Persistence of Vision




About: I am a Electronics and telecom graduate engineer and an enthusiastic embedded student with experience in latest technology and also an video and project documentation on the side.

Persistence of vision is an optical illusion, it works on a simple phenomenon how our day to day television works. MY first pov was six months before with arduino uno and with motor. However it is best to have a small and portable device that can be carried anywhere and image can be seen without any external motors or fan.

This small portable pov version uses attiny 85 ic, smaller variant of arduino uno that uses atmega 328 ic. This time, I made pov to give my sister as a gift .There are many tutorials on how to make pov but lot of them have tons of wires and motors and many a time uses the arduino uno board itself .so I thought, to come with no wire small pov with built in power source and a switch. By switching the internal crystal speed to 1 MHZ of attiny85, the image was seen more clearly without any motor. With proper camera shutter speed control the image can be seen nice and clear.

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Step 1: Materials and Tools

  1. Arduino UNO
  2. Attiny 85
  3. 5 leds of any colour
  4. Breadboard
  5. soldering ion and solder wire
  6. Cutter
  7. Dotted pcb
  8. Hacksaw
  9. Slider switch
  10. 8 pin ic socket
  11. 3v cr2032 coin cell battery and holder
  12. jumper wires


  1. Cut the Dotted pcb into 9 cm by 3.5 cm using Hacksaw
  2. Solder the led's on to the board and using cutter cut the extra led foot .
  3. solder the 8 pin ic socket on the board as shown in the picture
  4. Connect the ground of all leds to attiny 85 pin 4
  5. connect the rest of circuit as given in the circuit diagram picture.make sure you use solder bridge technique,as the whole board should have no wires.
  6. check all the connections using multimeter to check if two traces are not shorted.
  7. clean the pcb and now we will solder the switch and battery holder
  8. put the coin cell into holder and check with multimeter which pin is positive and negative
  9. solder the pin of battery holder and slider switch as shown in the picture
  10. connect the 8pin of ic socket to middle pin of slider switch and first pin of slider will to positive terminal of battery holder
  11. Now trace the gnd to connect
  12. check every single connection if shorted use de soldering pump and redo the traces.

Thank you Hemal Chevli and Victor805 for sharing the pcb version of pov

Step 3: PROGRAM an Attiny

Step1. Install the ATtiny support in arduino ide

  • Open the preferences dialog in the Arduino software.
  • Find the “Additional Boards Manager URLs” field near the bottom of the dialog
  • Paste the following URL into the field (use a comma to separate it from any URLs you’ve already added)

  • Click the OK button to save your updated preferences.
  • Open the boards manager in the “Tools > Board” menu.
  • Scroll to the bottom of the list; you should see an entry for “ATtiny”.
  • Click on the ATtiny entry. An install button should appear. Click the install button.
  • The word “installed” should now appear next to the title of the ATtiny entry.

  • Close the boards manager. You should now see an entry for ATtiny in the “Tools > Board” menu.

Step 2. Upload Arduino isp sketch from example into arduino uno

Step 3. Connect the following pins of ATTINY 85 to arduino uno

ATTINY 85 ----- Arduino Uno

pin5(MOSI) ----- D 11

pin6(MISO) ------ D 12

pin7(SCK) ------ D 13

pin8(VCC) ------ 5V

pin4(gnd) ------ GND

pin1(reset) ------- D10

I made a shield to do this connection ,also added the atmega 328 support to the shield the shield is put straight on the arduino uno and you can do program without any wires and breadboard.

Step 4. Go to Tools and change programmer from avrisp mkll to Arduino as ISP

Step 5. change the board to aTtiny and select the aTtiny 85 chip and set internal clock to 1mhz

Step 6. upload the program of pov using shift + upload for successful uploading .

Step 4: FINISH!!

Take out the camera and start clicking photos .Adjust the shutter speed for perfect photo.

The making of pov was less than 4$ this is very cheap gift you can give to any loved one.small and can be taken anywhere.

Epilog Contest VII

Participated in the
Epilog Contest VII

4 People Made This Project!


  • Made with Math Contest

    Made with Math Contest
  • Multi-Discipline Contest

    Multi-Discipline Contest
  • Robotics Contest

    Robotics Contest

43 Discussions


3 years ago

I always wanted to make my POV display..
& I'm doing with the help of this amazing and easy instructable.


3 years ago


can you upolad the block diagram please if it's not much to ask??

1 reply

Reply 3 years ago

you could make your block diagram,just observe the circuit and if there is a problem just let me know


3 years ago

So the arduino is used as a programmer essentially.


3 years ago

Very awesome project! I know the principle POV, but I never seen something like this. Simple and functionally. For the speed it's possible add a potentiometer, but the Attiny not have another pin for the input... I make one of this. Great! Thank!


4 years ago

ravi ,

i have a pic programmer can i use instead of ATTI?

3 replies

Reply 4 years ago

yes you can.the algorithm will remain same for any micro-controller


Reply 4 years ago

thanks, can you please send me the circuit diagram, i didn't find it.


4 years ago

Can i ask you a question?
In PCB version, why did u connect 3v3 (VCC) with GND through PWR_Flag? It just like you connect VCC and GND of that ATiny together. I think it will destroy the chip!!!

2 replies

Reply 4 years ago

i never noticed it ,thank you NgaN3. Will make changes shortly


Reply 4 years ago

That's a great gift!!! Im going to make one for my friend!!! Thanks for ur working!!!


4 years ago

That was a great offering !
Don't listen to the negative nellies .. They are on a lunch break @ the flat earth society ;) . I think your lil Sis will never forget this wonderful gift.
I plan on trying to make a few for my kids and wife

1 reply

Reply 4 years ago

Thank you cvachter .Yes she and my friend liked it a lot :)

Marcelo Ricardo

4 years ago

Good morning, I'm Marcelo Ricardo from Brazil and enjoyed this project and would like to know if I buy these products you, you would send me to Brazil or to send me the product list that I can buy for me to ride with the rich details please since I'm already grateful for the attention given by you.

No more for today I'm waiting for a return.

Att. Marcelo Ricardo

1 reply
RaviP6Marcelo Ricardo

Reply 4 years ago

Thank you Marcelo Ricardo .You can get all components from : The list of components are mentioned above in instructables.


4 years ago

What Practical purpose does this device serve ? When I was younger , and just learning electronic theory I built a sequential light board with some early LED's , and later when I had been in it for a living I found the original circuit I built on a shelf , and said to myself " What am I gonna do with this thing" ? Still have it n looks cool , but it doesn't wash my socks yet even 43 years later .

1 reply

Reply 4 years ago

Well, art is supposed to be reason enough, but I get what you are saying. I have this problem with paper models I've designed. In this case I think you should consider making it the display for a clock. That way even if you do not use it, anyone can understand its purpose and value.