The aim was to develop a cutting-engraver CNC
laser, CNC stands for computer numerical control, computer acts as the controller of the machine in wich is programmed through an interface following the instructions.
The need of productivity become a priority, besides accuracy and reduce drawbacks like: lack of skilled labor, lots of wastage, and non-expected results.
Initially the team got trained about the CNC programming for one month, the design is loaded to a computer wich is attached to the CNC laser, it changes the design into a special code(numerical)that controls the way the CNC operates.
The electronics consists of a separate power supplies for laser, motors and the Arduino which breaks input-output signals for the motion and laser control. The motion works through rubber conveyor belts that are linked by bearings to the motors that make them go on X and Y axis.
Finally it was decided to use wood for the base as it is economic and malleable.
Key Words— CNC Laser, G-CODE, Stepper Motor, Arduino, Driver A4988.
Step 1: Design
We opted for the design of a CNC by transmission by bands. The design was done in SolidWorks. The area designated for the working area was 32 x 28 cm, the base in this case are 4 pieces of wood 30 x 2 x 2 cm and in addition to the use of 4 smooth steel bars for movement; said bars have dimensions of 30 cm x .8 mm in diameter.
Step 2: Driver
Once the design with all the required specifications was made, the 4 bars of the base were ordered to be built. After this we started with the printing of the required 3D parts.
The test of the motors was carried out with the aid of the A4988 driver, but before this, the current of the same one as specified by the manufacturer was limited to avoid problems in both components, the formula to obtain this is:
ITripMAX = VREF / (8 × RS)
Where RS refers to the value of the resistors in S1 and S2, therefore, taking into account that the PAP motors are 0.4 A, the clearance would be this way:
VREF = 0.4 (8 × 0.1W) = 0.32 volts
When this value was reached, the potentiometer of each driver was adjusted.