Solar Powered Air Conditioning Unit.

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About: Update 12 September 2017: A very special thanks to Sam Elder, a manager here at Instructables, who tracked down the cause of my lost publications and fixed the issue. Take a bow Sam!

Most people would like to have their homes cooled by the strength of sunlight which ironically causes heat. How to achieve energy efficient cooling of your abode by harnessing sunlight?

I have successfully implemented a solar powered air conditioning unit for my living room which has been working great since June 2013 . Let me tell you how I have done it.

Notes to keep in mind:

What I have implemented is an off grid power system. My home generates its own power and can run without utility power. As a result my system is typically much more expensive than one that ties to the grid (feeds power back). I just prefer the option having of power should our utility fail or natural disaster strikes (such as hurricane or a drunk neighbor knocking over a utility line pole with a car).

I have fulfilled the electrical code requirements (NFPA 70, TTS-171 Part 1) and power utility mandates for my area. Grid tie or feeding power back to our utility is both not currently possible and highly illegal in my country (the death of a linesman occured due to a customer violation). This instructable is an overview of how I implemented my system and the cost absorbed by myself. If my implementation cannot meet your electrical code needs, utility mandates, budget constraints and design criteria then I cannot assist you on this. You need to conduct your necessary reseach for a safe design and I'm always happy to try my best in answering technical questions you may have.

I published an instructable on how I solar powered my home with design calculations.

https://www.instructables.com/id/Solar-Powering-My-Home/

Read on and I hope you can find it interesting.

Step 1: Solar Panels for Harvesting Sunlight.

Harvesting? Yes you read it right. Harvesting a renewable resource allows powering of my air conditioning unit and most of my household electrical loads.

An air conditioning unit uses lots of energy to remove heat from a room. To provide that energy you need enough solar panels installed properly to capture the radiant energy of the sun. When it comes to solar power - "the bigger, the better!".

I currently have eight 225watt panels on my roof, wired 4 in series and in parallel with the other string of 4. These give me the energy to power my lights, automation pc, refrigerator, dog feeder, WiFi, small appliances and of course that wonderful air conditioning unit.

Mounting can be with a roof rail kit or you can do your own custom mounts made with metal and/or rigid pvc.

Step 2: Solar Charge Controller.

For 1 kilowatt and higher you want a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) charge controller. Basically it gives higher efficiency, can accept a higher voltage to deliver the amps into the battery bank.

I use the outback flexmax 80amp mppt controller. It's the best in class for the industry and it's worth every cent of its cost. It's fully programmable and can handle up to a 60 volt Dc battery bank.

Notice the happy face I drew? Not even the evil scientist guy in despicable me would be as happy making his evil plans.

Step 3: The Battery Bank.

My battery of choice is the Lifepo4 chemistry. Long life, zero toxicity, enviromentally friendly, high energy density and best of all completely safe (won't blow up! Lol).

My system is 25.6v and uses 16 batteries in parallel.

I previously used lead acid batteries but they simply didn't last long. In 14 months their capacity was approximately 40% of their original. This was a costly mistake and I gave away these and made my Lifepo4 bank. They have been performing admirably and even though at higher upfront cost, the higher service life is well worth it. Please read my instructable for this bank.
https://www.instructables.com/id/Lifepo4-solar-stor...


Now for anyone doubting the capabilities of LifePO4 batteries, there are many good sources on the web detailing this chemistry. Also think about this: why dont your mobile devices use lead acid batteries? Hmm. Lithium is superior plus I even have a LifePO4 battery to start my car! Take a look.

https://www.instructables.com/id/Lifepo4-battery-fo...

Step 4: The Air Conditioning Unit.

The only option for solar powered air conditioning is to use an inverter air conditioning unit. This is the most energy efficient type in the industry and it is simply amazing. I actually gave away my original 18000btu unit to install a 10000btu inverter.

My inverter AC unit can use as little as 240Watts right up to its maximum rating. This unit runs off 240 volt so I needed a means to power it.

Step 5: Going From 25.6v Dc to 240v AC!

How to make this happen? Easy! I used a 1000watt inverter accepting 25.6v dc and outputting pure sine wave AC at 120v. Next I used a 1500watt autotransformer to boost the 120v to 240v. I included a thermal image of the transformer under load. Autotransformers have higher efficiency at the expense of no galvanic isolation once the voltage ratio is 3:1 or less. I could not obtain a 240volt inverter at a reasonable price at the time of the installation, perhaps in the future I will get rid of that, urgh, transformer.

Protection for my battery bank is provided by a mini circuit breaker 100amp.

Since my pure sine wave inverter can only deliver 1000Watts, the lowest temperature I can get to on battery power is 26C which is pretty good. If you can afford a bigger unit then all the more power to you!


Simple yea?

A side note: isn't it damn confusing reading about a pure sine wave AC inverter and also an inverter air conditioning unit? Don't blame me for that weird terminology.

Also if you don't know if your inverter is pure sine wave here are ways to find out:

1. It would be clearly labeled on its nameplate as pure sine wave output.

2. You can use an oscilloscope.

3. Plug a AC powered fan into the output and if it buzzes while operating then it is NOT a pure sine wave inverter.

4. If the advertised specs claim for example 1000Watt power and a surge rating of 2000Watt, then that inverter may not be pure sine wave. Pure sine wave inverters typically don't have a large surge rating (i.e. 2x its maximum continuous rating).

