Recycled Energy - $7.50 Generator! - ThermoElectric Generator




About: I am an inventive photographer, Pilot, and MacGyver. I love building and modifying things to aid in my adventures. Check out my Website! Have a great day!

We have been working on creating a stable way to charge our electronics while camping for a while. Solar panels work alright, but I find that when you really need your cell phone and GPS it is dark, sinister, and stormy out.

This Thermoelectric Generator can produce energy from common temperature differences such as snow, tail pipes, engines, candles, wood stoves, campfires, and anywhere else there is a temperature difference.

Check out this video of building and testing! :-)

What you will need for this instructable:


- Peltier Plates (Seebeck Plates)

NOTE: Make sure the optimal and maximum operating temperatures suit your application.

- Copper pipe

- Copper heat sink

NOTE: Aluminum may be substituted for copper, but the generator will have reduced efficiency

- Thermal Paste

- Mechanics Wire

- Crimp Type Electrical Marrettes (crimp type wire connectors)

- Screw Type Electrical Marrettes (screw type wire connector)

- Small Computer Fan

- Voltage Regulator (with spare connection cable)


- Pliers

- Hammer

- Punch

- Metal Working Bench Vice

- Drill Press

- Screwdriver

- Scraper

- Wire Brushes

- Sand Paper

- Side Cutters

- Wire Strippers

- Clopping or Hack Saw

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Step 1: How It Works (Scientific)

Peltier plates "pump energy" because of thermal and electrical continuity differences in the materials they are produced from. At first glance, many people wonder if conductors may work better than the semiconductors, this is where the major predicament of the Seebeck effect falls. If a material has a low electrical resistance, it also usually has a low thermal resistance. If a material easily allows heat to pass directly through it, then it will disperse the temperature gradient the Peltier plates require to function.

Inside of the Peltier plates are many pairs semiconductors, the two semiconductors are placed thermally parallel (but electrically in series). The two semi-conductors (usually referred to as "P" and "N") have different electron densities (the measure of the probability of an electron being in a certain position, higher the density, the more electrons and the higher chance of hitting one), this difference causes electrons in the P semi-conductors to flow along with the heat, while allowing the electrons to flow against it in the N. This creates an electrical current as the heat flows through the Peltier.

Peltier plates are also able to force heat to move a certain direction, if an electrical current is applied in one direction it will flow through the semi-conductors pulling the heat in the direction of the current in the P semiconductor and against the flow of the heat in the N. If the current is reversed the heat pump will reverse as well, the heat will always flow in the direction of the current in the P semiconductor.

Because of the properties of Peltier plates they will hit a "wall." The plates can only disperse a certain volume of heat flux. To increase this volume there are multiple Peltiers in this generator are they are wired in series, this allows the plates to consume any excess energy passed on from the voltage regulator to pump heat. This increases the total heat flux volume of the generator.

We chose to use copper for our plate and heat sink because of its high electron density, meaning that it has an extremely high thermal transfer, allowing for energy production at very low thermal differences. This is why our generator can generate power from melting snow and solar rays, when ones with aluminum heat sinks are unable to. The animated heat sinks above show a simulated comparison of a copper and aluminum heat sink of the exact same dimensions, observe how the plate is cooler under the copper heat sink (on left) than the aluminum one (on right). Copper also has a higher melting temperature than aluminum, reducing the risk of accidentally melting our generator.

Step 2: Preparing Your Plate


Part 1 - Mark out the width and length of the heat sink onto the copper plate.

Part 2 – Cut the plate to height and width using a hacksaw.

Part 3 - Now use wire brushes and sandpaper to polish the copper, this will remove any corrosion, tarnishing, or debris. Polishing will improve the bond of the thermal paste and thermal transfer.


Part 1 – Measure the circumference of the copper pipe, ensure that is wide enough to cover the Peltier Plates.

Part 2 – Mark out the length of the Peltier Plates onto the copper pipe, then cut the pipe using a clopping saw to approximately 1/6” longer than the Peltier Plates.

Part 3 – Place the copper pipe in a vice, and starting from one end, cut through one sidewall along the entire length of the pipe.

Part 4 – Now use pliers to open the pipe until it is bowed to an arc with a radius larger than 6”

Part 5 – Pound the copper pipe into a flat plate using a hammer on a rigid surface (such as an anvil or metalworking vice).

Part 6 - Now use wire brushes and sandpaper to polish the copper, this will remove any corrosion, tarnishing, or debris. Polishing will improve the bond of the thermal paste and thermal transfer.

