Homemade 100 HP Motor Controller for an Electric Car

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Intro: Homemade 100 HP Motor Controller for an Electric Car

This instructable explains how to build your own 100 HP (peak) motor controller for use in an electric car or motorcycle conversion.  It can take any voltage up to 144v, and the peak current is 500 amps.  The cost of the components is a few hundred dollars, which means you can save over $1000 by putting one together yourself.   At 144v, you can expect a top speed of around 75 MPH in a car. 
Check out  http://ecomodder.com/forum/open-revolt-open-source-dc-motor-controller.html
if you want to read about the whole story!

Experience in soldering is important.  If you want to really keep costs down, a mill is helpful, but that work can be outsourced to a local metal shop.

Step 1: Get/Make a Power Board and Control Board.

You are going to need a control board and etched power board.  The power board needs to be at least 3 ounce copper.   Ebay is a good place to look for heavy cheap copper clad PCB.  For example:
http://cgi.ebay.com/25-shts-Copper-Clad-Laminate-FR-4-060-9-x-12-3oz-/310244821519?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item483c084a0f

You could print the picture from this link and somehow transfer it onto a piece of heavy blank PCB, and etch it with a dremel if you have a ver y steady hand.  The dimensions are 8"x6".  This link also has the G-code that you can use to etch with a CNC mill or you could give the G-code to a machine shop.
http://ecomodder.com/wiki/index.php/Open_ReVolt/Fab_Files

Picture 2 and 3 below is an example of an early power board I made with a Dremel.

You can get a control board from me or you can make the control board in your favorite PCB layout software using the schematic here::
http://home.cogeco.ca/~tkooistra/Cougar_Controller_Rev2C_Schematic.pdf
And here are some pictures of the PCB layers:
http://home.cogeco.ca/~tkooistra/bottom_layer_rev2C.pdf
http://home.cogeco.ca/~tkooistra/top_layer_rev2C.pdf
http://home.cogeco.ca/~tkooistra/component_layer_rev2C.pdf

A predone control board is Picture 1.

Pictures 7 and 8 are the power board top and bottom.  The 8 solder spots are just where vias were added.

Once you have the 2 boards, you can go to step 2. 

Step 2: Drill Your Metals and Isolation Strips

Materials:
1/4" x 3/4" x 12" C110 copper bar.
Two 3/16" x 3/4" x 10" C110 copper bars.
3/4" x 1.5" x 8" aluminum bar.
3/8" x 8" x 11" aluminum plate.
3/16" x 3/4" x 8" steel bar.
Two 1/16" x 3/4" x 8" unclad FR4 used in making PCB.
1/16" x 6" x 8" unclad FR4 board.

5/16" drill bit (or 3/8" drill bit if you need slop)
1/8" drill bit.
3/16" drill bit. (Must allow a #6 screw to fit through)
Drill. 
Drill Press.

Do all the drilling!  It may help to take the big aluminum bar to a machine shop, since it's not easy drilling through 1.5" of aluminum accurately.   See all the pictures below for notes on hole locations and drill bit sizes.

Here's a video on how the power section pieces all get bolted together, without the electronics attached, just so you can see how it all fits:

Step 3: Order the Electronic Components

Order these components for the control board:
http://ecomodder.com/wiki/index.php/Open_ReVolt/Control_board

And order these components for the power section.  If you have already bought and drilled the metals on step 2, then don't reorder them.  They are listed here as well.
http://ecomodder.com/wiki/index.php/Open_ReVolt/Power_board


Step 4: Solder the Control Board

Materials:
45 or 60 watt soldering iron.
0.032" diameter (or so) rosin core solder


This step takes about 3 or 4 hours.  It's very unforgiving.  If you have never soldered before, you should get help with this.  The ground plane doesn't have "thermals", so it takes some heat to melt the solder to it.  Check out this help file for soldering the control board.  See pages 2 through 19:
http://www.paulandsabrinasevstuff.com/EVstuff%20info/Kit%20Assembly%20Directions%20Updated%20March%204,%202010.pdf

Watch for solder bridges (when big globs of solder bridge isolation gaps).  Also, you may want to socket the ATMega168.  You can program the ATMega168 in-system.  So, you can solder it in, and then program it if you want to.  Or you can get one preprogrammed.

This video walks you through soldering the control board from start to finish:

Step 5: Program the ATMega168 Microcontroller

Once the ATMega168 arrives with all the other stuff, you need to program it with the motor controller code.  Either make your own code, or use/modify the code below.  

