# Menorah

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The following information is a single lesson in a larger Tinkercad project. Check out this and more projects on Tinkercad.

Lesson Overview:

Now we're going to make a menorah!

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## Step 1: Background

Some objects are a challenge to 3D Print in a single piece without making sacrifices to design or structure; therefore, in order to not compromise on important aspects of an object, it is necessary to make certain objects an assembly.

In this lesson, we will build a menorah. Because a menorah is a delicate and slender structure, printing it as a single piece, in the standing orientation would cause an excessive amount of support structure. This could lead to excessive material removal, which is not only wasteful, but could lead to the parts breaking since the elements of the structure are not substantial.

Therefore, we will print the menorah in parts, so that the structure can be printed flat. This will mean we will have to remove the candle holders and the base since we need these elements to remain wide enough for balance.

A menorah is a deeply personal celebration of Hebrew tradition. Feel free to embellish your own design. See how breaking up the assembly in parts allows you the freedom to explore details beyond the limits of your manufacturing process, which, in this case, is 3D printing.

Extension:

When making multiple parts, fit is always an issue. We will be exploring ways to improve fit with 3D printing, but a file may be necessary to remove enough material to get a tight fit. For lose fits, gap filling superglue may also be required.

We will be making use of all the elements of Tinkercad that we've been learning. This lesson assumes knowledge of all functions used within with the exception of the Ruler Helper, which we'll be exploring closely.

## Step 2: Creating the Base

The first part we'll be making is the base of the menorah

Instructions

1. Drag two Paraboloids to the Workplane
2. The first Paraboloid, grow to 60mm for both the X and Y dimensions, and 6mm for the Z.
3. The second, grow to 40mm for both the X and Y dimensions, and 12mm for the Z.
4. Use the Align tool to center both parts on the X and Y axes.
5. Group the two shapes to complete the base
6. Move the base off to the side of the grid so we'll have grid space to use for other parts.

## Step 3: Creating Candle Holders (1 of 2)

We will make candle holders to fit standard, 0.25" (6.35mm) diameter candles.

Instructions

1. Drag two cylinders and a hemisphere to the Workplane
2. Invert the hemisphere
3. Resize the hemisphere so that it is 16mm in diameter and 8mm tall.
4. Resize one of the cylinders until it is 20mm in diameter, and 2mm tall.
5. Resize one of the cylinders until it is 6.50mm in all dimensions. This is slightly oversized to accommodate the candle which may not be exactly 0.25" and also because the 3D printing process may make parts slightly oversized.
6. Convert the smaller cylinder to a hole.

## Step 4: Creating Candle Holders (2 of 2)

Last step, continued

Instructions

1. Align the parts so that they are centered on the X and Y axes, but aligned to the top.
2. Group these shapes to complete the candle holder.
3. Move the candle holder off to the side of the grid so we'll have grid space to use for other parts

## Step 5: Creating the Star of David (1 of 4)

Summary – We'll be making an 8 pointed star. This process is aided by the fact that the Star of David is two equilateral triangles. Because Tinkercad uses the Cartesian coordinate system, making an equilateral triangle is not as easy as measuring out three sides. Instead, we'll be taking advantage of the fact that an equilateral triangle is two 30-60-90 triangles aligned on the longer of its legs. We will use the known length of the shorter of these legs to determine approximate whole number dimension of the length of the longer of the legs.

Instructions

1. Drag a roof to the Workplane.
2. Rotate the roof so that the triangle is parallel to the Workplane.
3. Resize the roof so that the base of the roof is 28mm, the depth is 24mm, and the height is 20mm. This is an approximate equilateral triangle aligned to whole numbers.

## Step 6: Creating the Star of David (2 of 4)

Last step, continued

Instructions

1. Duplicate the roof and grow it until base of the roof is 42mm, the depth is 36mm, and the height is 20mm
2. Align the two roofs so that they are centered on the X and Z axes, but so that the bases of the roofs are aligned on the Y axis

## Step 7: Creating the Star of David (3 of 4)

Last step, continued

Instructions

1. Nudge the roofs in the Y axes such that the larger roof's base is 4mm below the other. This will assure that all the sides are the same thickness.
2. Convert the smaller roof into a whole
3. Group these together

## Step 8: Creating the Star of David (4 of 4)

Instructions

1. Duplicate this new shape.
2. Rotate or mirror the duplicate so that the new shape points in the opposite direction
3. Align the two copies so that they are centered on the X, Y, and Z axes.Nudge the copies in the Y axes such that the shape pointing down is 12mm lower on the Y axis than the other shape.
4. Group these together
5. Shrink the star on the Z axis until it is 8mm tall.
6. Move the star off to the side of the grid so we'll have grid space to use for other parts.

## Step 9: Creating the Supports (1 of 5)

The supports are going to be straight, horizontal beams leading to a curve, which, in turn, leads to another straight section. We are going to keep these parts ungrouped so that we can copy the parts and then adjust the length of the beams as needed.

