Rapid Prototyping System for Printing Clay Slurry


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这是一台3D陶泥打印机,我们创作出这个机器的灵感是因为我们学校的实习实训基地旁边的禹州钧瓷。钧瓷,河南省禹州市特产,中国国家地理标志产品。钧瓷始于唐、盛于宋,是中国古代五大名瓷之一,并以其独特的釉料及烧成方法产生的窑变神奇而闻名于世。如何使用打印机打印出钧瓷这个想法产生在我们的头脑中,我们的团队也为此做出了。

3D陶泥打印机,我们结合DM堆积成型技术对三维模型进行切片处理逐层打印,得出实体泥胚。我们在打印过程中使用了禹州钧瓷制胚时使用的特殊成分的陶泥,使得它打印更易成形,且在烧制过程中有更高的成品率。

对比传统日用陶瓷工艺中,对复杂造型经常采用“支钉”“吊烧”等烧成方法,以避免器物因造型的复杂而造成烧成的缺陷。虽然这种方法在很大程度上保全了产品的完整与完美,但烧成过程极为繁琐,同时也会因产品成功率的降低导致成本大幅度提高。3D陶瓷打印技术在对复杂器型设计当中便可解决因烧成而变形等诸多问题,因为设计者可在计算机软件中,对复杂器型内部关键部位编制支撑结构,3D打印机在泥条逐层积累的同时也将器型内部支撑结构打印出来,仿骨胳切片算法可使模型的强度、刚度最大化,打印完毕后的日用陶瓷产品可以保持打印形态而不必担心塌陷,所以3D打印机非常适合打印以传统工艺成型方法容易塌陷的镂空、中空,或烧成过程中易变形类等陶瓷产品。

This is a 3D clay printer. We were inspired to create this machine because of the yuzhou jun porcelain near our school's practice base. Jun porcelain, yuzhou specialty of henan province, China's national geographic indication products. Jun porcelain began in the tang dynasty and flourished in the song dynasty. It is one of the five most famous porcelains in ancient China. The idea of how to print jun porcelain with a printer was born in our mind, and our team made it.

For 3D clay printer, the 3D model is sliced, processed and printed layer by layer with DM stacking molding technology to obtain solid clay embryo. In the printing process, we used the clay with special components used in the embryo making of yuzhou jun porcelain, which made it easier to be printed and had higher yield in the firing process.

Compared with the traditional daily-use ceramic technology, the methods of firing such as "support nail" and "hanging firing" are often used for complex modeling, so as to avoid the defects caused by complicated modeling. Although this method largely preserves the integrity and perfection of the product, the firing process is extremely tedious, and the cost will be greatly increased due to the reduction of the success rate of the product. Ceramic printing technology in the complicated 3 d shape design can be solve by firing and many problems such as deformation, because the designer can be in computer software, internal key parts of complex shape support structure, 3 d printers in the mud of layered accumulation will also shape the internal bracing structure is printed at the same time, the imitation of skeletal slicing algorithm can make the model of maximum strength, stiffness, printed after the completion of ceramics for daily use products can keep printing form without fear of failure, so the 3 d printer is very suitable for printing with traditional craft method is easy to collapse, hollow, hollow, or firing process of ceramic products, such as easy deformation.

1.由于整个建模作业量较大,我们选择了具有Team合作功能的Fusion360来进行建模作业。

首先展示几张机器总体的整体渲染图。它包括:

FDM式3D打印机主体、X轴步进电机、Y轴步进电机、Z轴步进电机、热床平台、挤出系统模组、储料系统模组。

挤出系统模组包括:挤出系统箱体、不同口径可更换式挤出头结构、42型减速步进电机、固定用六角铜柱、搅龙螺杆。

储料系统模组包括:高压气泵、送气管、空气转接阀、透明送料管、柱塞式储料筒、以及料筒支撑框架。

1. Due to the large

amount of modeling work, we chose Fusion360 with Team cooperation function for the modeling work.

Start with a few overall renderings of the machine as a whole. It includes:

FDM 3D printer main body, X-axis stepper motor, Y-axis stepper motor, z-axis stepper motor, hot bed platform, extrusion system module, storage system module.

The extrusion system module includes: extrusion system box, replaceable extrusion head structure with different diameters, 42-type reduction stepping motor, hexagonal copper column for fixing, auger screw.

