Introduction: Beats by Kevin & Chris (DIY Headphones)
The best headphones in the block. This headphones were build by the Da Vinci Science Studio inventors called Dr. KCKA. Our task for Physics was to create our own headphone set from scratch. Using our knowledge about magnetism, sound waves, wavelength, and frequency.
The three most important components in any speaker is a magnet, diaphragm, and voice coil. The diaphragm vibrates to project the sound and amplifies vibrations to push sound waves in more directions. While the voice coil provides a path for electric current to travel through. Also, the voice coil amplifies magnetic field to vibrate. Then, the magnet provides a magnetic field and causes vibrations.Voice coils vibrate because the coil is an electromagnet. When current or electricity is run through the coil, a magnetic field is created. The iron which is surrounded by the coil becomes an electromagnet which can alternate or switch its poles unlike a permanent magnet. The way the poles of the magnet can alternate is due to the alternating current. A sound wave is a transfer of energy as it travels away from a vibrating source. Sound waves are formed when a vibrating object causes the surrounding medium to vibrate. Having two magnets in each cup affects the loudness of sound compared to having one magnet. Also, in sanding the ends of the copper/ voice coil.
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Step 1: Obtaining Materials
- 2 Plastic cups
- To be used as the headphones for each ear
- Blue and black electrical tape
- To wrap around the voice coil/ copper
- Aux plug without wire
- Connection between headphones and your music player
- Copper/ Voice coil 28 AWG
- 4 1/2 in. Neodymium Rare-Earth Magnet Discs
- Produce Vibration
- Elmer's glue stick
- To be used in order to wrap around the copper/ voice coil
- Paper towel
- To be used as a gasket (if necessary)
- Post its
- To be slipped off the glue stick in order to take the wrapped coil
- Sand paper
- Alligator clips (if necessary)
- Wire cutter (scissors can work)
- A baseball cap or hat
- Spray Paint (if wanted to decorate the cups)
- IPod, MP3 or any source of music player with aux entry
Most materials needed can be found in Home Depot.
Step 2: Magnets
- First, get the plastic cup and place one of the circular magnets inside it towards the bottom, and the other magnet on top of the outside bottom. In order to attract each other from different sides.
Step 3: Creating the Copper/ Voice Coil
- After, get the 28 AWG roll and acquire about one meter of copper coil. Then after you have measure how long the copper coil was, grab the wire cutter or scissor and cut the wire.
- Obtain the glue stick and wrap a post it around, covering about 2/3 of the glue stick. Use tape if needed to secure the post it.
- Decide how many wraps of coil you want to include. I suggest you have great deal of coils since having more coils makes the sound louder and clear. I decided to have 30 coils, so wrap 30 times the copper coil around the glue stick.
- Leave 2 ends of wire measuring about 1.5 inches.
- DO NOT WRAP THE COIL TOO TIGHT AROUND THE POST IT, YET DO NOT LET THE WIRE BE LOOSE.
Step 4: Removing the Coil
- Slip the copper/voice coil with the post it off the glue stick carefully and take your time as you do it. Try to keep the coil tightly as you slip it off.
- When slipped off, put pressure into the post it making it flat. In order for the coil to be removed from the post it.
Step 5: Sanding and Placing
- Grab the black electrical tape to secure the coil and to tighten it.
- Furthermore, get the sandpaper and sandpaper the two 1.5 inches ends of copper coil. A coil of wire becomes an electromagnet when current passes through it. The electromagnet interacts with a permanent magnet. Use sandpaper to remove the enamel completely.
- Check to see if you can see any red coating on the area you just sanded. If you can't see any red coating, then great you did it correctly. When finished sand papering both ends of the coil, place it on top of the outside top magnet. In between the magnet.
Step 6: Finishing Touches
- Cut 5 pieces of tape about 3 inches and tape the coil in order for it to be secure to the cup and magnet. With the magnet being in the center.
