Multimaker Prototype #1




About: I'm a 16yr old Tech Addict


i made the instructable far too early into the project , it should have been done after completing the final prototype , my bad BTW THE SECOND IMAGE IS THE SECOND PROTOTYPE

This project is a lot of firsts for me, this is my first 3d printer , first major electronics project , first instructable and i'm 15 years old and i build the whole thing from scratch (one of the youngest to do it ! ) I wanted to build one ,now I have time to do it during my summer holidays after graduating 10th grade

If you like my instructable, vote for me this instructable in the competitions it's important for me to continue making more awesome instructables

I will be using Multimaker for my future projects that I will be publishing on instructables

i also included links for the definition of some terms which yu may not know

No printer suits everyone that's why I made this instructable so that you get instructions for customizing Multimaker to your liking. so that it virtually suits all makers

In this instructable i will guide you through the process of building Multimaker , which is a high quality large 3d printer + PCB maker + light duty CNC router + Laser engraver + MORE....(multi purpose cnc platform) DONE RIGHT!

A 3D printer is a great tool for people ranging from consumers who use it for printing things for printing things for everyday home needs, to makers who use it to materialise their project ,to corporations who use it for prototyping and sometimes even for mass production . one printer may not suit every consumer, a maker class printer may not suit a professional or a home user . The printer i'm talking about ( Multimaker ) in this instructable is a maker class printer .

If you have not heard about 3d printing or you don't have considerable knowledge about 3d printing or even if you are curios i highly recommend you to enroll in the 3d printing class on instructables before progressing Because:

making a 3d printer requires you to know a thing or two about 3D printing . i made my 'multimaker' from scratch . its been almost 2 years since 3D printing or additive manufacturing caught my attention . i always wanted to get one, but the cost of purchasing a decent pre-built one is too much for and even the kits were 2x my budget so i decided to build one from scratch

. now with that aside, lets talk about Mulitimaker , i named it so because:

  • - it can do high quality FDM 3D prints
  • - it can print at high speed
  • - it can make PCB
  • - its a light duty CNC router
  • - its a CNC plotter
  • - it can do laser engraving if you add a laser

in short Multimaker is a multi purpose CNC platform it can be expanded to do SLA 3D printing and much more , it can be done in a way similar to which Maker arm does it


That's the main point of Multimaker , there is 2 reason why i made Multimaker rather than separate machines

1 : cost - buying separate machines cost thousands of dollars

  • For example : a good budget fdm printer like the Prisa i3 mk2 cost 699$ - 800$ .A cnc machine like the Othermill cost about 3000$
  • Even of you decide to make separate diy machines it would cost about twice the cost of Multimaker
  • Even all in one machines like the boxzy cost thousands of dollars
  • Multimaker cost below 500$

2 : space - if you have a small garage then Multimaker is perfect for you it takes up half the space of separate machines

this can be done because almost all of the above is basically 3 axis (x,y,z) controlled by a microcontroller .The trick is to build a motion system with a modular tool head and tune software to do it all

Multimaker costs between 150 dollars and 450 dollars because the price heavily depends on the following:....

  • - where you live
  • - where you buy from
  • - who you are
  • - options you choose

for example : shipping from ebay cost me more than it would cost if i had bought parts from Aliexpress

And if you decide to buy original parts rather than clones from China the price would drastically increase

There has been many attempts before to build a multi purpose CNC platform i the past (not by me) even on instructables but most of it has design problems , some build it with weak tiny steppers , some used arduino uno instead of the Arduino Mega and some just replaced router with a 3d pen or a hotend which is not ideal for a fast and precise 3d printer and some of it is too expensive and overkill so idecided to build one

i will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of most of the relevant options for building the multimaker so rather than copying multimaker i build instructable you get to build it at your preferences

Multimaker specs:

  • ~300x300mm build volume
  • 500x500 mm size
  • 5 micron xy resolution
  • print speed- 10- 100+mm/s (limited by 8 bit Arduino)
  • bed leveling - contact bed leveling swappable tool head

Step 1: Software, Design in CAD

Software needed:

  • -A cad software
  • -A cam software

***For both of the above I definitely recommend fusion 360 because it is CAD, CAM , simulation, drawing, etc build into a single package ****

