I. Introduction of CNC machine tools
Numerical control technology is the application of computer programs to achieve the control of mechanical manufacturing equipment, so as to achieve the digital and intelligent industrial production. In 1952, the first three-dimensional CNC milling machine was born in the United States, which opened the development history of CNC technology. After that, with the birth of the second, third and fourth generation of CNC equipment, CNC technology entered the computer era. In the following decades, CNC technology has been in rapid development. By the early 1980s, CNC technology began to combine with computer software and hardware technology, and gradually has the function of man-machine dialogue. By the late 1990s, CNC system began to develop towards intelligence and networking. Until now, CNC technology has a high level of development in intelligence and networking. Today, the project I brought is a desktop type small special intelligent CNC equipment -- three-axis CNC engraving machine tool. Scientific R & D and management system can make our products better. In the process of product R & D, we have experienced several stages, such as market research, model design, simulation analysis, etc. in product design, the team carries out secondary development based on Mach 3, from the three-dimensional model. The virtual prototyping technology is used to simulate and optimize the multi-body dynamics, which makes our product design more scientific and reasonable.
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1. The three-axis CNC machine tool is mainly controlled by x-axis, Y-axis and z-axis. Each axis has a stepping motor to control the operation of the axis. At the same time, x, y and z-axis are controlled by the much3 control system as a whole, and the step distance of each axis is accurately controlled. The motor is connected with the shaft by a coupling, and the shaft has a support to fix the stability and position of the shaft, so that it can get a higher accuracy.
2. In addition to x, y and Z, there is also a spindle. This spindle is used for carving. When we carve, we will add a tool to the spindle. The tool is selected by our material and the thing we want to carve. After the tool is clamped on the spindle, the spindle will rotate at a very high speed for carving. The spindle can put all kinds of tools according to the For example, if we want to carve characters on a plane, we can choose a knife with smaller diameter, plane or ball head, which can mill the characters more cleanly
3. In addition, we have a very stable base. Our base is made of high-strength aluminum alloy, and the trapezoid structure is adopted twice before and after, which is conducive to the assembly of y-axis lead screw.
4. Our working platform adopts the way of frame height. This structure is conducive to our later shell design, which can package the three-axis machine tool as a whole to the greatest extent, which is conducive to safety. At the same time, our working platform adopts the aluminum structure, which has good performance and is convenient to fix the workpiece.
5. Our three-axis CNC machine tool has three stepping motors, each of which has a coupling connected with its corresponding lead screw to control the movement of the three shafts respectively.
6. In addition, our machine tool has a rigorous design, and there are design standards for all parts. For some special parts, national standards are adopted. At the same time, for some parts that are special, we need to design and process by ourselves. These parts are obtained through simulation, which is most beneficial to the machine tool.
7. Our three-axis CNC machine tool is committed to miniaturization and portability, which enables people who do not know the CNC machine tool very well, but also can transfer out things they like. Therefore, in our design group, the specification is not very large, and the size is about 300 × 300 × 350. This kind of light and small, not only can be used for teachers' teaching, but also for families to carve small things themselves. piece. Because our machine tool is relatively small and exquisite, light and easy to carry, and our consumables are also less. In addition, we optimize and change the structure of the machine tool, so that the price of our three-axis CNC machine tool is not very high. Ordinary families can also buy it, about a few thousand yuan, and they can buy this machine tool home.
CNC engraving steps (we take simple plane engraving as an example)
1. Open UG, establish model, and measure the size in advance (length, width and height). When building the model, try to put the z-axis on the top, as shown in the figure.
2. Create the desired figure on the plane to be carved, and then stretch to cut
3. Enter the processing area of the application module, select the cavity milling, and change various parameters in it to get the processing path.
4. After the final post-processing, we get the G code, which can be input into our machine tool for processing.
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