You can make a very cheap ATMega168 programmer, or buy an AVRISP MK2:
http://search.digikey.com/scripts/DkSearch/dksus.dll?Cat=2621880&k=avrisp

And download the free AVR Studio development environment:
http://www.atmel.com/dyn/products/tools_card.asp?tool_id=2725

The hex file of the code is available here.  Use "coug-unified-16k.hex":
http://www.adambrunette.com/firmware/cougar-v1.11b/hexfiles-m168/

Here's the code:
http://ecomodder.com/wiki/index.php/Open_ReVolt/Software

The fuse bits are Extended High Low = F8 DC F7.  But if you are using Ponyprog, the fuse bits are 08 DC F7.

If you don't want to bother to program it yourself, then you can buy a preprogrammed one.

Step 6: Assemble the Power Section

There are quite a few parts to this process.  The short version is, you need to bolt together all of metal parts, and solder the 10 MOSFETs, 10 freewheel diodes, 16 large electrolytic capacitors, and 3 snubber capacitors to the power board.   Please see pictures below and the assembly help file, pages 20 through 43 for all the gory details.  You will need a 200 or 250w soldering gun:
http://www.paulandsabrinasevstuff.com/EVstuff%20info/Kit%20Assembly%20Directions%20Updated%20March%204,%202010.pdf


Step 7: Mount the Control Section to the Power Section

See this video for directions on how to mount the control board to the power section.  It also shows how to solder the gate resistors and the ground wires, and how to mount an enclosure:


You can also check out pages 44-46 of the help file here:
http://www.paulandsabrinasevstuff.com/EVstuff%20info/Kit%20Assembly%20Directions%20Updated%20March%204,%202010.pdf

Get Ready!!!  There's only one more step!

Step 8: Drive Away!!!

This is me driving with my car at 72v.  Notice that this one had all 3 copper bus bars coming out the same way.  That doesn't affect the functionality of the controller.


And here's a video of Joe in Phoenix using that same controller at 144v:
And here's Ben Nelson, the guy on here that made the plug-in hybrid, doing a gravel burnout with his.  He's always had a flair for the dramatic:


Now go out and build one!  Doing it yourself can save you over $1000.

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    80 Discussions

    0
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    PatriceL1

    1 year ago

    look this site

    Www.TM4.com

    0
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    Karlelambel

    2 years ago

    Great project, but it seems that all the links related to it are dead!!!

    Does anyone know where to find the files like the schematics of the controller and the power board?!
    Thanks

    3 replies
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    FernandoG4Karlelambel

    Reply 2 years ago

    Hi guys! I Found this Website, it has a detailed PDF and they are selling the boards as well.

    http://www.paulandsabrinasevstuff.com/evmotorcontrollers.html

    0
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    szadanKarlelambel

    Reply 2 years ago

    I would like to see those files too :) I was searching through many many forums, old posts and blogs, but sadly not really much. :/

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    EVTVBrasil

    1 year ago

    Hi... the help file here is not working?

    0
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    mykiscool

    2 years ago

    Great project, thanks for sharing!

    0
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    thiagoroo

    2 years ago

    hello , I would buy this controller or the board , to my kart, paraens to work you have fans in Brazil . v8artesanalgmail.com

    0
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    Karlelambel

    2 years ago

    Great project, but it seems that all the links related to it are dead!!!

    Does anyone know where to find the files like the schematics of the controller and the power board?!
    Thanks

    0
    None
    RaonyD

    2 years ago

    can someone send me the control board printing model at the beginning of the page ????

    I can not find anywhere yet, I will build my because in Brazil the cost of tax to import is absurd will print transfer and passes stops virgin copper plate.

    raony.top@gmail.com

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    evwannabeMichaelL18

    Reply 2 years ago

    Great site, I really like the idea of building the controller, but, when I tried the links at eccomodder.com the page came up with 'We could not retrieve this file because the link is invalid.' on most of the links to that pointed to https://www.onlinefilefolder.com/

    Thank you for the work that you've done!

    0
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    MichaelL18evwannabe

    Reply 2 years ago

    The links still work for me ...

    It would be better if Paul hosts the files - those links will be more permanent!

    0
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    MPaulHolmesevwannabe

    Reply 2 years ago

    I'll get the files up on my own website hopefully this week.

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    jongscxMPaulHolmes

    Reply 6 years ago on Introduction

    As a follow-up, Is it possible to "scale down" the design if I'm never getting near the 144V/500A power requirements? Do I just use fewer mosfets and caps?

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    TomasT2jongscx

    Reply 3 years ago on Introduction

    Answer is YES, power requirements can be scaled down. I have two of these controllers for my ABB SEPEX motor. One full-sized for the armature current and one scaled down for the field. The field is at 10A so one mosfet was enough. The field is controlled with the motor rpm as input, with field weakning according to lookup table. For optimized performance it would be preferred to use the PWM/duty cycle from the armature controller and/or armature current as input, but it was easier to implement it without an open communication link between the two MCUs.