# PID (Proportional–Integral–Derivative) Controller

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A proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller) is a control loop feedback mechanism (controller) commonly used in industrial control systems

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## Step 1:

A proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller) is a control loop feedback mechanism (controller) commonly used in industrial control systems. A PIDcontroller continuously calculates an error value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired setpoint .

The controller attempts to minimize the error over time by adjustment of a control variable, such as the position of a control valve, a damper, or the power supplied to a heating element, to a new value determined by a weighted sum:

Eq is shown obve .

where Kp,Ki and Kd, all non-negative, denote the coefficients for the proportional, integral, and derivative terms, respectively (sometimes denoted P, I, and D). In this model,
P accounts for present values of the error (e.g. if the error is large and positive, the control variable will be large and negative),I accounts for past values of the error (e.g. if the output is not sufficient to reduce the size of the error, the control variable will accumulate over time, causing the controller to apply a stronger action), andD accounts for possible future values of the error, based on its current rate of change

As a PID controller relies only on the measured process variable, not on knowledge of the underlying process, it is broadly applicable.By tuning the three parameters of the model, a PID controller can deal with specific process requirements. The response of the controller can be described in terms of its responsiveness to an error, the degree to which the system overshoots a setpoint, and the degree of any system oscillation. The use of the PID algorithm does not guarantee optimal control of the system or even itsstability.
Some applications may require using only one or two terms to provide the appropriate system control. This is achieved by setting the other parameters to zero. A PID controller will be called a PI, PD, P or I controller in the absence of the respective control actions. PI controllers are fairly common, since derivative action is sensitive to measurement noise, whereas the absence of an integral term may prevent the system from reaching its target value.

## Step 2: Proteus File

Components Required:-

2 ics >> lm358 & lm324. resistors >> 10k,100k and variable Resistor 1M ohm. Capcitors >> 1 micro Farad and 22 Micro Farad. some jummpers

in this sktech
first one is Set point
2nd there are 3 op amp in which
1st Proportional, 2nd Integral and 3rd Derivative . which are connected in top, center and bottom orders.
last one is Error

## Step 4:

After Soldering it should look like that

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## 28 Discussions

Hey joony786!!

Pls, what is the range of the input and Output? It's not clear for me...

What is the Name (function) of each RV1-4? Error is RV4?
In J1 and J2 what is each Pin??

Rv1 is the proportional gain
RV2 is the Integrial Gain
Rv3 is the Set point
Rv4 is the Derivative Gain

in sktech of Proteus
first one is Set point
2nd there are 3 op amp in which
1st Proportional, 2nd Integral and 3rd Derivative . which are connected in top, center and bottom orders.
last one is Error

i need this circuti diagram and deatels .plz help us

WOW !

Awesome work, was looking for an analog PID controller. This is perfect.

Hope to see more stuff from you :)

Thanks Buddy .!!
Hopefully u will see more projects like this in coming f days.

You state in your bio that your are and electronics engineer interested in electronic hobby's and DIY Projects. So I'm struggling to understand who your target demographic is for this particular project. If it's other electronics engineer's then they probably already know this stuff so for them the information is superfluous. If you are trying to reach out to hobbyists like myself then you've got a lot of 'splainin' to do. It's clear that you have a strong understanding of the topic but you've really fallen short in terms of fleshing it out for the rest of us. I can tell that your heart is in the right place so I'm hesitant to be critical but you need to expand on the details if you really want educate a larger audience. Think of it as an undergraduate college course where the students are motivated but have limited practical knowledge of the topic. It looks like an interesting topic as far as I can tell, but bridging the gap between your expertise and that of the struggling hobbyist is going to require a lot more effort on your part. I hope that you will give it another try.

5 replies

i can expnad it to further but as u can see above eq's pic is not clear . it turn to black and all indications were gone .. :( so that's why i make it limited. one more thing about this project , i was assign this project in 7th semester. Our subject was Industrial electronic by the way i'm in 8th smester now moving to Automatic Machine Gun control and CNC and further more advance Projects like self learning robot and many more to come ..!!

That's fantastic! I didn't realize that you were in the process of becoming a full fledged engineer of the highest order. Nice project. But, it's a bit of a tease for lesser folks like me. I've seen discussions on PID controllers before but they were not geared toward the hobbyist and I could not follow them. I was hoping that maybe this Instructable would be different. If you are communicating with your colleagues that's one thing, but if you are posting on a site like this the situation becomes more challenging. Translating from your language down to my level is a difficult task. Maybe impossible? Are you up to the challenge?

According to Your View "Translating from your language down to my level is a difficult task. Maybe impossible? " hear's Great saying about that

" It always seems impossible until its done. Nelson Mandela "

bro,it's not a difficult to translate from my Level to ur's ..!!
ahhhh Challenge :p i can't say anything about that yet but let's see what u reckon ;)

I'm betting that you have what it takes to be a good teacher. I'm looking forward to seeing what you come up with and maybe I'll learn a thing or two in the process. Have at it!

i 'll ..!! appricate ur viwes ,Gratitude :_)

Nope ..!! These are op amp u can use 741 IC ,which include only one op amp ..!!!
i use 2 ics as i mentioned obve first one lm 324 and lm 358
i'm gonna uplaod pin config. check them out

I think there is some confusion... you used "microcontroller" in the title, but there is no microcontroller in this design. I appreciate a good analog design - nice work.

It was a good read, wish I were an electronic engineer to use this! What applications have you used or planned to use?