Instructions

1. Drag a 'Torus thin' to the Workplane.
2. Resize the Torus until it is 8mm thick and 60mm in diameter.
3. Drag two boxes to the Workplane.
4. Resize one to 60mm by 30mm.
5. Resize the other to 30mm by 30 mm.
6. Make the boxes holes.
7. Align the boxes such that only one quarter of the Torus is exposed
8. Group the shapes

## Step 10: Creating the Supports (2 of 5)

Last step, continued

Instructions

1. Drag a cylinder to the Workplane
2. Rotate it 90° so that flat faces of the cylinder are perpendicular to the Workplane
3. Resize the cylinder to 6mm in all dimensions
4. Align the cylinder to an end of the quarter torus
5. Duplicate the cylinder
6. Rotate it 90° around the Z axis
7. Align the second cylinder to the other end of the quarter torus

## Step 11: Creating the Supports (3 of 5)

Last step, continued

Instructions

1. Duplicate this new set of shapes and move the duplicate 24mm to the right on the X axis and 12mm up on the Y axis.
2. Duplicate all six of these shapes and move the duplicates 48mm to the right on the X axis and 24mm up on the Y axis.

## Step 12: Creating the Supports (4 of 5)

Last step, continued

Instructions

1. Align the tips of these beams to the tip of the copy in the upper right.
2. The length of the longest beam on the Y axis should be 42mm
3. The length of the longest beam on the X axis should be 78mm
4. Group these items

## Step 13: Creating the Supports (5 of 5)

Last step, continued

Instructions

1. Duplicate this new group
2. Use mirror to flip the duplicate
3. Align the two copies end to end
4. Group the copies

## Step 14: Creating the Main Structure (1 of 4)

Now we tie the structure together with one beam.

Instructions

1. Drag a cylinder to the Workplane.
2. Rotate it 90° about the X Axis.
3. Grow it's dimensions until it is 8mm in diameter and 70mm in length
4. Align the cylinder so that it is centered with the beams and 17mm below the longest beam.
5. Lower along the Z axis 1mm below the Workplane

## Step 15: Creating the Main Structure (2 of 4)

Last step, continued

Instructions

1. Center and align the Star of David so that it is 44mm from the bottom of the longest beam.
2. Group the beam and the Star

## Step 16: Creating the Main Structure (3 of 4)

Last step, continued

Instructions

1. Ungroup the beams, and then ungroup the beams on the right.
2. Duplicate the smallest vertical beam

## Step 17: Creating the Main Structure (4 of 4)

Last step, continued

Instructions

1. Align this beam with the top of the Star, 86mm from the base of the longest beam.
2. Lengthen this beam to 10mm. Keep the 6mm diameter

## Step 18: Making the Structure Easier to 3D Print (1 of 2)

3D printers do not like to print overhangs. Overhangs steeper than 45° from the bed require support structure or will fail. We want to avoid support structure and overhangs, completely. To do this, we're going to facet the entire structure.

Instructions

1. Drag a box to the Workplane
2. Grow the box until it is 117mm by 218mm by 3mm
3. Align the box so that it is centered around the structure.
4. Lower the box until its bottom is 2mm below the Workplane
5. Convert the box into a hole

## Step 19: Making the Structure Easier to 3D Print (2 of 2)

Last step, continued

Instructions

1. Duplicate the box
2. Align the duplicate so that it is centered around the structure.
3. Raise the duplicate 5mm off of the Workplane
4. Group the boxes with the structure

## Step 20: Fitting the Structure to the Base and the Sandle Holders (1 of 4)

We have all the parts, now we just need to make the interlock. We must also create some room for tolerances.

Instructions

1. Duplicate the main structure.
2. Rotate the duplicate so that it is standing vertically.
3. Lift the duplicate so that it is 4mm off of the Workplane.
4. Grow the duplicate until it is 217mm wide and 4.5mm thick.
5. Convert the duplicate into a hole
6. Duplicate the duplicate

## Step 21: Fitting the Structure to the Base and the Candle Holders (2 of 4)

Last step, continued

Instructions

1. Grab the candle holder and center it with one of the duplicates on the X and Y axes.
2. Raise the candle holder 112mm off of the Workplane
3. Group the one duplicate and the candle holder

## Step 22: Fitting the Structure to the Base and the Candle Holders (3 of 4)

Last step, continued

Instructions

1. Rotate the holder so that the flat side rests on the Workplane
2. Move the candle holder off to the side of the grid so we'll have grid space to use for other part

## Step 23: Fitting the Structure to the Base and the Candle Holders (4 of 4)

Last step, continued

Instructions

1. Grab the base and center it with the last duplicate on the X and Y axes.
2. Make sure the base is exactly on the Workplane
3. Group the last duplicate and the base
4. Move the base off to the side of the grid so we'll have grid space to use for other parts

## Step 24: Laying Out the Parts for Printing

All of our parts are now ready for 3D printing. Now we need to make sure the parts all fit on the bed of our 3D printer, which is 25.2 L x 19.9 W cm [9.9 x 7.8 in]

Instructions

1. Duplicate the candle holder so there are nine of them
2. Align the first one to the bottom left of the Workplane, and then the rest to each other, leaving a small gap of about 2mm between them. Leave a large gap between the 4th and 5th holders so that we can tuck the stem of the structure between them. Leave the 9th separate.
3. Next, align the structure to the left of the Workplane and to two mm or more above the candle holders.
4. Align the remaining candle holder and the base to the top of the structure.
5. Verify that all parts are 0mm off of the Workplain. We want them all on the bed of the printer!
6. Verify that all parts are within the bed, or within 25.2 L x 19.9 W cm [9.9 x 7.8 in]
7. Congratulations – you’re done!

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