- Acquire the aux plug and remove the removal piece of it.
- Then, wrap around the two sanded coil ends around the two terminals of the aux plug separately. Make sure the wires are not touching each other.
Step 7: Checking for Sound
- Plug the aux plug into your phone, MP3, or IPod and twist the coils around the aux plug for the sound to be clear.
- Play any song of your choosing and listen to the sound being produce by putting the open end of the cup next to your ear.
Step 8: Repeating the Process
- Repeat steps 1 through 7, and after checking for sound, dis-plug/disconnect the coil from the aux plug. Leaving the aux plug by itself.
Step 9: Third Wire and Sanding
- Obtain the 28 AWG roll of copper coil and acquire about 13 inches of coil.
- Sand two inches of the two ends of wire.
- From each end of the wire you just sanded, tie one end of the two voice coil ends from one cup to the wire you just sanded (one end of it). Tie it really tight. Then, from the remaining end, tight and wrap one of the two voice coil ends of the other cup you did to the last remaining end of the wire.
Step 10: Wiring
- Cut about 2 separate wires of about 15 inches long.
- Sand both ends of both wires
- Then, get one wire and tie/wrap around one end of the remaining two voice coils to one of the 15 inch wire.
- From the remaining end of the wire you used to connect with the other wire, insert it through one terminal of the aux cord and wrap around tightly.
- Repeat steps 3 through 4 with the remaining 15 inch wire and end of the voice coil ends of the other cup.
Step 11: Wrapping Black and Blue Electrical Tape
- Use the black electrical tape and wrap it around both copper coils tightly from the nearest point to the aux cord, until the middle of both wires.
- Now you have half of the wire untapped, so now you get the blue electrical tape and wrap it around the copper coils separately. Like the chord going to the left and right ear buds.
Step 12: Connecting Headphones to Hat
- With the remaining shown voice coil, you use it to connect it with the hat. In order to connect the copper coil to the hat, use black electrical tape to tape it to the hat. Use as many tape as possible in order to be secure tightly.
Step 13: Magic
- Connect the aux plug into your music source and pick a song to play.
- Put on the hat and put the two open ends of both cups onto/next your ear.
Step 14: Troubleshooting
- If you can't hear any sound, make sure to sand the ends properly. Check that no red is being shown on the wire.
- Tighten the wire wrapped around the two terminals of the aux plug and make sure the wires are not touching each other.
- When connecting wires together, make sure to twist them together tightly.
- Use the same neodymium magnets and it should be four magnets.
- Push down the voice coil onto to the magnet by securing it with tape.
- Include four magnets.
Step 15: How Specifically Do Number of Magnets/coils Affect Loudness?
As I conducted this experiment/project, I noticed that the number of magnets and coils do indeed affect the loudness. At first, I started with 20 coils and the sound was alright. Though, it had a very low sound and it was struggle to hear the music. So then I advance to 25 coils if it would make a difference. When I included the 25 coils instead of the 20 coils, there was a difference but not a huge one. After noticing it made a difference, I decided to go with 30 coils, in which it made a huge difference. The sound was amazing with being really loud and clear to understand. I believe this happened because the voice coil strengthens magnetic field inside the coil, which us the source of vibrations for sound waves. So when having more coils, the more the strength for the magnetic field, causing much more vibrations.
Then, while I also conducted this project, I noticed that the number of magnets affect greatly the sound and clearness. When I was creating my headphones, I only had two magnets in my possession. So when I started testing my headphones, I could only hear sound from one cup because the other had no magnets which was totally pointless. Since the magnets provides permanent magnetic field. After noticing this, I decided to go to the store in order to buy 2 more magnets for the other cup. Furthermore, when I added the two magnets, sound was being produced from both cups loudly and clearly! I believe this happened because the magnets attracts and repels the voice coil to make it vibrate.
Overall, I believe is much better to have a great number of coils and magnets when conducting this experiment/project.