Talking Robot

Introduction: Talking Robot

UX/UI Designer

This is a tutorial on how to make a prank involving a robot that plays sounds when somebody walks by. This prank uses an Arduino, a distance sensor, a servo motor and a DF Player amongst other materials. We hope that you get funny reactions from your prank! Awesome robot built by Steve Davis :)

Step 1: Materals

(1x) Robot or another inanimate object

(1x) Arduino Uno

(1x) Breadboard

(1x) Speaker

(1x) Servo Motor

(1x) DF Player

(1x) Micro SD Card loaded with MP3 sounds

(1x) Powerbank

(1x) 1k ohm resistor

(1x) Distance Sensor

Tape or adhesive (to mount)

(15x) Electric Wires (specify later)

(1x) USB to USB-A Type

Step 2: Setup

The photo above shows the setup of the project.

The circuit should be set up as follows:

Step 3: Assembly: Breadboard

Let's connect 5V and the GND pin on the Arduino to the breadboard.

Step 4: Load a Micro SD Card With MP3 Sounds

Step 5: Connect the DF Player Mini

Insert the micro SD card into the DF Player Mini and place the entire component into the breadboard. Take your 1K resistor and insert it into the breadboard, use two wires to connect to pins 8 and 9.

Step 6: Connect the Speaker

Connect the wires from the speaker into the breadboard.

Step 7: Connect the Distance Sensor

We're now going to connect a distance sensor, yay! Take your sensor and insert it into the breadboard. You will need two wires to connect the distance sensor in the breadboard to the Arduino, utilizing pins 3 and 2. Place three more wires as is shown in the photo.

Step 8: Mount the Servo Motor

Step 9: Connect the Servo Motor

Now it's time to get our distance senor moving! After mounting the Servo Motor onto the breadboard we are going to connect a wire to pin 5 on the Arduino. Place the other two wires from the Motor into the breadboard as shown.

Step 10: Arduino Code

#include <Servo.h>
#include <Wire.h> #include <Firmata.h>

#define I2C_WRITE B00000000 #define I2C_READ B00001000 #define I2C_READ_CONTINUOUSLY B00010000 #define I2C_STOP_READING B00011000 #define I2C_READ_WRITE_MODE_MASK B00011000 #define I2C_10BIT_ADDRESS_MODE_MASK B00100000 #define I2C_END_TX_MASK B01000000 #define I2C_STOP_TX 1 #define I2C_RESTART_TX 0 #define I2C_MAX_QUERIES 8 #define I2C_REGISTER_NOT_SPECIFIED -1

// the minimum interval for sampling analog input #define MINIMUM_SAMPLING_INTERVAL 1

/*============================================================================== * GLOBAL VARIABLES *============================================================================*/

#ifdef FIRMATA_SERIAL_FEATURE SerialFirmata serialFeature; #endif

/* analog inputs */ int analogInputsToReport = 0; // bitwise array to store pin reporting

/* digital input ports */ byte reportPINs[TOTAL_PORTS]; // 1 = report this port, 0 = silence byte previousPINs[TOTAL_PORTS]; // previous 8 bits sent

/* pins configuration */ byte portConfigInputs[TOTAL_PORTS]; // each bit: 1 = pin in INPUT, 0 = anything else

/* timer variables */ unsigned long currentMillis; // store the current value from millis() unsigned long previousMillis; // for comparison with currentMillis unsigned int samplingInterval = 19; // how often to run the main loop (in ms)

/* i2c data */ struct i2c_device_info { byte addr; int reg; byte bytes; byte stopTX; };

/* for i2c read continuous more */ i2c_device_info query[I2C_MAX_QUERIES];

byte i2cRxData[64]; boolean isI2CEnabled = false; signed char queryIndex = -1; // default delay time between i2c read request and Wire.requestFrom() unsigned int i2cReadDelayTime = 0;

Servo servos[MAX_SERVOS]; byte servoPinMap[TOTAL_PINS]; byte detachedServos[MAX_SERVOS]; byte detachedServoCount = 0; byte servoCount = 0;

boolean isResetting = false;

