Homemade Incandescent Light Bulb - 自作の白熱電球

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About: 日本の人ですよ I live in japan! 真空管を作る研究をしています... vacuum tube manufacturing researching is in progress...

Recently trend is IoT, AI and etc. But i go against recently trend and made a vacuum incandescent light bulbs!

despite peoples has screaming energy conservation...

anyway, i learned a part of vacuum technology and scientific glassblowing by making light bulb.

Someday it will be useful.

最近はIoTだの、AIだのが流行っているけれど、私はそんな時代に逆行して白熱電球を作りました!

今の時代は省エネとか言われているけど...

まあ、さておき、私は電球を作ることで真空技術とガラス吹きをかじることができました。

これはたぶん、いつか役に立つよ、きっと。

Step 1: Prepare Materials and Tools - 材料と道具

1. dumet wire and tungsten filament - デュメット線とタングステンフィラメント

this is a common copper wire...? no. this is dumet wire.

dumet wire is copper coated alloy metal wire of nickel and iron. patented by Byron E. Eldred in 1915.

composition is 42% of nickel, 58% of iron. and copper is coating.

coefficient of thermal expansion of dumet wire almost coincides with that of soda-lime glass.

tungsten filament is coiled shape tungsten wire.

tungsten's molten point is 3380℃. and vapor pressure is 10^-5 Torr in 2547℃. this is very low vapor pressure.

一見するとただの銅線・・・?いいえ、デュメット線です。

デュメット線は、ニッケルと鉄の合金線に銅が被覆されている線で、1915年にByron E. Eldred によって特許が取得されました。

42%がニッケル、58%が鉄で、銅が被覆されています。

デュメット線の熱膨張係数は、ソーダライムガラスの熱膨張係数と近似しています。

タングステンフィラメントは、コイル状に成型されたタングステン線です。

タングステンの融点は3380℃です。そして、蒸気圧は2547℃で10^-5Torrと、非常に低いです。

2. glass tubing - ガラス管

There are various kinds of glass. I used this time is soda-lime glass. because work temperature is relatively low.

diameter of glass tubing is 15mm and 8mm.

15mm tubing is using for envelope. 8mm tubing is using for pinch stem.

ガラスにはさまざまな種類がありますが、今回はソーダライムガラスを使いました。作業点が比較的低いためです。

ガラス管の直径は15mmと9mmを用意しました。

15mmの管は外周器に、9mmはピンチステムに使います。

3. gas torch - ガスバーナー

gas torch is using for glass work. large torch is using for glass blowing.

tiny torch is using for stem welding and seal bulb and making pinch stem.

ガスバーナーはガラス加工に使います。大きなバーナーはガラス吹きに、

小さいバーナーはバルブ封止、ピンチステム製作、ステム溶接に使います。

4. blowing hose and silicone rubber stopper - ブローホースとシリコン栓

blowing hose and silicone rubber stopper is using glass browing.

ブローホースとシリコン栓は、ガラスを吹くのに使用します。

5. Other tool and fixtures - その他

・ plier - ペンチ

・ mini lathe - ミニ旋盤

using for making pinch stem. ピンチステムを作るのに使います。

・ metal file

using for polish wire. - 線を磨くのに使います

・ vacuum pump and geissler tube - 真空ポンプとガイスラー管

vacuum pump is using for making vacuum. geissler tube is using for rough vacuum gauge.

真空ポンプは真空を作るために、ガイスラー管は大まかな真空計として使います。

・ variable power supply - 可変電源

using for flashing filament and testing light bulb.

フィラメントフラッシュおよび電球の試験に使います。

・ test tube and test tube stand - 試験管と試験管立て

・ solvent - 溶剤

using for washing. 洗浄に使います。

Step 2: Making Glass Bulb - ガラスの球を作る

1. blow the glass tubing - ガラスを吹く

ignite the large torch, and glass tubing connected to hose and into fire and begin rotating, and blow rotating hot glass tubing.

大きいガスバーナーを点火し、ガラス管をブローホースにつなげて火に入れます。そして、回しながら息を吹き込みます。

2. cut out unnecessary parts - 余計な部分を取り除く

Cut out unnecessary parts of the finished glass bulb with glass cutter.