Step 6: Enjoying Green Energy Air Conditioning!

With the inverter on and the air conditioning unit powered, I enjoy comfortable air from my battery bank. I included a thermal image of the unit running off the batteries.

A special note here. This system I have described is part of a larger system for my home. My design was for an off grid system to deliver maximum reliability. The cost for all components is higher than a grid tie system. It has been my aim to introduce some basic design and implementation concepts to others so they may gain ideas for possible installations on their own. It's not the purpose of this instructable to mandate to anyone that this is the ONLY way solar powered air conditioning can be achieved. It's one way and I'm happy to have executed it.

Please note that with my setup I don't have a large enough battery bank to run the unit all night. Therefore I implemented an automatic transfer switch to power the unit from our utility when a low voltage dc threshold is reached.

The transfer switch is fully software controlled by my home automation pc. Take a look at the third and forth pics. The software was created from FLOWSTONE. Take a look at my home automation instructable.

https://www.instructables.com/id/Creating-a-home-automation-system/



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    264 Discussions

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    DouglasM30

    18 days ago on Step 3

    Soo you discovered solar, aah
    I have been in the off-grid solar system biz for over 15 years
    About Lead acid batteries - what you says can be true, but it is all in the USE
    They can actually last up to 8 years, Buut the key item here is they have to be in constant use or they will sulfate and die. True liquid Lead acids have the highest maintenance. I have installed over a dozens remote cabin systems and most or them have a battery bank of 800 - 1500 AH using AGM lead acid. The AGM are freeze proof. Most of my systems are still charging to 90% capacity after 8 years.
    LifePO4 batteries
    LifePO4 are the best of the the lithium batteries, in that the magic is in the iron electrode.
    most batteries die because the positive electrode is made of soft metal like lead. The LifePO4 has an iron positive electrode and therefore will endure thru 1,000s of charging cycles with very little degradation. APC now offers a 5 year warranted on their LifePO4 UPS. for super long lasting batteries look at the batteries from Iron Edison

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    weddingdance

    Question 7 weeks ago on Introduction

    Thanks so much for posting this. Although I am mathphobic (and skipped over the calulations, which make me break out in hives) it was still really helpful. I'm wondering, for a tiny RV using a doghouse air conditioner/heating unit that draws 2800BTUs, could I essentially just do all this but in half? Half the solar panels and half the amount of batteries? Thanks in advance.

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    AndrewN151

    8 weeks ago

    Have you considered a geothermal solution and run the pump by solar power?

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    JustinC303

    7 months ago

    Hello Sir... I am impressed with your project... It may be costly yet it will be helpful... Wonderful idea... The way you presented this blog is awesome... Nice suggestions which cannot be skipped during the project... Well done sir... And congrates for your successful solar AC project...

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    Naeveh1

    Question 8 months ago on Introduction

    Good build can you run your air conditioner continuously as long as you're have decent charging conditions

    1 more answer
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    MjtrinihobbyNaeveh1

    Answer 7 months ago

    Yes definitely. My system is actually overdesigned on the DC side. For the power conversation to pure sine wave this is the weak point. A large off grid inverter is essential.

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    jaylai30

    1 year ago

    DEAR SIR,

    can you please send to me your diagram for SOLAR AIR CONDITIONING

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    xakocsianex

    1 year ago

    how much will it cost to have this assembled?

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    ManarK2

    1 year ago

    After an entire winter of being dormant and not in use, an air conditioning system has a big job at task upon first starting up for the summer. The way an air conditioning condensing unit (outside unit) works is by changing the state of the refrigerant in the system from a liquid to a gas. This generates a heat transfer and cools the air through a coil inside your home. So after 7 months of not being used the component that compresses the refrigerant back to a liquid has not been used and lubricated through the refrigerant.

    تنظيف مكيفات بالرياض

    thanks

    1 reply
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    ManarK2ManarK2

    Reply 1 year ago

    and thanks for this great post

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    BigEdB

    1 year ago

    Greetings !

    I've read all your solar instructables, and am really impressed! (I'm a retired (or maybe "tired" electronics engineer living totally off grid). Keep up the good work!

    Mr. B

    1 reply
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    marcelr17

    1 year ago

    je n arive pas a le mettre en service

    tic solar light duopach mettre notice en francait

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    PramodD12

    2 years ago

    Air conditioners that use solar thermal principles are efficient and offer a cost effective alternative to heavy-duty solar PV systems and ensure that you get the best value for your money from us.

    Visit : http://www.brihat.in

    Contact : +91 80 4281 2345

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    ssmith204

    2 years ago

    You should of used the dc solar power connected to the air con's DC BUS on compressor inverter.

    1 reply
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    thamesindustries

    2 years ago

    I am a Nigeria where renewables, especially solar is getting some attention. I stumbled on your very good presentation and can tell you two years down the road " better late than never". Thank you for providing this knowledge sharing forum. It would be a pleasure to partner with you on some interesting solar powered projects here.