// Forward declare a few functions to avoid compiler errors with older versions // of the Arduino IDE. void setPinModeCallback(byte, int); void reportAnalogCallback(byte analogPin, int value); void sysexCallback(byte, byte, byte*);

/* utility functions */ void wireWrite(byte data) { #if ARDUINO >= 100 Wire.write((byte)data); #else Wire.send(data); #endif }

byte wireRead(void) { #if ARDUINO >= 100 return Wire.read(); #else return Wire.receive(); #endif }

/*============================================================================== * FUNCTIONS *============================================================================*/

void attachServo(byte pin, int minPulse, int maxPulse) { if (servoCount < MAX_SERVOS) { // reuse indexes of detached servos until all have been reallocated if (detachedServoCount > 0) { servoPinMap[pin] = detachedServos[detachedServoCount - 1]; if (detachedServoCount > 0) detachedServoCount--; } else { servoPinMap[pin] = servoCount; servoCount++; } if (minPulse > 0 && maxPulse > 0) { servos[servoPinMap[pin]].attach(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), minPulse, maxPulse); } else { servos[servoPinMap[pin]].attach(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin)); } } else { Firmata.sendString("Max servos attached"); } }

void detachServo(byte pin) { servos[servoPinMap[pin]].detach(); // if we're detaching the last servo, decrement the count // otherwise store the index of the detached servo if (servoPinMap[pin] == servoCount && servoCount > 0) { servoCount--; } else if (servoCount > 0) { // keep track of detached servos because we want to reuse their indexes // before incrementing the count of attached servos detachedServoCount++; detachedServos[detachedServoCount - 1] = servoPinMap[pin]; }

servoPinMap[pin] = 255; }

void enableI2CPins() { byte i; // is there a faster way to do this? would probaby require importing // Arduino.h to get SCL and SDA pins for (i = 0; i < TOTAL_PINS; i++) { if (IS_PIN_I2C(i)) { // mark pins as i2c so they are ignore in non i2c data requests setPinModeCallback(i, PIN_MODE_I2C); } }

isI2CEnabled = true;

Wire.begin(); }

/* disable the i2c pins so they can be used for other functions */ void disableI2CPins() { isI2CEnabled = false; // disable read continuous mode for all devices queryIndex = -1; }

void readAndReportData(byte address, int theRegister, byte numBytes, byte stopTX) { // allow I2C requests that don't require a register read // for example, some devices using an interrupt pin to signify new data available // do not always require the register read so upon interrupt you call Wire.requestFrom() if (theRegister != I2C_REGISTER_NOT_SPECIFIED) { Wire.beginTransmission(address); wireWrite((byte)theRegister); Wire.endTransmission(stopTX); // default = true // do not set a value of 0 if (i2cReadDelayTime > 0) { // delay is necessary for some devices such as WiiNunchuck delayMicroseconds(i2cReadDelayTime); } } else { theRegister = 0; // fill the register with a dummy value }

Wire.requestFrom(address, numBytes); // all bytes are returned in requestFrom

// check to be sure correct number of bytes were returned by slave if (numBytes < Wire.available()) { Firmata.sendString("I2C: Too many bytes received"); } else if (numBytes > Wire.available()) { Firmata.sendString("I2C: Too few bytes received"); }

i2cRxData[0] = address; i2cRxData[1] = theRegister;

for (int i = 0; i < numBytes && Wire.available(); i++) { i2cRxData[2 + i] = wireRead(); }

// send slave address, register and received bytes Firmata.sendSysex(SYSEX_I2C_REPLY, numBytes + 2, i2cRxData); }

void outputPort(byte portNumber, byte portValue, byte forceSend) { // pins not configured as INPUT are cleared to zeros portValue = portValue & portConfigInputs[portNumber]; // only send if the value is different than previously sent if (forceSend || previousPINs[portNumber] != portValue) { Firmata.sendDigitalPort(portNumber, portValue); previousPINs[portNumber] = portValue; } }

/* ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- * check all the active digital inputs for change of state, then add any events * to the Serial output queue using Serial.print() */ void checkDigitalInputs(void) { /* Using non-looping code allows constants to be given to readPort(). * The compiler will apply substantial optimizations if the inputs * to readPort() are compile-time constants. */ if (TOTAL_PORTS > 0 && reportPINs[0]) outputPort(0, readPort(0, portConfigInputs[0]), false); if (TOTAL_PORTS > 1 && reportPINs[1]) outputPort(1, readPort(1, portConfigInputs[1]), false); if (TOTAL_PORTS > 2 && reportPINs[2]) outputPort(2, readPort(2, portConfigInputs[2]), false); if (TOTAL_PORTS > 3 && reportPINs[3]) outputPort(3, readPort(3, portConfigInputs[3]), false); if (TOTAL_PORTS > 4 && reportPINs[4]) outputPort(4, readPort(4, portConfigInputs[4]), false); if (TOTAL_PORTS > 5 && reportPINs[5]) outputPort(5, readPort(5, portConfigInputs[5]), false); if (TOTAL_PORTS > 6 && reportPINs[6]) outputPort(6, readPort(6, portConfigInputs[6]), false); if (TOTAL_PORTS > 7 && reportPINs[7]) outputPort(7, readPort(7, portConfigInputs[7]), false); if (TOTAL_PORTS > 8 && reportPINs[8]) outputPort(8, readPort(8, portConfigInputs[8]), false); if (TOTAL_PORTS > 9 && reportPINs[9]) outputPort(9, readPort(9, portConfigInputs[9]), false); if (TOTAL_PORTS > 10 && reportPINs[10]) outputPort(10, readPort(10, portConfigInputs[10]), false); if (TOTAL_PORTS > 11 && reportPINs[11]) outputPort(11, readPort(11, portConfigInputs[11]), false); if (TOTAL_PORTS > 12 && reportPINs[12]) outputPort(12, readPort(12, portConfigInputs[12]), false); if (TOTAL_PORTS > 13 && reportPINs[13]) outputPort(13, readPort(13, portConfigInputs[13]), false); if (TOTAL_PORTS > 14 && reportPINs[14]) outputPort(14, readPort(14, portConfigInputs[14]), false); if (TOTAL_PORTS > 15 && reportPINs[15]) outputPort(15, readPort(15, portConfigInputs[15]), false); }

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- /* sets the pin mode to the correct state and sets the relevant bits in the * two bit-arrays that track Digital I/O and PWM status */ void setPinModeCallback(byte pin, int mode) { if (Firmata.getPinMode(pin) == PIN_MODE_IGNORE) return;