After cutting, heating the incision with a torch.

余計な部分をガラスカッターで切り取ります。

切り取ったら、バーナーで熱して整えます。

Step 3: Making Pinch Stem - ピンチステムを作る

1~3. rotate glass tubing in lathe and make flare shape - 旋盤でガラス管をフレア状にする

chucking glass tubing to lathe and begin rotating on 1200 RPM.

and heat the edge of glass tubing and spread it with a center punch as the glass tubing melts.

旋盤にガラス管を咥えて、1200RPMでまわします。

そして、ガラス管の端を熱し、溶けてきたらセンターポンチで広げます。

4, 5. cut out a dumet wire - デュメット線を切る

cut out and bending a dumet wire. and insert to flare shaped glass tubing.

デュメット線を切り取り、曲げ、フレア状にしたガラス管に差し込みます。

6~8. sealing a dumet wire - デュメット線を封着する

chucking flare shaped glass tubing to lathe. (do not turn on the lathe)

and heat the edge of glass tubing and pinch it with a plier as the glass tubing melts.

旋盤にフレア状にしたガラス管を咥えます。(旋盤のスイッチを入れないでください)

そして、ガラス管の端を熱し、溶けてきたらペンチでつぶします。

Step 4: Attach Filament to Pinch Stem - フィラメントの取り付け

1. polish a dumet wire - デュメット線を磨く

because heated dumet wire is forming non-conductive oxides in surface.

ジュメット線は加熱すると導電性の無い酸化物を表面に形成するので、これを取り除きます。

2. attach a tungsten filament with crimping - タングステンフィラメントを圧着取付

bending end of dumet wire to "J" shape, and put a filament, and crimping with plier.

デュメット線の端を「つ」の字に曲げて、フィラメントを差込み、ペンチで圧着する。

3. put to solvent for 10 min - 溶剤に10分漬け込む

put to solvent-filled test tube for removing fingerprints.

fingerprints is release gas in a vacuum, to adverse effect to filament.

手脂を取り除くため、溶剤の入った試験管に漬け込みます。

手脂は真空にさらされるとガスを放出し、フィラメントに悪影響を及ぼします。

Step 5: Welding Pinch Stem to Glass Bulb - ステムを外周器と溶着

connecting blowing hose to glass bulb.

and heating end of glass bulb in medium temperature.

and put filament attached pinch stem to heated glass bulb.

and welding stem to glass bulb.

ブローホースを外周器に接続します。

外周器の端を溶けないくらいの温度で熱します。

フィラメントをつけたピンチステムを外周器に入れます。

外周器とステムを溶着します。

Step 6: Exhausting Light Bulb - 電球を真空にする

1. exhausting is beginning - 排気開始

connecting light bulb to vacuum network and turn on vacuum pump and geissler tube. exhausting is beginning.

電球を真空ネットワークに接続し、ポンプとガイスラー管のスイッチを入れ、排気を開始します。

2. enjoy watching the discharge of the geissler tube - ガイスラー管の放電をみて楽しむ

no no no , Please measure the vacuum!

look of the discharge of geissler tube changes depending on the pressure.

いやいや、真空度を測ってください。

ガイスラー管の放電の見た目は圧力によって変わります。

3. baking out the light bulb - 電球をベークアウトする

water vapor absorbs to the glass wall in the atmosphere and continues to

release water vapor when exposed to vacuum.

and water vapor is VERY harmful for tungsten filament.

the answer solution is heating glass wall in vacuum to release about all water vapor.

the result is quite different unless you do this.

大気中では、水蒸気がガラスにくっつきます。そして、真空にさらされたときに放出されます。

この水蒸気は、タングステンフィラメントにとってものすごく有害です。

この水蒸気をなくすには、真空にしているときにガラスを加熱することです。

これをしないと、電球の寿命にかなり影響します。

4. flashing filament - フィラメントフラッシュ

filament absorbs gas in atmosphere. it energizes and heats it and release gas.