Step 3: Prepping Your Heat Sink

Part 1 - Scrape off old thermal paste if you have a used heat sink
Part 2 - Remove the screws and springs from the mounting bracket with a screwdriver
Part 3 - Drill out the mounts, make sure the drill bit is small enough to pass through the holes in the heat sink without damaging it, but will still make contact with the mounting bracket.
Part 4 - Some of the mounting brackets may fall off after being drilled out, but others may require a little encouragement with pliers.
Part 5 - Polish the contact surface of the heat sink using wire brushes and sandpaper to remove any debris, corrosion, or tarnishing. Polishing will improve the bond of the thermal paste and thermal transfer.

Step 4: Preparing Your Copper Plate for Mounting

Part 1 - Place the heat sink on top of the thermal plate and mark the holes onto the plate using a hammer and punch.

Part 2 - Using the same drill bit used to drill out the mounting brackets, drill holes into the plate using the punch marks as a guide.

Part 3 - Remove any debris and sharp surfaces created by drilling out the holes using wire brushes and sandpaper.

Step 5: Assembling the Generator

Part 1 - Before you can mount your Peltier (Seebeck) plates you will need to wipe them off with a damp cloth to remove any dust or debris to ensure a good bond with the thermal paste.
Part 2 - Apply a thin layer of thermal paste to each plate and place them onto the heat sink using an angled motion (to prevent air bubbles). Ensure that the plates are evenly spaced and make good contact.

NOTE: Both too little and too much thermal paste will inhibit heat transfer, make sure your coating is thin and even.

Part 3 - Apply a thin layer of thermal paste to the copper plate and place it top of the Peltier (Seebeck) plates, making sure to line up the holes on the copper plate and heat sink.

Part 4 - Cut 4 pieces of mechanics wire at least 1.5" long
Part 5 - Poke the mechanics wire through the holes in the heat sink and copper plate. Then fold over the wires and twist the ends of each wire together using pliers. (If you use zip ties, be careful not to melt them off during use)

WARNING: Do not over tighten the mechanics wire, you can crack the Peltier plates

Step 6: Wiring

The Peltier (Seebeck) plates must be wired in series, if they are wired in parallel and one Peltier plate begins to over heat and stops using up its fair share of the excess energy, the others will begin to transfer heat even faster, frying the Peltier that began to loose efficiency. Because they are wired in series, if one plate begins to over heat all of the plates will experience a voltage drop, causing less heat to be transmitted to the heat sink, allowing all of the plates to cool.

It is because of this unstable efficiency that a digital energy regulation device must be wired into the output. If you were to hard wire a transformer into the system you run the risk of either under powering or of frying your electronics.

NOTE: As pointed out by user UberGeeknz wiring the fan in parallel with the pelters wired in series will increase the efficiency of the generator.

Part 1 - Observe the above wiring diagram, trim and strip the wires between the Peltier Plates and between the Peltier Plates and the fan to be between 1” and 2” in length. Leave the leads to the voltage regulator at full length and only strip the ends of the wires.

Part 2 - Use crimp type marrettes on the orange connections (between the Peltier plates), and screw type marrettes on the blue connections (Peltier to fan and Peltier to voltage regulator). Since the polarity of the current will change depending on which side of the generator is hot, the polarities will need to be reversed.

Part 3 - Cut and strip the cable to your voltage regulator, remember that the center of the plug must always be the hot wire (positive). Make sure to mark it.

Step 7: Testing

Because Peltier (Seebeck) plates are capable of pumping heat in both directions, you must be careful not to back charge your voltage regulator. Once you know your generator you know it's polarity based on its heat direction.

For your first test I recommend a hot plate for a heat source and an incandescent lightbulb for a power test, as the bulb will light up with either direction of polarity. After the bulb lights up, change to your voltage tester and mark the hot wire, this wire will always be the positive when heating the copper plate, and negative when cooling the copper plate.

I have been able to Generate measurable levels off of electricity using snow in a warm room, a tea light candle, my truck's tailpipe, and a black metal plate in the sun.

When using a wood stove it is possible to stack two generators plate to plate, to produce more energy, and increase the efficiency of your generator, it also reduces the risk of melting the plates.

Step 8: Enjoy Your Reclaimed Power :-)

Now you can charge your devices (Cellphones, GPS Units, Cameras, iPads) almost anywhere that you can find a temperature differential.

If you have any suggestions for improvement, or have any questions, we would love to hear from you and see what you have built. Feel free to comment below! :-)

Have a great day!

-Danno and

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64 Discussions


3 years ago

Just finished testing mine tonight. Lost track of time, it is three in the morning. The copper worked a lot better at all of the settings on my hot plate, creating power even when the aluminium would not. But the copper is heavy and soft when heated. I found the mixed metal models were a good compromise between weight and efficency and the aluminum on the outside helped to protect the copper.