if (Firmata.getPinMode(pin) == PIN_MODE_I2C && isI2CEnabled && mode != PIN_MODE_I2C) { // disable i2c so pins can be used for other functions // the following if statements should reconfigure the pins properly disableI2CPins(); } if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin) && mode != PIN_MODE_SERVO) { if (servoPinMap[pin] < MAX_SERVOS && servos[servoPinMap[pin]].attached()) { detachServo(pin); } } if (IS_PIN_ANALOG(pin)) { reportAnalogCallback(PIN_TO_ANALOG(pin), mode == PIN_MODE_ANALOG ? 1 : 0); // turn on/off reporting } if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) { if (mode == INPUT || mode == PIN_MODE_PULLUP) { portConfigInputs[pin / 8] |= (1 << (pin & 7)); } else { portConfigInputs[pin / 8] &= ~(1 << (pin & 7)); } } Firmata.setPinState(pin, 0); switch (mode) { case PIN_MODE_ANALOG: if (IS_PIN_ANALOG(pin)) { if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) { pinMode(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), INPUT); // disable output driver #if ARDUINO <= 100 // deprecated since Arduino 1.0.1 - TODO: drop support in Firmata 2.6 digitalWrite(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), LOW); // disable internal pull-ups #endif } Firmata.setPinMode(pin, PIN_MODE_ANALOG); } break; case INPUT: if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) { pinMode(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), INPUT); // disable output driver #if ARDUINO <= 100 // deprecated since Arduino 1.0.1 - TODO: drop support in Firmata 2.6 digitalWrite(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), LOW); // disable internal pull-ups #endif Firmata.setPinMode(pin, INPUT); } break; case PIN_MODE_PULLUP: if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) { pinMode(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), INPUT_PULLUP); Firmata.setPinMode(pin, PIN_MODE_PULLUP); Firmata.setPinState(pin, 1); } break; case OUTPUT: if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) { if (Firmata.getPinMode(pin) == PIN_MODE_PWM) { // Disable PWM if pin mode was previously set to PWM. digitalWrite(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), LOW); } pinMode(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), OUTPUT); Firmata.setPinMode(pin, OUTPUT); } break; case PIN_MODE_PWM: if (IS_PIN_PWM(pin)) { pinMode(PIN_TO_PWM(pin), OUTPUT); analogWrite(PIN_TO_PWM(pin), 0); Firmata.setPinMode(pin, PIN_MODE_PWM); } break; case PIN_MODE_SERVO: if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) { Firmata.setPinMode(pin, PIN_MODE_SERVO); if (servoPinMap[pin] == 255 || !servos[servoPinMap[pin]].attached()) { // pass -1 for min and max pulse values to use default values set // by Servo library attachServo(pin, -1, -1); } } break; case PIN_MODE_I2C: if (IS_PIN_I2C(pin)) { // mark the pin as i2c // the user must call I2C_CONFIG to enable I2C for a device Firmata.setPinMode(pin, PIN_MODE_I2C); } break; case PIN_MODE_SERIAL: #ifdef FIRMATA_SERIAL_FEATURE serialFeature.handlePinMode(pin, PIN_MODE_SERIAL); #endif break; default: Firmata.sendString("Unknown pin mode"); // TODO: put error msgs in EEPROM } // TODO: save status to EEPROM here, if changed }

/* * Sets the value of an individual pin. Useful if you want to set a pin value but * are not tracking the digital port state. * Can only be used on pins configured as OUTPUT. * Cannot be used to enable pull-ups on Digital INPUT pins. */ void setPinValueCallback(byte pin, int value) { if (pin < TOTAL_PINS && IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) { if (Firmata.getPinMode(pin) == OUTPUT) { Firmata.setPinState(pin, value); digitalWrite(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), value); } } }

void analogWriteCallback(byte pin, int value) { if (pin < TOTAL_PINS) { switch (Firmata.getPinMode(pin)) { case PIN_MODE_SERVO: if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) servos[servoPinMap[pin]].write(value); Firmata.setPinState(pin, value); break; case PIN_MODE_PWM: if (IS_PIN_PWM(pin)) analogWrite(PIN_TO_PWM(pin), value); Firmata.setPinState(pin, value); break; } } }

void digitalWriteCallback(byte port, int value) { byte pin, lastPin, pinValue, mask = 1, pinWriteMask = 0;

if (port < TOTAL_PORTS) { // create a mask of the pins on this port that are writable. lastPin = port * 8 + 8; if (lastPin > TOTAL_PINS) lastPin = TOTAL_PINS; for (pin = port * 8; pin < lastPin; pin++) { // do not disturb non-digital pins (eg, Rx & Tx) if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) { // do not touch pins in PWM, ANALOG, SERVO or other modes if (Firmata.getPinMode(pin) == OUTPUT || Firmata.getPinMode(pin) == INPUT) { pinValue = ((byte)value & mask) ? 1 : 0; if (Firmata.getPinMode(pin) == OUTPUT) { pinWriteMask |= mask; } else if (Firmata.getPinMode(pin) == INPUT && pinValue == 1 && Firmata.getPinState(pin) != 1) { // only handle INPUT here for backwards compatibility #if ARDUINO > 100 pinMode(pin, INPUT_PULLUP); #else // only write to the INPUT pin to enable pullups if Arduino v1.0.0 or earlier pinWriteMask |= mask; #endif } Firmata.setPinState(pin, pinValue); } } mask = mask << 1; } writePort(port, (byte)value, pinWriteMask); } }