It is the most powerful CAD software I know of and it's freeeee!!! For startups , enthusiasts , teachers, students, etc and others can subscribe it at an affordable price

Download fusion 360Here

  • - Arduino IDE
  • - Marlin firmware
  • - slicer (cura, slic3r, simplify 3D,etc)
  • A Marlin g code post processor for CAM
  • - a 3D printer host like repitier host or pronterface


If you are good at CAD I really recommend you to make a CAD file before building because your printer may be different from mine due to the customizability of the printer I managed to make a CAD file even though I have less than 1 month of CAD experience

Step 2: Frame and Motion

  • note: the image of the wooden frame you see is a prototype ,the z axis has been modified and instead of 4 bearing per set I used 3

frame is the backbone of the Multimaker in this step we will discuss the pros and cons of valid choices i of building the multimaker's frame

  • there are 2 major type of printers are : 1,cartesian 2, delta

i choose cartesian over delta because delta printers need a more powerful microcontroller to control the printer because the delta kinematics calculations are far more complex which means you can only print with super slow speed in delta printers with your regular 8 bit atmega 2560 based boards. in order to compensate this you will n need to upgrade to an ARM based 32 bit control boards like the Smoothieboard which cost about a 100 dollar which compared to a 15 dollar ramps set from china is too much money for building a budget 3d printer delta printers are extremely tall and has a cylindrical build volume which is a limiting factor

deltas are not great for a cnc milling application so going with a delta is not an option

ok now we decided to go with a cartesian printer there are many types of Cartesian kinematics

  • 1: prusa syle vertical x axis satndard
  • 2 ultimaker style cross gantry
  • 3 simple cartesian with moving motors
  • 4 corexy

1 prusa style printers have the cheapest frame but its not as rigid as the rest of the options but since there is little moving mass its great for placing a heavy toolhead

prusa style printers have a moving bed which introduces y axis artifacts if not done right

you can't print fast in such setup

2 ultimaker style printers have a high xy gantry part count and is difficult to scale up

3 a "normal" Cartesian printer with moving motors is not preferable in our application because of its moving motors it increases the moving mass increasing ringing artifact on prints

4 a corexy setup is the most ideal steup in our application because

  • it has no moving motors
  • it is a normal xy rotated 45 degrees , so when milling along x - y direction you will get more torque

motion : there are a few options: use them according to your liking

  • -linear ball bearing,
  • -brass/drylin bushing,
  • -rails (w rail , hiwin mgn rails ,etc)
  • -openbuilds v wheel with slot extrusions

bushings are better than linear bearings because they are silent have more contact surface and used in many cnc machines but linear bearings will be okay but both are not recommended for canelivered loads , .any rails and v wheels are probably the best option

frame material :

there are 3 options for making a frame use any one of them according to your liking

  • -v slot and t slot .
  • -Aluminium fabricated frame
  • -wood frame

if you decided to go with the v wheels v slot is probably the best option. If you are in USA you can easily get it from openbuilds

for using aluminium profile you need

12x 500mm t slot ,preferably 2040

15x v wheels

5x gantry plate

lots of nuts , washers, spacers and bolts for mounting v wheels on gantry plate

100+ t slot nuts

M5 10mm button head screw

quarter brackets for joining the frame

a hacksaw and a mitre for cutting the profiles to length

some printed parts

the instructions for using v slot to build frame can be found on the internet there is plenty of printers and cnc built on v slot the size of the frame is 500x500x500mm cube

replace 4-6 500mm t slot with v slot if you choose to go with v wheels on v slot

for aluminium or steel fabricated frame you will need

  • to make a cube the size of 500x500x500mm as shown in the picture
  • you will need to mount the motion system on the frame
  • drill a few holes for mounting endstop, motors ,etc
  • some printed parts depending on the design you chose

for wooden frame you will need:

  • 500x500mm frame (if you decided to use v wheel or skateboard bearing frame should be with with 2 top sides and two front sides rotated 45 degrees and a steel l perfil attached to the surface where the wheels will slide )
  • the parts for motion should be done on hard plywood which wont bend over time if you choose to do it with wood
  • you can design and get the parts cnc milled from MDF wood


