In this Instructables i will show you how to make a very simple but very professional looking proximity sensor. You can watch the video which is embedded in this step for construction, parts list, circuit diagram & testing or you can continue reading the post for further details.
Step 1: Components Required
► Component List
- IR LED - https://goo.gl/NvuGf9
- Photo Diode - https://goo.gl/NvuGf9
- TCRT5000 - https://goo.gl/71tq4Z
- 1k Trimmer - https://goo.gl/B1KNSZ
- 2n3904 - https://goo.gl/pr2HDh
- 2n2906 - https://goo.gl/1yte74
- Resistor - 220, 1.5k, 5.4k & 33k
- Red LED
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Step 2: Circuit Diagram
The circuit diagram i showed in this step is just for indication purpose. If you want to put this in real time application replace the RED LED with a Pin Terminal block and connect it to a micro-controller or arduino & you can use it for robotics.
What is proximity sensor ?
Proximity sensor or obstacle sensor is used to detect an obstacle or any things which are nearby without having any physical contact. In our case we are using IR.
Step 3: PCB Fabrication
For developing a Professional looking PCB & to create the Gerber Files & the Drill Files I am using KiCad which is an open source software & also a software which is supported by my fabricator JLCPCB.com
JLCPCB offers a very good quality prototype PCB boards. You can check the images or the videos for the PCB board quality. If you want a prototype PCB at a very affordable price (2$) then i recommend you try JLCPCB. For your first order JLCPCB are offering free shipment & also a discount on your PCB board*.
If you want to try JLCPCB for your prototype then CLICK HERE
For ordering the PCB you just need to create a account then upload the zipped Gerber Folder (containing all the layer file with the drill file) in their website. For shipment you can choose registered air mail or DHL Express. For the payment you can choose PayPal, credit card or debit card. JLCPCB has a very good tracking process, You can follow each step of the fabrication with their tracking tool.
Step 4: Finishing
After you receive the product just mount all the components according to the label on the PCB & secure it with solder.
Working : When the circuit is powered the infrared is continuously emitted, now when an obstacle or any things comes in between the emitted IR, the rays get reflected back which is absorbed by the Photodiode, which converts the absorbed light into electrical signal. (Photodiodes are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except that they have an exposed area to receive the light.). The converted signal is then processed with the help of NPN and PNP transistors.
The distance of the sensing can be altered by adjusting the Trimmer. The approximate max distance of the proximity sensor i shared is around 30cm
Testing : i have shown the testing of the proximity sensor both with PCB & also with the breadboard in the video attached in the first step & or you can also watch the same by clicking here.
Thank You for reading & watching
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