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- /* sets bits in a bit array (int) to toggle the reporting of the analogIns */ //void FirmataClass::setAnalogPinReporting(byte pin, byte state) { //} void reportAnalogCallback(byte analogPin, int value) { if (analogPin < TOTAL_ANALOG_PINS) { if (value == 0) { analogInputsToReport = analogInputsToReport & ~ (1 << analogPin); } else { analogInputsToReport = analogInputsToReport | (1 << analogPin); // prevent during system reset or all analog pin values will be reported // which may report noise for unconnected analog pins if (!isResetting) { // Send pin value immediately. This is helpful when connected via // ethernet, wi-fi or bluetooth so pin states can be known upon // reconnecting. Firmata.sendAnalog(analogPin, analogRead(analogPin)); } } } // TODO: save status to EEPROM here, if changed }

void reportDigitalCallback(byte port, int value) { if (port < TOTAL_PORTS) { reportPINs[port] = (byte)value; // Send port value immediately. This is helpful when connected via // ethernet, wi-fi or bluetooth so pin states can be known upon // reconnecting. if (value) outputPort(port, readPort(port, portConfigInputs[port]), true); } // do not disable analog reporting on these 8 pins, to allow some // pins used for digital, others analog. Instead, allow both types // of reporting to be enabled, but check if the pin is configured // as analog when sampling the analog inputs. Likewise, while // scanning digital pins, portConfigInputs will mask off values from any // pins configured as analog }

/*============================================================================== * SYSEX-BASED commands *============================================================================*/

void sysexCallback(byte command, byte argc, byte *argv) { byte mode; byte stopTX; byte slaveAddress; byte data; int slaveRegister; unsigned int delayTime;

switch (command) { case I2C_REQUEST: mode = argv[1] & I2C_READ_WRITE_MODE_MASK; if (argv[1] & I2C_10BIT_ADDRESS_MODE_MASK) { Firmata.sendString("10-bit addressing not supported"); return; } else { slaveAddress = argv[0]; }

// need to invert the logic here since 0 will be default for client // libraries that have not updated to add support for restart tx if (argv[1] & I2C_END_TX_MASK) { stopTX = I2C_RESTART_TX; } else { stopTX = I2C_STOP_TX; // default }

switch (mode) { case I2C_WRITE: Wire.beginTransmission(slaveAddress); for (byte i = 2; i < argc; i += 2) { data = argv[i] + (argv[i + 1] << 7); wireWrite(data); } Wire.endTransmission(); delayMicroseconds(70); break; case I2C_READ: if (argc == 6) { // a slave register is specified slaveRegister = argv[2] + (argv[3] << 7); data = argv[4] + (argv[5] << 7); // bytes to read } else { // a slave register is NOT specified slaveRegister = I2C_REGISTER_NOT_SPECIFIED; data = argv[2] + (argv[3] << 7); // bytes to read } readAndReportData(slaveAddress, (int)slaveRegister, data, stopTX); break; case I2C_READ_CONTINUOUSLY: if ((queryIndex + 1) >= I2C_MAX_QUERIES) { // too many queries, just ignore Firmata.sendString("too many queries"); break; } if (argc == 6) { // a slave register is specified slaveRegister = argv[2] + (argv[3] << 7); data = argv[4] + (argv[5] << 7); // bytes to read } else { // a slave register is NOT specified slaveRegister = (int)I2C_REGISTER_NOT_SPECIFIED; data = argv[2] + (argv[3] << 7); // bytes to read } queryIndex++; query[queryIndex].addr = slaveAddress; query[queryIndex].reg = slaveRegister; query[queryIndex].bytes = data; query[queryIndex].stopTX = stopTX; break; case I2C_STOP_READING: byte queryIndexToSkip; // if read continuous mode is enabled for only 1 i2c device, disable // read continuous reporting for that device if (queryIndex <= 0) { queryIndex = -1; } else { queryIndexToSkip = 0; // if read continuous mode is enabled for multiple devices, // determine which device to stop reading and remove it's data from // the array, shifiting other array data to fill the space for (byte i = 0; i < queryIndex + 1; i++) { if (query[i].addr == slaveAddress) { queryIndexToSkip = i; break; } }

