Man, plants, animals, we all need a very important vital liquid called water, but very few of us really know how to use it. The social and economic awareness of this problem is becoming more intense and deeply reflective.
It turns out that we have the problem of wasting resources, and, we are aware that there are a lot of ways to reuse them for the benefit of ourselves and the environment; All this thanks to technology, which helps us achieve solutions with surprising genius. In short, in this way, our main idea is to reuse resources in a positive way to ourselves and the rest of the environment. So, we are already talking about a problem, the misuse of a resource. Now the question is: What do we expect to obtain as a benefit from a resource that is inevitably spent every day, in all corners of the world? The answer is energy.
Step 1: How Will We Solve It
We plan a solution through the use of a hydraulic turbine on a smaller scale, which will generate energy being directly connected to the tubes that transport the water.
There are places where a lot of water is spent, which is not reused, these can be restaurants, buildings, factories, large companies, homes, etc. Putting ourselves to think about the amount of water that is used daily in these places, it would be very useful to implement our system. This energy can be used in many ways, therefore, it is something viable, useful. We can not stop using water, as it is something that corresponds to our day to day, but, since it is so precious or important, and also finite, why not use it with the maximum possible use?. With that question we give foot the benefits that we can have with the use of this system:
-Illuminate sectors with low consumption sources.
-Charge cell phones.
-Leave security systems permanently, without risk of power outages.
-Avoid accidents due to blackouts.
-Generate awareness of the important use of water.
-To have a source of reserve electric power, usable in different situations.
Step 2: How Did We Do It
The idea is to place the hydraulic turbine in shower pipes, toilets, etc; all this in places where there are many, or where water is constantly being used to obtain more electrical energy. Then, with the obtaining of the energy, we will store it preferably in several batteries, designing a circuit that makes that when a battery is full, automatically it begins to load another, to obtain the maximum possible electrical energy until we want to use it.
1- The battery would be charged by the hydraulic turbine.
2- Then, a switch allows the start of the inverter, in this way, by not using the inverter, there will be no unnecessary consumption of the battery.
3- A fuse is responsible for the protection of the inverter, in case there is some exaggerated or accidental discharge of the battery.
4- The rectifier diode fulfills the function of protecting the circuit in case of misplacing the polarities with the battery.
5- Zener diode: Since the typical use of this circuit is with a battery, we must keep in mind that as we demand current, it will begin to discharge and decrease its terminal voltage. So to avoid that the fluctuation in the charge of the battery changes the operation of the oscillator we will use a zener diode of 9.1V with its resistance of polarization RESDIOD. Thus, no matter what state the battery is in (this can vary between 14.4V and 10.5V) the voltage at the terminals of the zener will always be 9.1V and thus guarantee a stable power to our circuit oscillator.
6- Multivibrador CD4047BE: It fulfills the function of converting the continuous signal to a square signal, the frequency will be determined by pins 1, 2 and 3, in which we have a resistance and a capacitor, which are responsible for varying the frequency.
7- Through the resistances MOSRES1 and MOSRES2 that come from the outputs Q and -Q of the multivibrator, we will take them to the Gate terminals of the Mosfets Channel N transistors Q1 and Q2. These are the IRFZ44N are low cost and high performance transistors, can control continuous currents up to 50A, they heat up very little.
8- Mosfets IRFZ44N: The function of these transistors is to oscillate in a configuration known as push-pull, and in this way make the winding of the transformer, each transistor makes work half of the 12 + 12 winding through its terminals Drain and Source. Since the TAP is connected to positive, when oscillating what we obtain is a wave of square shape of continuous pulsating.
9- Output Transformer: It is a 220V power transformer and its secondary is 12 + 12V with a current of 4A. In this case we will connect it in an inverted way, we have the MOSFETS oscillating in its low voltage winding, and in its secondary we will obtain, thanks to the transformation ratio, a modified wave voltage of 220VAC. 10- Electric turbine: Connected to a flow of water, either a shower, tap, irrigation system, among other things, is able to convert the kinetic energy of water into electrical energy, which will later be stored in the battery.