  • x axis moves on the y axis in a corexy machine the toolhead mount is attached on the y axis with a cheeseplate
  • the toolhead mount is a cnc router mount clamp with adjustable tightness with a screw on one side with a head to adjust tightness . you can see it on the cad file I included this mount can fit a cnc router with a 52 mm radius
  • to attach a hotend you will have to design and print a e3d compatible mount with the shape of the cnc router ie 52mm external diameter so that the hotend can be attached to the lower clamp

Since x axis moves on y axis the axis should be light yet rigid a heavy gantry will affect print speeds and print quality . Less rigid gantry that's not rigid enough will affect the CNC milling capability of the printer

  • that's why i decided to use 10 mm diameter carbon fiber tubes for the x axis gantry as it is strong as steel and light as plastic
  • the x axis will use brass bushing to slide on the carbon fiber rods

BOM for x gantry

Y axis

since y axis has no moving mass it ok to have a heavy y axis i just use a 10 hardened steel rod coupled with either the 1020 brass bushing you bought for the x gantry has enough number to use with the y axis

BOM for y axis:


V wheels gantry if you build the frame with v slot


linear rails like w rails/ MGN rails [expensive]

Z axis

axis of Multimaker should be as strong as possible so i decided to go with the ' dual z axis arrangement '


  • cantilever bed design found on most 'box' type 3d printers like the ultimaker is a bit weak even for 3d printing
  • the bed should able to maintain its position even when its cnc milling
  • from the prototypes of multimaker i realised that for a bed this large having a lead screw at only one end of the bed will make the bed unstable
  • a spring shat coupler would introduce inaccuracies during cnc milling due to the springiness of the coupler so the solution is using a spider shaft coupling

BOM for z axis

Motors and XY motion

  • Use nema 17 bipolar stepper motor with at least 4 kg-cm torque for the motion system
  • For XY motion use use white polyurothane belt over the regular black rubber belt because it stretches a lot less and is better for this application
  • you can use 9mm gt2 belt if ou will be doinh a lot of cnc milling but you willl need to modify the printed parts for using 9mm belt



3D printer extruder

There are two types of extruder - bowden and direct

bowden - pros - extruder is stationary , it reduces the moving mass of the printer , thus can print faster

bowden - cons - 1- cannot print flexible filament because of the long filament path

2- extrusion is not accurate because of the long filament path

direct - pros - 1 -can print flexibe filament

2 -accurate extrusion because of the short filament path

direct cons - extruder is moving increasing the moving mass ,thus reducing the print speed

Best of both worlds - e3d titan [ or clone ] lightweight pancake stepper in direct drive configuration

e3d titan has 3:1 reduction gear which means you can use a tiny and lightweight pancake stepper motor

extruder BOM

  • nema 17 pancake stepper : stepperonline link
  • mk7 drive gear
  • 608 bearing
  • printed parts [ coming soon ]

To get more information about corexy printer and to get printed parts stl check out hypercube by tech2c Here

I definitely recommend an enclosure for the 3D printer out of plywood/ acrylic for opaque surface and clear acrylic for the transparent surface adding an enclosure will increase the looks of Multimaker , it will look like what you see in the cover photo. Adding an enclosure prevents particles from CNC milling and printing ABS. From going outside, it also reduces the noise of the Multimaker

Step 3: Electronics

electronics are the brains of the printer.There are many options for the electronics from the cheap and common ramps 1.4 to the latest and greatest smoothie board


  • I used ramps 1.4 in my Multimaker because it's cheap and readily available
  • Ramps 1.4 is not a standalone board it is just an Arduino shield for the stepper motor driver
  • You will need an Arduino mega 2560
  • And 4 stepper motor driver for completing the ramps electronics we will use drv8825 instead of the standard allegro driver because it's more feature packed and doesn't cost much more than the allegro drivers

But there are some design flaws in the ramps board it includes:

  • Polufyse : polufyse is terrible it is very unpredictable it can trip halfway and cause some problems this can be solved by soldering an automotive fuse in place of the polufyse
  • High power terminals: the high power terminals on the ramps board are rated for around 5amps , the heated bed on the 3D printer draws about 12 amps on 12v the terminal may melt at this current . This can be solved by soldering a resistor of appropriate resistance or soldering the wire directly to the PCB
  • Heated bed MOSFET: the heated bed MOSFET has high resistance which results in low efficiency There are alternatives to the ramps board based on atmega 2560 like the Rambo board