for (byte i = queryIndexToSkip; i < queryIndex + 1; i++) { if (i < I2C_MAX_QUERIES) { query[i].addr = query[i + 1].addr; query[i].reg = query[i + 1].reg; query[i].bytes = query[i + 1].bytes; query[i].stopTX = query[i + 1].stopTX; } } queryIndex--; } break; default: break; } break; case I2C_CONFIG: delayTime = (argv[0] + (argv[1] << 7));

if (delayTime > 0) { i2cReadDelayTime = delayTime; }

if (!isI2CEnabled) { enableI2CPins(); }

break; case SERVO_CONFIG: if (argc > 4) { // these vars are here for clarity, they'll optimized away by the compiler byte pin = argv[0]; int minPulse = argv[1] + (argv[2] << 7); int maxPulse = argv[3] + (argv[4] << 7);

if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) { if (servoPinMap[pin] < MAX_SERVOS && servos[servoPinMap[pin]].attached()) { detachServo(pin); } attachServo(pin, minPulse, maxPulse); setPinModeCallback(pin, PIN_MODE_SERVO); } } break; case SAMPLING_INTERVAL: if (argc > 1) { samplingInterval = argv[0] + (argv[1] << 7); if (samplingInterval < MINIMUM_SAMPLING_INTERVAL) { samplingInterval = MINIMUM_SAMPLING_INTERVAL; } } else { //Firmata.sendString("Not enough data"); } break; case EXTENDED_ANALOG: if (argc > 1) { int val = argv[1]; if (argc > 2) val |= (argv[2] << 7); if (argc > 3) val |= (argv[3] << 14); analogWriteCallback(argv[0], val); } break; case CAPABILITY_QUERY: Firmata.write(START_SYSEX); Firmata.write(CAPABILITY_RESPONSE); for (byte pin = 0; pin < TOTAL_PINS; pin++) { if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) { Firmata.write((byte)INPUT); Firmata.write(1); Firmata.write((byte)PIN_MODE_PULLUP); Firmata.write(1); Firmata.write((byte)OUTPUT); Firmata.write(1); } if (IS_PIN_ANALOG(pin)) { Firmata.write(PIN_MODE_ANALOG); Firmata.write(10); // 10 = 10-bit resolution } if (IS_PIN_PWM(pin)) { Firmata.write(PIN_MODE_PWM); Firmata.write(DEFAULT_PWM_RESOLUTION); } if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) { Firmata.write(PIN_MODE_SERVO); Firmata.write(14); } if (IS_PIN_I2C(pin)) { Firmata.write(PIN_MODE_I2C); Firmata.write(1); // TODO: could assign a number to map to SCL or SDA } #ifdef FIRMATA_SERIAL_FEATURE serialFeature.handleCapability(pin); #endif Firmata.write(127); } Firmata.write(END_SYSEX); break; case PIN_STATE_QUERY: if (argc > 0) { byte pin = argv[0]; Firmata.write(START_SYSEX); Firmata.write(PIN_STATE_RESPONSE); Firmata.write(pin); if (pin < TOTAL_PINS) { Firmata.write(Firmata.getPinMode(pin)); Firmata.write((byte)Firmata.getPinState(pin) & 0x7F); if (Firmata.getPinState(pin) & 0xFF80) Firmata.write((byte)(Firmata.getPinState(pin) >> 7) & 0x7F); if (Firmata.getPinState(pin) & 0xC000) Firmata.write((byte)(Firmata.getPinState(pin) >> 14) & 0x7F); } Firmata.write(END_SYSEX); } break; case ANALOG_MAPPING_QUERY: Firmata.write(START_SYSEX); Firmata.write(ANALOG_MAPPING_RESPONSE); for (byte pin = 0; pin < TOTAL_PINS; pin++) { Firmata.write(IS_PIN_ANALOG(pin) ? PIN_TO_ANALOG(pin) : 127); } Firmata.write(END_SYSEX); break;

case SERIAL_MESSAGE: #ifdef FIRMATA_SERIAL_FEATURE serialFeature.handleSysex(command, argc, argv); #endif break; } }

/*============================================================================== * SETUP() *============================================================================*/

void systemResetCallback() { isResetting = true;

// initialize a defalt state // TODO: option to load config from EEPROM instead of default

