Here is a simple way to access the desktop of your Beaglebone through VNC, a software which allows you to see other desktops without actually having to plug in a monitor. This is intended to be as simple and straightforward as possible.
First, you shall need the following items:
Beaglebone Black /w PC cable
PC running Windows
Step 1: Update
After booting up the board, open up the command terminal via a monitor or SSH and type:
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade
Make sure you plug in the Ethernet cable to get Internet to the Beaglebone.
Step 2: Install VNC
Now, still in the terminal, type:
sudo apt-get install tightvncserver
tightvncserver (when it asks you to make a password, make one up)
On your PC, go to http://www.tightvnc.com and download the software.
Step 3: Viewing the Beaglebone's Desktop
Open up TightVNC viewer on you PC and in the field which says "remote host", type in and enter:
The "192.168.7.2" part is the default IP address for the Beaglebone. and the ":1" is the port.
If you want to stop vncserver on the Beaglebone, type:
vncserver -kill :1