Ramps 1.4 electronics parts AliExpress link

1x Ramps 1.4

1xArduino mega 2560

4x Drv8825

While assembly make sure that you press the board till no pins are visible ( compare the images )


  • Smoothie board is the best control bord currently on the market I know it has a 32 bit arm based processor which is superior compared to the 8 bit microcontroller on the Arduino and some models have network connectivity
  • Unlike the ramps board smpothieboard is almost flawless ,but the cache is that it cost about a 100 Dollars

Power supply

Normally a 12v 20a switching power supply would be enough but a 12v 25a power supply would get you a bit of a headroom which prevents overtaxing the power supply

If you choose to buy an ATX power supply make sure you get enough current on the 12v line and be ready to do some mods if you choose an ATX power supply

AliExpress links :

12v 20a 240w power supply


A LCD CONTROLLER makes your printer standalone . Then you don't need to connect your computer to your printer to make it work

The biggest advantage is that it drastically improved the print quality at high speed printing learn how Here

I would recommend the full graphics display because it's the biggest and baddest display but it's not much more expensive than the regular display

The other option is to setup octoprint but it only replaces your computer with a rapsberry pi and does not provide the speed and quality advantage of the LCD CONTROLLER

AliExpress link: 12864 full graphics smart controller


Use the common and cheap mechanical endstop that works well

Use M3 or m5 if M3 does not workscrews for attaching it to the frame

AliExpress link:Mechanical endstop

Thermistor (for heated bed)

A NTC 100k thermistor would be ideal

AliExpress link:NTC 100k thermistor

Bed leveling probe:

There are various methods of probing the bed for auto bed leveling

Tom tested all of them and measured the accuracy of each of them Here

You may notice that he used a steel rod to close a circuit to test the repeatability of his test procedure

That's exactly what we are going to do , we will connect the positive terminal of the control board to the metal end of the toolhead and place 3or4 points on the z axis with a metal plate and connect it to the signal port of the control board. . I got this idea from watching that video .I searched on the internet and found out that Lulzbots uses this method to probe the bed this is the holy Grail of auto bed leveling

cooling fan

a 50x50mm radial fan is perfect for this job , there are numerous radial fan mounts available on thingiverse

Step 4: 3D Printing

for 3D printing you need:

  • A hotend - 1.75mm e3d v6 is the best currently on the market (I used a clone from eBay)
  • A heated bed - mk2b or preferably mk3for 300mm print volume MAKE SURE TO GET A HEATED BED WITH NO MORE THAN 2 OHMS OR THE BED WONT HEAT PROPERLY . Alternatives of PCB heated bed is heater mats on Aluminum plate
  • An extruder with the hobbed gear (mk7 is better than mk8)

There are two types of extrusion system: direct and Bowden

Bowden is useful making the XY carriage light by moving the heavy stepper motor out of moving parts a but the cache is that you can't print flexible filaments

E3d Titan is a great option for direct extruder and bond tech extruder is best for Bowden ( I used a regular spring loaded extruder

  • 1.75mm filament , again there are some options , mainly PLA, ABS and PETG

PLA is a biodegradable plastic and is the easiest to print but it is brittle compared to ABS and is not resistant to heat it can melt if you leave PLA in your car without A/C

Abs is more flexible and one of the most temperature resistant plastic for 3D printing

You can boil it without melting it but later adhesion will be poor due to the same reason

For strong and easy to print parts PETG is the best option

  • Mount the heated bed to the z axis either using M3 screws or using mangnets for quick detachment of the bed
  • Use crimp connectors for wires used by heated bed and toolhead for easy release of toolheads

Step 5: CNC Milling

for CNC milling you need the following parts :

  • A 400w CNC router spindle motor with appropriate bits
  • A speed controller
  • Wood waste plate
  • 4 clamps
  • Power supply for spindle motor
  • a l bracket for alignment of PCB
  • A CAM software (fusion 360 CAM)
  • A g code post processor for Marlin

Step 6: Wiring

wiring is one of the most boring parts in building such a machine , I spent hours doing it .doing it properly will take some time. Here is the video Tom made on how to wire your 3d printer printer

Tools you need:

  • Wire stripper
  • Terminal crimper and crimp connectors(optional)
  • DuPont crimp connectors and crimpers with its housing
  • Soldering iron
  • Solder
  • Multimeter
  • Lots of patience , common sense and care

Here is a PDF from reprap about ramps 1.4 assembly

Wire sizes needed

  • 0.13mm sq for endstop, sensor, fans,etc
  • >\=1 mm sq for hotend, wire from power supply
  • Speaker wires or 2.5 - 4mm sq for heated bed



Step 7: Firmware

i decided to use Marlin firmware for my printer you can download it from GitHub

-Another great option is repitier firmware

In this step We will setup Marlin firmware for the Multimaker.

