Hnefatafl Board - the Viking Board Game




About: I'm from Pennsylvania, but lived in Korea for several years. I enjoy making things from scratch, learning new skills, programming in low-level programming languages, rock climbing, cooking, and bowling. My s...

A little known fact about the vikings is that they really liked board games, and their favorite game was Hnefatafl.

Hnefatafl is a game of strategy, somewhat similar to chess, though it is not derivative. Hnefatafl predates chess, and was the game to play until chess ousted it during the middle ages.

Hnefatafl was the game of choice for the vikings, and much of its popularity was due to the vikings spreading it around to the places the travelled to. Unlike most other strategy games, Hnefatafl features two unequal teams, which different goals, an attacking team, and a defending team. The attacker's goal is to capture the king, while the defenders goal is to let the king escape. The attacker also gets twice as many pieces, yet it is the defender that really has the advantage.

Though the game was the most popular game in the world during it's time, the rules were never actually written down. We know some rules by marked game boards which have been discovered, some rules from viking poems and song, and some rules written by an observer that couldn't even speak the language. However, by piecing together bits and pieces from different places, we can be fairly certain how the game was played.

I had never played the game before, in fact, I built this board just so that I could play the game. It turns out that it's really a fun game. The rules are simple but the game play is interesting and requires good strategy. I also discovered that my brother is much better at it than I am, which is a little embarrassing.

Step 1: Ingredients

Gather the materials you will need to build everything:

Wooden dowels - 1 inch diameter and 1/8 inch diameter

Plywood - large enough for your game board (15x15 inches)

Wooden beads with 1/8 inch hole

Wood glue


Also gather the tools you will need:

Power Drill (I used a drill press)

1/8 inch bit (same size as the smaller dowel)

Rotary tool

Saw (I used a band saw)


Also the materials you will need to play the game:


Step 2: The Game Pieces

Hnefatafl requires 36 regular pieces and one "king" piece for a total of 37 pieces.

To make the pieces, cut out sections of the 1 inch diameter dowel. I just marked the dowel lengthwise every half inch and then cut it with a band saw until I had 36 pieces.

The king has to be easily distinguishable from the other pieces, so you could just paint that piece differently, but I decided to do a little more, and cut that one piece just a quarter of an inch taller than the others.

I made a few extra pieces just to be safe.

Also, I cut out two inch long semi circles from the other end of the dowel. These are for the two ends of the turn counter.

I really recommend building the turn counter. The most authentic rules we have for the game make it pretty unbalanced, so the easiest way to make the game fair for both players is to play 2 rounds and see who can win in less turns. The turn counter makes this a lot easier.

There are other methods of balancing game play, but it feels wrong to change the rules of the game. I wanted to get as close to the same game the vikings played as possible.

Step 3: The Turn Counter

Like I mentioned before, the turn counter makes the game a lot more fun to play because it helps keep it fair for both players.

My idea was an abacus style device where beads slide from side to side representing turns taken.

The wooden beads already had 1/8 inch holes drilled in them, but it wasn't exact, so I ended up re-drilling the holes in 25 tiny wooden beads, which was a lot easier than it sounds. The idea is to get them to fit on one of the smaller dowels. The should slide easily along it, if they do not, then either drill the hole slightly larger or sand down the dowel. I ended up doing both....

Then, drill your two end pieces so that the ends of the dowel fit into them. I drilled a hole all the way through one and then about a half inch into the other so that I could still remove the dowel from the center even when the end pieces were affixed to the board.

Step 4: The Game Board

Next we need a game board to actually play on. There are several variants of Tafl that we know of, each of which uses a slightly different game board. Hnefatafl, the variant played by the vikings, and uses either an 11x11 board, or a 13x13 board. I decided to go with an 11x11 board because it seems that was the more common type and because I don't much care for the number 13. Plus, most other variants such as Tablut use smaller boards, so with an 11x11 board, you can still play any variant that uses a smaller board.

You could just draw or paint on the squares, but I chose to use my rotary tool to carve grooves into the board instead of drawing lines because I thought it would be cooler.

My board was 15x15 inches, so I just measured 2 inches from each side and cut a groove there, then moved 1 inch inward and repeated until I reached the center. Turned out that my measurements weren't that great, but the end result was passable.

I also glued some eucalyptus wood veneer on top of the playing surface because I thought it would look cool and I heard once that eucalyptus oils can keep spiders away, and I hate spiders. I didn't glue it down very well and I didn't wait long enough for the glue to dry, so some of the pieces of veneer came off or broke. Gluing them back on made it look alright though.

In the end, I had an 11x11 board with 1x1 inch squares.

Step 5: Pegs

Some of the authentic viking boards that we have found had pegged game pieces. I decided to build my board the same way.

To make the pegs for the pieces, I taped 4 of the 1/8 inch dowels together, then measured and cut them into 3/4 inch pieces. I did this until I had 36. Then I cut one more at a full inch because my king piece is 1/4 inch taller.

Using my drill press, I drilled a 1/8 inch hole in the center of each piece. Try to get this as close as possible, otherwise they might not fit great in the holes in the board.

Once you have the holes drilled in each piece, slide a dowel segment into each one so that it sits flush on one side and sticks 1/4 out the other side. Glue these all in place, but be careful not to get much glue on the side that sticks out, because we want this to fit pretty tightly into the board.

Then you will need to drill a hole in the exact center of each space on the board. I ended up drilling my holes a tiny bit bigger using a 5/16 inch drill bit, just so that the pieces wouldn't get stuck to the board.