The material storage system module includes: high pressure air pump, air delivery pipe, air transfer valve, transparent material feeding pipe, plunger type material storage cylinder, and material cylinder support frame.

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Step 1: The Overall Model of the Printer:

1. 首先是打印机整体模型:

1. First, the overall model of the printer:

陶泥打印机主体尺寸:长1000mm,宽800mm,高1000mm。

我们采用FDM式3D打印机来进行机器的改装,由于整个打印系统采用的是模块化的设计理念,打印模块可以适配各种中、大型尺寸的3D打印机,较为易于改装,因此这一部分的建模并不是必需的,它的工作量很大,只需设计出3.4两个步骤的模组,就可以算基本完成了,只需将两个模组适配在你的3d打印机上即可。

这里我们使用了团队自行设计的桌面级大尺寸3D打印机进行机器的改装,外壳采用了2.2mm厚的钣金,并在不改变其支撑结构的前提下保留了一定量的镂空,装上透明亚克力板以方便观察。同时,钣金的自重为打印机整体提供了一定的稳定性,使得其在打印的时候能十分稳定地工作。

Main size of clay printer: 1000mm long,

800mm wide, 1000mm high.

We use of 3 d printers of FDM machine modification, because the entire printing system USES a modular design concept, the print module can fit all kinds of medium and large size 3 d printers, is relatively easy to modified, so this part of the modeling is not required, it's a lot of work, just 3.4 two steps of module design, can calculate almost done, just put the two module adapter on your 3 d printers.

Here, we modified the machine by using a desktop-level large-size 3D printer designed by our team. The shell was made of 2.2mm sheet metal, and a certain amount of hollow-out was retained without changing its supporting structure. Transparent acrylic plates were installed for easy observation. At the same time, the sheet metal weight for the printer as a whole to provide a certain degree of stability, so that it can be very stable when printing.

Step 2: Model Design of Extrusion System

2. 因为陶泥与普通FDM型3D打印机在所用耗材方面存在相当大的差异,我们对其搅龙式挤出系统模块,以及柱塞式储料系统模块进行了特殊的结构设计。我们通过仿真分析发现这其中的大部分部件无需在工作过程中承受较大的力,而仅有的三个受力零件:挤出系统箱体、挤出头以及搅龙螺杆均不会承受过大的力,也不会在打印过程中受高温影响,因此这些零件我们使用FDM型3D打印机制作,采用力学性能较好的PLA做打印耗材,使得其方便更换和改进。

2. Due to the considerable difference

in consumable materials between clay and ordinary FDM 3D printer, we designed the auger extrusion system module and plunger storage system module with special structure. Through the simulation analysis we found that most of these components without having to bear greater force in the process of work, and only three mechanical parts: extrusion system enclosure, extrusion head and beat the dragon screw does not bear too much force, also won't be affected by high temperature in the process of printing, so the parts we are using FDM type 3 d printer, use the PLA do print consumables, with better mechanical properties makes it convenient change and improvement.

Step 3: Design of Extrusion Head

如图所示,对于不同精度要求和结构的打印胚体我们也设计了不同结构的挤出头:

As shown in the figure, we also designed extrusion heads with different structures for printing embryos with different accuracy requirements and structures:

图中这些挤出头的规格分别是:

The specifications of these extruders in the figure are:

图一 1mm口径尖头式挤出头模型

Figure 1 model of 1mm caliber tapered extruder

这是一个1mm口径的挤出头结构。

This is a 1mm aperture extrusion head structure.

图二 2mm口径弧头式挤出头模型

Figure 2 2mm diameter arc head type extrusion head model

这是一个2mm孔径的挤出头结构。

This is a 2mm aperture extrusion head structure.

图三 3mm口径弧头式挤出头模型

Figure 3 3mm diameter arc head type extrusion head model

这是一个3mm孔径的挤出头结构。

This is an extruder structure with a 3mm aperture.

Step 4: Extruding the Moving Part of the System

图四 42型减速步进电机

FIG. 4 type 42 deceleration stepper motor

控制挤出正反陶泥浆料运动方向的步进电机。

The stepper motor controlling the movement direction of the extruder positive and negative ceramic mud.

图五 尖头搅龙

Figure 5 pointed dragon

以及放在挤出系统中的搅龙螺杆,用42型减速电机正反方向转动来带动搅龙螺杆,来实现挤出系统箱体内部陶泥浆料的挤出和停止。

In addition, the auger screw in the extrusion system is driven by the positive and negative rotation of the type 42 reducer motor to realize the extrusion and stop of the ceramic mud material inside the box of the extrusion system.