Tom made a video on this topic Here

I suggest you to watch the video and and configure it rather than copying a pre configured file because it may introduce some issues

pre configured marlin is currently in beta the one I uploaded is of a similar printer

  • enable nozzle wiping so that the nozzle will be clean before bed leveling use a thick foam for the nozzle to wipe on you most specify the starting and ending point
  • Contact bed leveling has similar firmware settings .Make the z axis offset the height of the surface contacted by the nozzle compared to the height of the bed XY offset is 0
  • You must specify the probe points for grid leveling we are using you can measure it and specify
  • For setting up LCD CONTROLLER watch This
  • Our gantry is corexy

This should be enough for setting up Marlin firmware

I will attach a pre configured Marlin firmware for The Multimaker soon

Sample preconfigured marlin for

Step 8: Calibration

There are 2 this to calibrate that's extruder and motion system

Watch This to know how to calibrate extruder

Caliberting motion system is fairly simple it includes printing a 10mm side cube and measuring it to check for accuracy check for ay artifacts and search it by image to know what's the problem

  • Here isTom's video on caliberation

Now with that done we are ready to print!!

Step 9: Let's Print

to benchmark the 3D printer print a 3D benchy from Thingiverse

Aria the dragon form Thingiverse

Guess what , it prints great!

Use cura to slice an STL file and upload the file to an SD card the. Insert the SD card to the LCD CONTROLLER and print

Settings:0.1mm layer height 2 top and bottom layers 15 percent Infilll 1000mm/s/s acceleration

(Use part cooling fan for high quality prints)

Printed on. Blue ABS

NOTE: when printing with abs use an enclosure with part cooling fan for high strength functional parts

I didn't use it because even without an enclosure temperature outside reaches 37°c , of you do not live on a tropical country I definitely recommend it

Step 10: Let's Mill a PCB

The method of milling away unwanted copper from a copper clad is called isolation PCB milling

The Reprap page on isolation PCB milling has all you need to get started

  • Make sure to use a vector based software for PCB milling to get accurate circuits
  • Get a good PCB milling spindle motor and the correct bits if your current spindle motor has low RPM
  • Enclosure is highly recommend for using CNC milling in Multimaker

For 3D CNC milling use a either use a cam with Marlin compatible g code or use fusion 360 cam and a Marlin g code post processor

Step 11: UPDATE:


this prototype can print decently but is just another corexy 3D printer

in the 3rd prototype i will change the situation, i will make it a reliable high quality FDM machine.

such as adding a heated build chamber to print poly carbonate ;) but that will require some major mods

i should not have posted this instructable so early into the project , my BAD

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    23 Discussions


    Reply 2 years ago

    its constantly being updated

    Multimaker prototype 1.1 is being made

    the revisions include :

    - new carbon fiber x gantry

    - new xy,z linear guide with lm series bearings and sintered brass bushing on steel and carbon fiber rods

    - new z axis arrangement

    - new extruder

    -new quick removable build platform

    i just ordered the parts needed from for the design revision

    it will take about a month before the revised version is ready to print

    if this prototype works flawlessly it will be the completed Multimaker 1


    2 years ago

    Most impressive; I have been 3D printing for about 4 years now and I don't think I've ever seen a z-axis quite like this - points for originality (and for not cantilevering)! I'm looking into Marlin for a similar machine I'm designing, but if it's any help I have used Grbl in the past and it has some built-in functions for laser operation (I think they're related firmwares?). Anyways, amazing work and I look forward to seeing it in action!