#ifdef FIRMATA_SERIAL_FEATURE serialFeature.reset(); #endif

if (isI2CEnabled) { disableI2CPins(); }

for (byte i = 0; i < TOTAL_PORTS; i++) { reportPINs[i] = false; // by default, reporting off portConfigInputs[i] = 0; // until activated previousPINs[i] = 0; }

for (byte i = 0; i < TOTAL_PINS; i++) { // pins with analog capability default to analog input // otherwise, pins default to digital output if (IS_PIN_ANALOG(i)) { // turns off pullup, configures everything setPinModeCallback(i, PIN_MODE_ANALOG); } else if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(i)) { // sets the output to 0, configures portConfigInputs setPinModeCallback(i, OUTPUT); }

servoPinMap[i] = 255; } // by default, do not report any analog inputs analogInputsToReport = 0;

detachedServoCount = 0; servoCount = 0;

/* send digital inputs to set the initial state on the host computer, * since once in the loop(), this firmware will only send on change */ /* TODO: this can never execute, since no pins default to digital input but it will be needed when/if we support EEPROM stored config for (byte i=0; i < TOTAL_PORTS; i++) { outputPort(i, readPort(i, portConfigInputs[i]), true); } */ isResetting = false; }

void setup() { Firmata.setFirmwareVersion(FIRMATA_FIRMWARE_MAJOR_VERSION, FIRMATA_FIRMWARE_MINOR_VERSION);

Firmata.attach(ANALOG_MESSAGE, analogWriteCallback); Firmata.attach(DIGITAL_MESSAGE, digitalWriteCallback); Firmata.attach(REPORT_ANALOG, reportAnalogCallback); Firmata.attach(REPORT_DIGITAL, reportDigitalCallback); Firmata.attach(SET_PIN_MODE, setPinModeCallback); Firmata.attach(SET_DIGITAL_PIN_VALUE, setPinValueCallback); Firmata.attach(START_SYSEX, sysexCallback); Firmata.attach(SYSTEM_RESET, systemResetCallback);

// to use a port other than Serial, such as Serial1 on an Arduino Leonardo or Mega, // Call begin(baud) on the alternate serial port and pass it to Firmata to begin like this: // Serial1.begin(57600); // Firmata.begin(Serial1); // However do not do this if you are using SERIAL_MESSAGE

Firmata.begin(57600); while (!Serial) { ; // wait for serial port to connect. Needed for ATmega32u4-based boards and Arduino 101 }

systemResetCallback(); // reset to default config }

/*============================================================================== * LOOP() *============================================================================*/ void loop() { byte pin, analogPin;

/* DIGITALREAD - as fast as possible, check for changes and output them to the * FTDI buffer using Serial.print() */ checkDigitalInputs();

/* STREAMREAD - processing incoming messagse as soon as possible, while still * checking digital inputs. */ while (Firmata.available()) Firmata.processInput();

// TODO - ensure that Stream buffer doesn't go over 60 bytes

currentMillis = millis(); if (currentMillis - previousMillis > samplingInterval) { previousMillis += samplingInterval; /* ANALOGREAD - do all analogReads() at the configured sampling interval */ for (pin = 0; pin < TOTAL_PINS; pin++) { if (IS_PIN_ANALOG(pin) && Firmata.getPinMode(pin) == PIN_MODE_ANALOG) { analogPin = PIN_TO_ANALOG(pin); if (analogInputsToReport & (1 << analogPin)) { Firmata.sendAnalog(analogPin, analogRead(analogPin)); } } } // report i2c data for all device with read continuous mode enabled if (queryIndex > -1) { for (byte i = 0; i < queryIndex + 1; i++) { readAndReportData(query[i].addr, query[i].reg, query[i].bytes, query[i].stopTX); } } }

#ifdef FIRMATA_SERIAL_FEATURE serialFeature.update(); #endif }

Step 11: Connect the Power Bank to the Arduino

Step 12: Mount to the Robot (or Inanimate Object)!

Mount and watch people's reactions! Enjoy

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    Discussions

    Lots of pranks today.. was this for a school project?