Your most basic cast on is an E-Wrap cast on. This is where most beginners start off. The options I give below are the ones I use the most. There are others like the crochet cast on, or chain cast on. I use it rarely, in that is doesn't allow for tightening, and still has a loose edging when garment is done. With the most basic cast on, you can at least tighten it for a cleaner edge.
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Step 1: Fine Gauge Cast On
CO: Cast On: Process of E-Wrapping the peg twice,
and tossing the bottom loop over the top.
The benefit of the cast on is you won't lose your cast on like you can with the E-Wrap cast on. And with so many pegs on the fine gauge looms this makes it easier and quicker to get your fine gauge project started.
Step 2: Drawstring Cast on Flat and Circular
DSCO: Draw String Cast On: Weave the working yarn back and forth between the pegs, every other peg should be empty. Then take the working yarn and lay it over the empty pegs and toss the pegs with loops over on the pegs with loops.
This cast on is beneficial to doing a hat in reverse, or making stuffed animals, which is where I use it most for the flat and the circular. It has benefits in making a ball if you want to start with a drawstring and end with a drawstring.
Step 3: Kitchener Cast On
Cast On: Go to the exact opposite end of your starting point, and wrap front to back of every peg following the peg parallel to it horizontally. Keep going from 1 side of the loom to the other, until you are at your starting point, then Knit all the pegs. Later when you get 15 rows done, and are ready to tighten stitches, lightly tug on your stitch opposite the tail. This helps to find your starting point. Then gently tug the next loop to tighten the previous, the pattern of which end of the next loop to pull, moves like rolling hills up and down, or like a heart beat. The trick is to always lightly tug on the next strand to make sure if it is the right one, and which way you need to pull it.
The benefit of this cast on is for those who might be having a difficult time with the kitchener bind off on the loom or on needles. This make is easier for get that invisible look with an easier time when making socks and anything else you want an invisible seam.
Step 4: Weave in Cast On
WCO: Weave In Cast On is the process of sending a crochet hook through the
chain or bridge like area and pulling working yarn through that chain or bridge and placing working yarn on the peg.
The benefit of this cast on, is that you can make a panel for a hat and weave in and do the crown or bootie while still keeping a great stretch. When you sew you lose stretch, this makes it where you don't have that problem. A crochet hook is needed for it but it does work lovely in something you might want to try with that.
Step 5: Lace Cast On
LCO: Lace Cast On: EW CO 1, EWCH10, Move chain
to 2nd peg, BUCOL on 1st peg. EW CO 3rd peg, EWCH10, Move chain to 4th peg, BUCOL on 3rd peg. Continue process.
This is great for adding a softer edge to a garment you might want to make. It gives it the girly look. I love it for bonnets and edges of sock cuffs.