    1 reply

    Reply 2 years ago

    -boxzy uses the same z axis , i used it because its proven to work with a cnc router as well as a 3d printer which boxzy is but boxy costs 2200 dollars

    (you can see the z axis of boxzy in the image )

    -i am thinking of upgrading to a dual z axis where the z axis is supported by two lead screws on left and right and by linear bearing on all 4 corners of the bed

    -i used marlin because its damn popular, but its actually designed for 3d printers

    to use it for cnc and laser, we will have to use a post processor for marlin

    a video will be out when the develepment of Multimaker is over . now multimaker is constantly changing


    2 years ago

    Hi there Devadath! I just want to motivate you to continue and keep up your idea and concept. Your instructable is really nice and rich in content for those who want to build a machine from zero, like I did.

    I gathered the essentials and printed the rest with my chinese delta, the money wasn't really a concern because I was able to buy the needed parts, not all at once, but monthly. I tried to build in wood and balsa three times without success, only the second version of the actual frame was a done deal, and now it's my daily printer, since jan 2017.

    The $300 target price is nice, when you think in a 3D printer, because if you add a good splinder a worthy laser module, it will pass that prince point.

    Hope to see your machine in action, and once again congrats for the instructable and for the info research that you have done.

    1 reply

    Reply 2 years ago

    you are correct , a laser will bust my budget of 300$. I didn't buy it yet ,

    I will buy it later if I need it but I can provide instructions to set it up


    2 years ago

    Dude, sick project! I would love to build somthing like this! A video of it in action would be really cool! You should check out my 3d printer that I made out of Legos in the 3d printing chalenge! votes would be appreciated! My project is no where near as sophisticated as this but I had fun with it! Awesome Job!


    2 years ago

    when will you be home to make a video? i love this and have been looking for a great diy combination cnc-3d printer with pcb milling. i absolutely want to build this. fantastic job!

    1 reply

    Reply 2 years ago

    i will be home by next week , I know a video would make this instructable much more awesome . If you find it difficult to wait for a week , hypercube by tech2c has a similar motion system ( corexy ) and it's already available on YouTube


    Hypercube by tech2c is a great 3d printer he also included STL files for the printed parts of hypercube , if you decide to go with a t slot or v slot frame those files would be useful, watch this video till I upload Mone so that you would get an idea about multimaker


    Reply 2 years ago

    I will add a video as soon as I reach home


    2 years ago

    As said a french humorist, "Mozart was only seven years old when he created the 5th symphony of Beethoven". You're eight years too old, but congrats !


    2 years ago

    did you make it all by your self cuz that looks like it would take some funding

    2 replies

    Reply 2 years ago

    Yeah I did it myself it took me ~300$. Which is very cheap for a 3D printer . My parents funded my project


    2 years ago

    very very impressive. documentation looks good and that is a definite plus. I have built a table top cnc, been thinking of converting it to 3d print. you gave me info I was looking for. thankd

    2 replies

    Reply 2 years ago

    if you like to do CNC and 3D printing , and if you got the right electronics you can Make your CNC a Multimaker by changing the mount in your the mount I mentioned in the instructable and use crimp connectors near the toolhead for wires coming to the toolhead it allows you to rapidly switch between 3D printing and CNC milling


    Reply 2 years ago

    i will include the CAD files for the mount soon


    2 years ago

    this is a great document on how one could "possibly" build this idea, but I'm wondering exactly what you built for that $300 price point. Pricing this out according to your suggestions, and this build is nowhere even close to the budget $300 you describe.

    1 reply

    Reply 2 years ago

    If you read it completely you will understand what I built .but to make it clear I will mention what I built once again
    -A wooden frame with l perfil and used skateboard bearings ( soon upgrade to v wheels ) as motion system
    -Nema 17 bipolar stepper motor
    - 16 tooth Gt2 pulley
    -Gt2 belt 5m
    -T8 leadscrew 450 mm long
    -5mm to 8mm shaft coupler

    Ramps 1.4+Arduino mega 2560 + drv8825 + full graphics LCD controller
    -Mechanical endstop
    - NTC100K thermistor (for bed)
    -12v 20a 240w power supply

    -E3d v6 clone (assembled)
    -A standard extruder I made
    - PTFE Teflon tube (Bowden tube )
    - mk2b heated bed
    -1.75mm blue ABS filament

    - Fusion 360 ( for modelling and CAM)
    -Arduino IDE
    -Marlin firmware
    - Cura