Step 6: Decorations

Now all your game pieces are complete, you just need to paint the two sides different colors. Remember that one team will have 12 pieces and a king, and the other side will have 24 pieces. I chose to paint the king and kings men red, and leave the attackers unpainted.

I also used my extra dowel segments to make a crown for the king by drilling holes partway into the top of the king and fitting those dowel segments into them to form a circle. The end result looks more like a birthday cake than a crown, but it's close enough.

You will also need to mark the very center square on the board. This is the throne, a special space that only the king can enter.

Some boards that have been discovered also included markings for the starting places of each piece, but I didn't include that in my board.

Step 7: Finishing Touches

Finally, slide all the beads onto the turn counter and attach the turn counter side pieces. Then glue the turn counter down on the side of the board where it won't get in the way but is easily accessible.

Also sand down any rough edges so you don't get splinters while playing. Though if you get splinters and bleed all over the board, it might make it look more authentic. This was a viking game after all.

Step 8: Playing Hnefatafl (Rules)

Playing Hnefatafl is simple.

Players take turns moving their pieces. Each player can move one piece each turn, any number of spaces in any direction (but not diagonal). Pieces cannot jump over other pieces.

Pieces can be captured by placing one opposing team's piece on each side of that piece, forming a "sandwich" around that piece. Captured pieces are removed from the board. The king can only be captured if surrounded on all four sides. Moving a piece into a space between two opposing player's pieces is a valid move and does not count as being captured.

The attacker attempts to capture the king, while the defender just needs to evade capture long enough for the king to escape. The king can escape by moving off any side of the game board.

After each turn slide one bead to the other side of the turn counter to record the number of turns taken.

If the king escapes, then the board is reset, and players switch teams. The original attacker then must be able to escape in fewer turns than the original defender. The player that escapes in fewer turns in the winner.

If a king is ever captured (unlikely), then players switch teams, and the original defender must capture the king in fewer turns to win (a feat which is extremely difficult).

It is definitely recommended that you drink a bunch of mead while playing, preferably from large wooden mugs. It helps you get into the viking mood. However, authentic viking mead was probably more similar to beer, mead recipes are another thing that has been poorly recorded. However, most evidence suggests that viking mead incorporated malt grains as well as honey, and the yeast used was very similar to yeast strains used for ale. Modern mead tends to be more like wine than anything. Regardless, vikings drank mead, so grab the most authentic mead you can get your hands on, drink it, and enjoy playing Hnefatafl.

3 People Made This Project!


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36 Discussions


3 years ago

every nice design, just wanna know where i could find the wooden pieces becoz i am going to make my own board game


3 years ago on Introduction

You can get a good, balanced game with the king winning at the board edge (not the corner), if the king is captured on 4 sides and is unarmed - that means he can't take part in capturing enemies. Alternatively, you can get a different but also well-balanced game with the king armed, but then he wins at the corners, not the edges. Other combinations work for smaller or larger boards, but that's my experience with the 11x11 board (been playing for over 20 years).

zork the destroyer

4 years ago

As cool as it would have been, the horned helmet was a hollywood adaptation. The vikings were experts of war, wearing heavy horned helmets would be disadvantageous.


4 years ago on Introduction

By the rules I know, the King can only escape thorugh one of the four corners, that are also marked (X´ed) on many found boards

7 replies

Reply 4 years ago on Introduction

Concur, I know nothing of the game, but the ornate boards online almost all have the four corners decorated in a manner to match the starting position of the king and his men.


Reply 4 years ago on Introduction

I have been playing for a while now and I agree with CobraTester, that the game is played with the king escaping into the corners. I really recommend to play it thus for it makes for a whole different game play.
I am not sure but I believe that the rules are different when the size of the playing board and the settup of the pieces is changed. Hnefatafl is refering to the 11x11 gameboard. On that note I'd love the challange to play against anyone who has a mind for it. so please do contact me :)

ps. I added a picture of an old drawing reffering to Hnefatafl.


Reply 4 years ago on Introduction

From what I can tell, the game was likely played both ways. I know a lot of modern players like to use the corners as escape points because it helps balance the game, and modernizations of tafl games seem to always include this rule. However, I did not include that rule because I wanted to get as close as possible to the game the Vikings might have played. While there is a lot of historical evidence to show that sometimes the corners were used, it was certainly not the only way the game was played. Carl Linnaeus's account of the game did not include this rule, which is mostly what I used for reference.
Next time I make a board, I will probably be marking the corners, but I rather enjoy playing the game with any border as an escape point. There really is no shortage of variations of this game.


Reply 4 years ago on Introduction

Hmm interesting. My board is fairly simple and doesn't have any markings or decorations, but I can see how that rule would up the difficulty.


Reply 4 years ago on Introduction

I have been playing by these rules:


Reply 4 years ago

As far as I can tell this particular rule has never been documented, though I could easily be wrong. It was my understanding that only some variants required corner escaping and/or it was a modern attempt to balance gameplay.


4 years ago on Introduction

Very interesting game. If the king can only be captured when surrounded on all 4 sides, does that mean you escaped/win once you reach an outer cell? Also if playing with the corners rule, does that mean the king can never be captured if travelling on the outer cells?


3 replies

Reply 4 years ago on Introduction

Yes, the king escapes as soon as he reaches an outer cell if not playing with only corner escapes. If you are playing with only corner escapes, then the king can be captured by only 3 pieces + one edge. Additionally, the king can be captured by 3 pieces if adjacent to the throne (center cell).


Reply 4 years ago on Introduction

As a norwegian player I learned that on also can win with capturing the king with 2 pieces, using a corner as an enemy piece.


4 years ago on Introduction

Vikings and their drink:


4 years ago on Introduction

...and some more background/rules: