# NiCd - NiMH PC Based Smart Charger - Discharger

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How to build a low cost great features PC based smart charger- discharger which can charge any NiCd or NiMH battery packs.

- The circuit uses the PC power supply , or any 12V power source.

-The circuit uses The "Temperature slope" method which is the most accurate and safe method, in this case the packs are charged by monitoring the temperature and end the charge when the charger sense the end of charge dT/dt, which depends on the battery type.

Two parameters are used as a backup to avoid over charging:
- Maximum time: The charger will stop after a predetermined time according to the battery capacity
- Maximum temperature: You can set the Max. battery temperature to stop the charging when it becomes too hot ( about 50 C ).

- The charger uses the PC serial port, i have built the software with Microsoft Visual Basic 6 with an Access database to store the battery parameters and charging profiles.

- A log file is generated with each charging process showing the charged capacity, charging time, cutoff method ( time or Max. temperature or Max. slope )

- The charging characteristics is displayed online through a graph ( Time versus temperature ) to monitor the battery temperature.

- You can discharge your packs as well as measuring it's actual capacity.

- The charger has been tested with more than 50 battery packs, it realy works great.

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## Step 1: The Schematic

The circuit can be divided into e main parts:

Measuring the temperature:
This is the most interesting part of the project, the purpose is to use a low cost design with a low cost components along with a good accuracy. i have used the great idea from
http://www.electronics-lab.com/projects/pc/013/ , review it , it contains all the required details.

A separate module in the program has been written to measure the temperature, as it can be used in other purposes.

The charging circuit:
================
- I used LM317 in the first design, but the efficiency was too bad and the charging current was limited to 1.5A, in this circuit i used a simple adjustable constant current source, using one comparator of the LM324 IC. and the high current MOSFET trannsistor IRF520.
- The current is adjusted manually using the 10Kohm variable resistor. ( i'm working on changing the current through the software ).

- The program controls the charging process by pulling Pin(7) high or low.

The discharging circuit:
===================
- I have used the remaining two comparators from the IC, one for discharging the battery pack and the other for listening to the battery voltage and stop the discharging process as soon as it drops to a predetermined value ( for ex. 1V for each cell )

- The program monitors pin(8) , it will disconnect the battery and stop charging when it's logic level "0".
- You can use any power transistor can handle the discharge current.
- Another variable resistor ( 5K ohm ) controls the discharge current.

## Step 2: The Circuit on the Bread Board

The project has been tested on my project board before making the PCB

## Step 3: Preparing the PCB

For the fast charge process you will need a high current , in this case you should use a heat sink, i have used a fan with its heat sink from an old VEGA card. it worked perfectly. the circuit can handle currents up to 3A.

- I fixed fan module to the PCB.

## Step 4: Fixing the MOSFET

The transistor should have a very strong thermal contact with the heat sink, i fixed it to the back of the fan module. as shown in the image below.
BE CAREFUL, DON'T TO ALLOW THE TRANSISTOR TERMINALS TO TOUCH THE BOARD.

## Step 5: Soldering the Components

Then i started to add the components one by one.
I hope that i have time to make a professional PCB, but that was my first version of the project.

## Step 6: The Complete Circuit

This is the final circuit after adding all the components
look at the notes.

## Step 7: Mounting the Discharge Transistor

This is a closed image showing how i mounted the discharge transistor.

## Step 8: The Program

A screen shot of my program

## Step 9: Charging Curves

This is a sample charging curve for a Sanyo 2100 mAH battery charged with 0.5C ( 1A)
notice the dT/dt on the curve.

Note that the program stop the charging process when the battery temperature increases rapidly
slope equals ( .08 - 1 C/min )

200 12K
51 24K
84 4.9K

## 47 Discussions

Hello, and welcome to the Instructables community! This currently does not meet our criteria for an Instructable. A completed Instructable:

- details a finished project with instruction (not just links to instructions)
- has clear images that you took of your project (web-found clip-art is not acceptable)
- uses proper spelling and grammar
- contains appropriate cautions or safety considerations
- does not violate someone else's copyright
- is typically written about something you are very passionate about and want to share.

If this is a comment, a question, a small tip, or something that cannot truly be a finish project, please post it as a forum topic. If you are looking to start a collaboration, post a topic in the forums. Look here for tips on writing a great Instructable.

https://www.instructables.com/id/ELHMNOA69REUF10WM7/

So, it has been unpublished. Please do not republish until it has been corrected. When you republish, if everything is fixed, I'll remove this note. Multiple attempts to republish without correction will result in deletion.

2 replies

Hi noahw, Thanks for the note, kindly be informed that i didn't finish my instructable, i'm still preparing the materials, images .. etc. i thought that it can be published until i finish my work. I will update it soon and publish it when it's ready. Thank you Hossam

You generally want to get your instructable all finished before you publish it. That way people can see the final product. Thanks for your submission and I am looking forward to seeing the finished project!

Hi Hosam,

Just wondering if you managed to complete this instructable ?

i know its been a few years since the original posts but this software and the schematic would be greatly appreciated for my home project, i have recently become severely mobility impaired and started learning electronics (now that im stuck in one room full-time!) and have over two dozen (28!!!) varying sizes battery packs that would greatly benefit these tests using you excellent 'ible !

Please could you say if this is complete and/or if you could email me all the info including full parts listing so i too can make one of these 'super battery pack charger/discharger's' ??? !!!! ???

many thanks in advance for any or all help given through pm and i'll post you my email addy !!!

keep up the great inventive work !!!

2 replies

Hi,

Thanks a lot for your e-mail,
Actually i have made this project long time ago, all the info i have is posted to the website, but i think the schematic is a little bit missing some parts numbers, i think this can be sent.

But the final version of the software is the one on the website

By the way, i still have the circuit in the picture, i don't need it any more, but the shipping cost is high, better to build it at home.

Regards
Hossam

Many many Thanks for the LIGHTENING FAST reply Hosam !!!!! i am truly grateful !

I'm gathering the components at the moment and have downloaded all the software and schematic but the link for the research i need does not work anymore and i would very much like to see the extra information from the dead link (understandable considering how much time has past !)

here is the text from your 'ible that i need the link for:

Measuring the temperature:
This is the most interesting part of the project, the purpose is to use a low cost design with a low cost components along with a good accuracy. i have used the great idea from http://www.electronics-lab.com/projects/pc/013/ , review it , it contains all the required details.

Would you be able to remember the name of the project from the electronics-lab.com website that has all these required details ?

or if you could write me down the full list of exactly which components (capacitors, resistors, IC's etc) your original circuit used and all values so that i can start ordering the parts?!!!?

Once again, thanks for the great help in Reviving this Old But EXCELLENT Project as i need to breathe New-Life into it !!!

Interesting build, did you think about mixing temperature and voltage peak? It would be perfect this way.

Could it be possible to make it so this same charger charges Li-ions, NiCd's, and lead acids, too?

It would be a whole lot more useful if it was universal!

Hi.
I think that your diagram is not well. First, the diode at pin 2 LM324 is turned. I think ,anode have to go at pin2 ,cathode at gnd to establish 0.6v at pin2.
Second,I have 3 v to 4v at fan with slow moving ventilation.Which type of the fan I must use: at 5v ,or 12v?.When I put 82k resistor between VCC and the baseof the transistor (I put BC639 ) I have about 8v to 9v, but BC639 is just warmer(about 40 to 50 Celsius degree.Third , cooling fancontacts need to be turned (oposite).
Fourth,100kOhm resistor at trimer 10kOhm#pin12 LM324,I think it should be there.Without 100kOhm , don't have current adjustment at all. With resistor ,have
current range from 0 to 0.65 A max..Why is that?.And,finally , In software you have a bug when I turn CHARGE button, next PAUSE,and again CHARGE button the program says '55 error' and close the program.

charger_setup_WinXp.rar file will download fine if you follow these instructions. BTW it only took me a minute to figure this out. Everybody gives up too soon.

Right mouse click on the link, "Save target as", let it download to your computer. It will save as FA2OIVDFDO2058V.htm. Once the download is completed change the .htm extension to .rar. Then open the file and it will unpack properly. Note: you will need Winrar or another program that opens RAR compressed files.

charger_setup_WinXp.rar file appearing as tmp file and archive corrupted. Please help me to work with and to try.

Great work man!
I just love batteries too (Link) . Just made a dis charger with Arduino .
Nice work .

encounter a big problem, charger_setup_WinXp.rar 45 MB seem impossible to download . server keep on reset after few minutes on download, and can not resume, waste a lot of bandwidth.

Hello all, I have uploaded the source code, i'm realy sorry for all that delay ( it was out of my hands) . Please if anybody has modified the software or enhanced it, just drop me an e-mail with the new version so i can upload it for everybody. Regarding polymer52's comment, actually the software worked for me over a year and also for many friends. YES it needs some enhancements like any software BUT i think it's not fair to say that it's "useless" as he mentioned. Anyways polymer52, thanks for the great comment !! Thanks Hossam