HOW TO MAKE ARDUINO NANO/MINI | How to Burn Bootloader

In this Instructables I will Show you How to make an Arduino MINI from Scratch.

The procedure written in this instructables can be used to make any arduino boards for your custom project requirements.

Please Watch the Video For better understanding

There are three parts in this tutorial.

1. Designing and gathering all the Components

2. Burning Bootloader onto new Chip

3.Uploading the Test Code

I Have attached the PCB Files at the End of this article.

So lets get Started!

Step 1: Material List

  1. CP2102 USB to TTL Module(or similar like CH340)
  2. Arduino NANO
  3. Jumper Wires
  4. Atmega328P-AU Chip
  5. AMS1117 5V Regulator
  6. 16MHz Crystal
  7. SMD LED
  8. SMD Resistor ( 330R, 10K) (0604 package)
  9. Button Switch
  10. Capacitors ( 0.1uF, 22pF, 10uF) (I Used Ceramic type, but the board is designed for SMD_0612 Package)
  11. Terminal Strip
  12. All the tools and accessories for SMD Soldeing.

Step 2: Circuit Diagram and Making the Circuit Board

I made the Arduino MINI board in my SMD Soldering tutorial. You can checkout the video if you want to learn how.

A quick recap...I Applied the solder paste on PCB using stencil, Placed the components, and soldered using Hot air Blower.

I have used the open Source Arduino PCB Files from the Arduino Website and modified a little bit according to my requirements and available parts. Later I ordered the PCB Online from JLCPCB.

Step 3: Connections and Procedure to Burn Bootloader

Please Follow this Connection Details(Refer the Images/Video link For easy understanding*)

Homemade ArduinoMINI .................Arduino NANO

Pin 15 (MOSI).....................................D11

Pin 16 (MISO).....................................D12

Pin 17(SCK).......................................D13

Pin 29(RESET)...................................D10

VCC....................................................VCC(5V)

GND...................................................GND

Procedure To burn Boot loader after making the correct connections.

1) Connect the Arduino NANO to USB of your PC

2) Select the appropriate Board and Com Port

3) In tools menu select ARDUINO AS ISP Programmer. Path: Tools>Programmer>Arduino As ISP

4) Go to Tools and select Burn Boot Loader. Path:Tools> Burn Boot Loader

5) This may take up to a minute and the message " Done Burning Boot Loader" will be displayed.

After this you can remove all the connecting wires and connections and your new AVR Micro-Controller is ready to be used as standalone device for your projects.

*All the images are in order according to procedure

Step 4: Testing by Uploading the Code

In this step we will learn to upload the code onto new Homemade Arduino MINI. You Will have to follow this procedure every-time to upload the code.

Refer the Images/video link for easy Understanding.

I will upload the blink LED sketch to test if the new micro-controller is working properly.

Connections Details:

Homemade Arduino MINI .................CP2102

Rx......................................................Tx

Tx.......................................................Rx

VCC....................................................VCC(5V)

GND...................................................GND

1.After Making the connections, Connect the USB to TTL Converter Board(CP2102) to your Computer.

2. Open the Blink LED Sketch from the Examples Menu.

3. In the tools menu, select AVRISP programmer and upload the code.

4. Select the appropriate COM port and Board Settings.

5. Once the computer screen shows uploading, press the reset Button as we have not connected the DTR Pin to reset.

The Blinking LED indicates that the micro controller is working properly, and this Arduino Mini equivalent board can be used for your projects. Therefore we have learnt how to boot-load a brand new ATMEGA 328P-AU chip.

Step 5: Troubleshooting

By following the procedures from the previous steps you can easily you can easily boot- load the Atmega chip.

But due to some software or human errors it will become unsuccessful. Here are some suggestions from me:

1) Check your Circuit connections and components (mainly Crystal) if burning Boot loader does not work.

2) Make sure you have mentioned correct board and COM port in software

3) Check for faulty USB Cable.

4) If the Micro Controller is heating up when powered probably you have a faulty IC.

5)Check for Continuity in PCB and unwanted solder Bridges as we are using SMD Components.

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