Building a computer is really quite easy. One benefit to building your own computer is that you get to choose what parts you have in your computer. This gives you more control than buying a pre built computer where a company could have placed a bottle neck to save money.
Components that you will need:
Optical drive - optional
Safety items that you will need:
Step 1: Case
Assuming that all of your parts are compatible
You can begin by clipping your antistatic gear to the computer case to keep a neutral charge between you and the components. This keeps the computer parts safe from ESD damage.
There are things called standoffs. These things keep the motherboard from touching the computer case and causing shorts which could damage the motherboard. Look up the stand off locations for your specified motherboard and case and screw them in
Step 2: Putting Parts on the Motherboard
Putting parts on the motherboard while it is outside of the case allows for two things
One, we can easily access all the parts on the motherboard just in case we need to replace something or add parts
Two, we can plug the computer in and test all of the parts to make sure that they work
Step 3: CPU
There are arrows on the processor and the socket. Line these arrows up and drop the cpu into the socket. It should fall right into the socket.
Now would be a good time to install the heaksink and the cpu cooler. Apply a rice sized glob of thermal compound, then attach the heatsink to the top of the CPU. There should be some way of attaching the heatsink to the motherboard. Now you can plug in the cpu fan into the motherboard where it says something along the lines of "CPU_FAN"
Step 4: RAM
Like most computer parts, installing the RAM is pretty straight forward. If you look at the pins on the RAM card, there will be a gap between a few pins. Line this gap up with the corresponding notch in the RAM slot, and push the RAM down until both of the retention locks click into place.
Motherboards may have dual channel memory slots. This means it can use two RAM modules at the same time rather than one at a time. Motherboards will have their RAM channels color coded most of the time. Other times you will have to consult the motherboard manual.
Step 5: Installing the Motherboard
Since you have already screwed in the proper stand offs into the case in step 1, you can now install the motherboard into the case. Set the motherboard into the case, then screw the motherboard down into the stand offs. Start with the corners first to get everything lined up
Step 6: Expansion Cards
The reason we didn't install the expansion cards onto the motherboard when it was outside of the case was because it is hard to line up case brackets and screw in the motherboard. Sometimes the expansion cards can cover up stand off screws.
Line up the notches on the expansion card with the notches in the expansion card slot, just like we did with the RAM and the RAM slots.
Step 7: Other Goodies Inside the Case
With the motherboard and all of it's components in place, we can now proceed to the rest of the internals. Insert and secure the power supply into the case. Connect power cables to corresponding connections on the motherboard and its components.
Install storage devices in the case, and connect SATA and power cables to the storage devices.
Case fans are easy to install. Insert them into the computer, then screw them in. Attach the fan wires to the motherboard so the motherboard can control them