Wired in series (shown in this instructable) I was able to produce about 1V and 0.5A at 5 degrees difference but I was able to create 0.694V and 0.395A at 3 degrees. So not much power but still generating. My voltage meter was unable to steady out on any current at temperatures less than 3 degrees difference.

When I heated it up to about a 100 degree difference from air temperature. I was able to generate about 10V and 5A with the use of a 6V computer fan to aid in cooling the heatsink. But I worry about melting off the wires in the peltiers. I might need to add some thermal silicone to go much hotter.

The electricity almost seemed to pulsate in a regular pattern, has anyone else noticed this?!

3 replies

MayTheForth, are you sure about these numbers? They appear to be quite high in accordance with most of the TEG's i've been looking at. I'd expect at a deltaT of 3 you'd get closer to 0.2V and 0.009A! Did you have anything different in your setup? Was your plate actually 30" by 30" ;)


My voltage meter is reliable but my hot plate I am not so sure about. It says it is accurate to 0.5 of a degree Celsius. But I picked it up from a surplus sale from a local college a couple years back. What kind of results are you getting?

I also read that by wiring TEGs in series the flow of electricity through them helps to pump more heat somehow increasing it even more. I read it online so I do not know if it is true.

LOL! I wish! A 30" generator would be AWESOME! Someone should totally build that :)


Also those numbers are what my voltage meter seemed to dwell on, otherwise it seemed to jump around in a regular pattern, with voltage and ampage inversely related?

Has anyone else noticed this? Or do I need to check my equipment?


1 year ago

Hi, I am unsure if you'll answer this as it is 2 years old, but I was wondering if it is possible to use this on a wood stove, as you've briefly mentioned, that goes up to 200-300C? The specs of all cheap TEC being sold on ebay says Tmax of 100C or so..

Just4Fun Media

3 years ago

I am not sure, I have never done a full charge. I will test it out and post an update with some stats. Great idea! :-)

1 reply

2 years ago

please can you provide your readings? i mean the voltage and current output at some certain temperature differences.


2 years ago

Dear Sir,

I am a senior at South High School, in Minneapolis. I am a part of a pre-engineering program called Project Lead the Way. As a final project in that program, I am required to conduct a novel research project. This project, when complete, will be presented to a review panel of faculty and professionals. Our project’s primary purpose is to generate electricity from human body heat for use in camping or hiking situations. We will achieve this with thermoelectric generators.

During the course of the class, we are required to find and contact an expert on some aspect of our project. This expert must be able to come into our classroom on two occasions, and agree to be on the panel who judge projects at the end of the class.

we believe that your expertise could be an asset to our project. If you are willing and able, please contact me at this email address, If you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to contact me, or my instructor Bill Ruff at If you are unable, can you recommend another expert who may be able to help us?

Any and all help would be greatly appreciated.


3 years ago

Where do I get these "Electrical Merits"? I looked around online, but all that came up were Boy Scout badges. Please help me.

1 reply
Just4Fun MediaWestonG

Reply 2 years ago

Good morning,

They are also called "Electrical Nuts" or 'Twist Type" connectors.

All the best,



2 years ago

I am interested in running my a BBQ controller setup from some batteries that are charged by the heat of the fire in the pit, do you think a solar charge regulator would work?

1 reply

A solar charge controller will definitely work. Just check the voltage and amperage ratings.

All the best,



2 years ago

I just wonder if i buld a house can i build the walls from tec modules.
I mean: when sun comes and too hot other sides cools / inside the house/ when winter hits outside cold so inside will heat up?

Is it it theory or fairy tale? Can i get byproduct electricity?

Awesome project u r doing thanks for freing human minds!

1 reply
Just4Fun MediaCompostB

Reply 2 years ago

Thermoelectric solar is a very practical application of thermoelectric generators.

Most thermoelectric solar systems use black pipes filled with water and glycol to absorb the heat. This allows for a higher temperature difference on Peltier Plates and therefore more power.

All the best,



2 years ago

I m going to live in a tipi so i just wonder to replace the stone circle around the midle fire with tec circle so i ll have 'waste' electricity. ...Cheers greg


2 years ago

Can i download instruction pdf for free?

Just4Fun Mediabrantgoose

Reply 2 years ago

I apologize for the late response, I did not notice your comment.

This setup will work, but peltier A will reduce the generator's efficiency, because it will insulate the cold side of peltier B.

You could use a temperature switch which would power the generating peltier B to pump away excessive heat to avoid melting the peltier module.

The use of a switch would cause periods where the generator will cease to generate (and will consume power) but it will generate power and cool itself much more efficiently.

Have a great day!