of waves:
There are two fundamental types of signals that compose the telecommunication spectrum. Those are: Analogical and Digital
Analog (unidirectional, continuous):
They specialize in the transmission of videos or audios. The signal travels encrypted (benefits), for which a decoder is needed. Low consumption/investment and data transmission; it is broadcast in real time. The signal can’t be corrected and degrades over time by removing copies and more info.
Digital (multi directional signal, that is, returnable):
High quality and volume of data transmission. The binary system is used, which gives more possibilities. The signal does not travel encrypted. The information and content does not degrade over time; that's why it gives better results. Moderate investment and greater ease when transmitting or searching for data.
How are signals received and transmitted?:
The signals, whether they are analogical or digital, are transmitted by different amplitudes or frequency that are divided in two groups: AM (Modulated amplitude, low frequency = longer wavelength; low-quality and better reach (can go through objects)) FM (Modulated frequency, high frequency = shorter wavelength; high quality and little reach (does not pass objects) First, the signals are produced in radio stations to then be transmitted by a single enormous antenna, which is the central antenna. Then, the signal does spread through all of the country by redirecting to the nearest repeater antennas, which does increase its range. Lastly, the signal is received from the closest repeater antenna via cable or by your antenna and reproduced on your flat TV.
What is an antenna and how does it work?:
An antenna is a device made of metals and cables that serves as a receiver of audiovisual waves.It receives the signals through inclined metal surfaces, so that afterwards these are transmitted on a television as images and audios.In our case, the aluminum surfaces repel the signals against the base (reflector) of the antenna and keep the signal concentrated at the point of plug-in towards the transformer; which gives a better resolution on TV.
Antenna (pros and cons):
You shouldn’t pay monthly because you get it for free.
It is cost-effective when it competes with other antenas, which are more expensive.
It can be affected in bad methereological conditions.
It’s susceptible to interferences.
It depends on the geographical position,
Step 2: Materials Needed for the Antenna (go Get Them Now!):
- Aluminium foil
- 2 units of 500 ml of terokal and / or 1 liter of white glue
- 2 screws with nuts and washers
- 2 large cardboard boxes
- Paint paper and color to decorate (optional)
- A few feet of triplay
- UHF / VHF Matching Transformer from 75 to 300 Ohm (impedance transformer)
- Coaxial cable at least 4 feet to 10 feet long
Step 3: Procedure (Step 1):
First, we cut the principal base of antenna (33 x 35.5 inches) and other pieces like the wings, from cardboard box.
Both pair of wings need to be of the same size and need to fit on the base of the antenna, so in that way the electromagnetic signals keep concentrated in the central part of the antenna (where the wiring and transformer lie). In other words, the signal needs to keep bouncing in between the base and the wings so that the screws can redirect that signal through the matching transformer and the coaxial cable into the TV.
Step 4: Step 2 (Pasting Aluminum Foil to the Back of the Pieces):
Then, you need to paste aluminum foil with glue on the back of the wings (the whole piece) and also to the back of your cardboard base. Try to smooth it out by using your hands or other objects and let it dry off for at least one hour. In order for the signals to be received by the screws and matching transformer, the aluminum foil will work as a reflector by redirecting straight down to the base of the antenna the TV signals and into the screws, which then lead to the UHF/VHF matching transformer (Im sorry for the image, but we had no other one to display so we chose this one that can be found also down below).
Step 5: Step 3 (Linking Both Pairs of Wings):
After that, make two holes in each cone or wing from the antenna and cut two narrow strings of triplay to connect both pair of wings. Next, connect both pairs of wings with the narrow strings of triplay to counteract the weight that acts on the wings towards the ground, connect the whole reflecting system and give a way for the signal to reach the screws and the matching transformer.
Step 6: Step 4 (Linking the Bridges With the Matching Transformer):
Once the assembly of the antenna is done, we should proceed to link both of the bridges made of triplay with the matching transformer. These are sustained with nuts that are able to capture the signals contained in the antenna.
Step 7: Step 5 (Cutting and Making the Carboard Bases or Mounting Brackets):
Also, after that we need to cut the mounting brackets for the antenna. Just cut two big rectangular holes in the antenna and (from a separate cardboard sheet) cut two more rectangular cardboard pieces, which will be the support for the whole reflecting system made earlier. These need to fit in the holes made on the base of the antenna. Finally, connect with glue or terokal each piece of cardboard with the support on the base of the antenna (hole) to make two solid cardboard bases.
Step 8: Last Step (Bringing It All Together):
Last but not least, you need to connect the reflecting system to the cardboard base and the transformer to the coaxial cable (that later will connected to the TV). You're done, proceed to test the antenna to see how it goes!