フィラメントもガスを吸着するので、通電加熱で放出させます。

Step 7: Seal and Finishing - 封止、そして完成

after finishing bakeout, heating a squeezed part to seal off and done!

I have been begin operating light bulb for over 5 hours 30 minutes in 3V, but bulb is still alive! and no darkening!

ベークアウトが終わったら、絞った部分を加熱し、封止して完成です!

すでに3Vで5時間30分電球を点灯させていますが、フィラメントは切れていません!黒化も起こっていません!

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    35 Discussions

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    Jack of Most Trades

    2 months ago

    So cool. I think you should try a vacuum tube (or Valve) Maybe a diode detector or put in a grid and make an Audion.

    If you had access to a difusion pump you could pull a deeper vacuum.

    1 reply
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    2SC1815Jack of Most Trades

    Reply 2 months ago

    Thank you for watching this project!

    yeah, I am preparing to make a vacuum tube now! Induction heater , baking furnace, and diffusion pump. Because diffusion pumps are expensive (mainly shipping costs), I am trying to making from aluminum rods with using lathe.

    Thank you!

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    bpark1000

    Tip 2 months ago

    You need getter to improve vacuum. Put a pinch of red phosphorous on filament it will transform to white phosphorous and combine with residual gases. You can also put 2nd lamp in manifold and seal off the pair. Burn 2nd lamp to failure, then seal off the tube to the 1st lamp. 1st lamp will last longer.

    1 reply
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    2SC1815bpark1000

    Reply 2 months ago

    Thanks for the tips for improving vacuum!
    However, red phosphorus is handled as dangerous goods and can not be obtained easily in Japan. I will use titanium or magnesium instead. (And phosphorus has high vapor pressure. and can not be used phosphorus to vacuum tube to be made next)

    Thank you!

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    jianju

    2 months ago on Step 7

    Such a deliciously rustic project! Learned a lot just reading it! Maybe I'll do this one some day...

    1 reply
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    2SC1815jianju

    Reply 2 months ago

    Thank you!

    Someday I am looking forward to the day when your light bulb can be seen!

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    HarolddL

    2 months ago

    Fantastic,

    Now it's time to try a vacuum tube. I can't wait to you tackle this. :)

    1 reply
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    RaymondR6

    2 months ago

    This is more an educational project than practical, since commercialized incandescent bulbs are cheaper to buy already fabricated than the cost of making your own, just as making your own mechanical clock or even making a simple LED digital watch. Opens up the mind to think what can be done to make it better better or cheaper. Thomas Edison would be proud!

    1 reply
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    2SC1815RaymondR6

    Reply 2 months ago

    Thank you for watching this project!

    Japan is unlike Europe and the United States, there is no web site like Instructables. and people who doing DIY are decreasing in recent. On the contrary, there are also people who devalue people involved in manufacturing. It is not good... believe that it will get better. :)

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    Stuart21

    2 months ago

    Very clever. I recall (40 - 50 years ago) hearing that the Russians used to open up blown light bulbs, replace the filament, & resell.

    This is better!

    1 reply
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    2SC1815Stuart21

    Reply 2 months ago

    I have heard it before. To replace filaments of blown bulbs, it requires different skills with manufacturing of light bulb. I can not do it. Thank you!

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    mf70

    2 months ago

    Delightful to read! How much research was needed before you started? Did you have to travel up any blind alleys?

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    2SC1815mf70

    Reply 2 months ago

    Thank you for watching this project!

    I started a project to make a vacuum tube without research. I bought a burner and a fine glass tube at a general shop, first trying to make a light bulb with Nichrome wire. However, at that time I did not know the existence of the dumet wire, I just used a steel wire. Of course it will not work. When I told this shop to the shop owner of a private shop in Akihabara, he introduced a craftsman who had been building a light bulb a while ago. He offered parts for manufacturing bulbs and data on manufacturing. With this process the process has progressed considerably and has reached the present. and my final goal is a vacuum tube. However, it has been more than 50 years since the production of vacuum tubes .... Detailed data on manufacturing has already been lost, and I am still traveling in a blind alley.