Step 5: Design of Material Storage System

再来介绍一下柱塞式储料系统模组的制作过程,储料系统模组包括:42型步进电机、橡胶活塞、透明料筒、透明送料管、高压气泵。

Introduce the production process of plunger type material storage system module, which includes: type 42 stepper motor, rubber piston, transparent material cylinder, transparent material feeding tube and high-pressure air pump.

图六 透明储料筒

FIG. 6 transparent material storage cylinder

用于储存陶泥浆料的储料筒。

A cylinder for storing clay slurry.

图七 金属密封料筒盖

Figure 7 metal seal cylinder cover

储料装置料筒的密封盖,密封结构方便对高压泵所产生气压的充分利用。

The sealing cover of the material cylinder of the material storage device, the sealing structure is convenient to make full use of the air pressure generated by the high pressure pump.

图八 料筒架

Figure 8 material cylinder frame

以及用于固定储料罐的结构,同样采用了模块化的设计原理,可以根据需要改变料筒架的位置进而改变料筒的位置。

As well as the structure used for fixing the material storage tank, the modular design principle is also adopted, and the position of the material cylinder can be changed according to the need and then the position of the material cylinder can be changed.

Step 6: Feed Power of Plunger Type Storage System

我们选用高压气泵来作为柱塞式储料系统的送料动力来源,通过改变气压来推动储料装置内的活塞,将陶泥浆料挤出运送到挤出系统中。

We select the high-pressure air pump as the feeding power source of the plunger type material storage system, and push the piston in the material storage device by changing the air pressure to extrude the clay slurry into the extruding system.

Step 7: Motor Control Module

电机控制模组包括:Ramps1.4、Arduino

Mega2560固件模块。

我们通过Marlin固件程序控制整个陶泥3D打印机的工作。

首先,控制挤出系统模组中的步进电机Z轴来回运动带动尖头搅龙在挤出系统箱体中进行搅拌,继而控制陶泥浆料的进退。然后XYZ轴根据我们自己做的切片软件算法运行打印用户提交的stl格式文件进行打印。

Motor control module, chip software and algorithm, and Marlin firmware

motor control module includes Ramps1.4 and Arduino Mega2560 firmware module.

We control the whole work of the clay 3D printer through the Marlin firmware program.

Firstly, the z-axis movement of the stepper motor in the extrusion system module drives the pointed auger to stir in the box of the extrusion system, and then controls the advance and retreat of the clay slurry. The XYZ axis then prints the STL format file submitted by the user according to our own slicing software algorithm.

图十 主控电路接线图

Figure 10 wiring diagram of main control circuit

图十一 Arduino Mega2560控制板

Figure 11 Arduino Mega2560 control board

Step 8: Marlin Firmware

Marlin固件

Marlin firmware

图十二 Marlin固件代码截图

Figure 12. Screenshot of Marlin firmware code

最后最重要的是Marlin固件的配置修改,在Configuration文件中需要你修改适配自己打印机的参数。由于陶泥的性质特殊,对于打印层高及比例需要特别设定,42步进电机的工作参数设置需要自己来进行计算。

The last and most important is the Configuration modification of Marlin firmware. In the Configuration file, you need to modify the parameters for your printer. Due to the special nature of the clay, the height and proportion of the printing need to be specially set. The working parameters of the 42-step motor need to be calculated by ourselves.

Step 9: Demonstration and Conclusion of 3D Printer of Clay

实物图

real picture

图十三 打印系统实物图一

Figure 13 print system physical figure 1

图十四 打印系统实物图二

Figure 14 print system physical figure 2

Fusion360在整个建模设计的工作中给予了我们很多的帮助,联网模式下的共享给我们多人实时在线合作提供了极大的便利。在建模过程中,它保留了完整的时间轴和模型树,这样我们可以随时回过头进行对模型的修改,在多人合作过程中,这点的优越性不言而喻。

Fusion360 has given us a lot of help in the whole modeling and design work, and sharing in the networked mode has provided us with great convenience for real-time online cooperation among multiple people. During the modeling process, it keeps a complete timeline and model tree so that we can go back and modify the model at any time, which is obviously advantageous in multi-person cooperation.

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