Thanks for all the wonderful support!! The Tiny Penguins Instructable won a runners-up prize in the Teacher Contest - I am grateful for all your votes and comments.
This project was done as a learning activity during a one-week summer day camp, with groups of campers ranging in age from students who had just completed kindergarten to students who had just completed fourth grade. It was done in a classroom, and could easily be integrated into the curriculum as a project during the regular school year. The penguins were created in two forty-minute class sessions with each age group.
The tiny penguins were created to star in a stop motion animation short created later that week. There are plenty of wonderful Instructables on the the making of stop-motion animation, so this tutorial just features the process of making the tiny penguins, which I invented for the camp. The materials are inexpensive and readily available - each penguin cost less than 75¢ to make.
Each student will use scissors and basic sewing and gluing skills to create a tiny stuffed penguin, which will be used in a group project to demonstrate an understanding of penguins' environment and behavior. Differences between penguins will provide an opportunity for age-appropriate discussions of diversity.
Step 1: Materials
For each tiny penguin, you will need:
Cotton knit work glove - each glove is enough to make five penguins.
Small rubber band - I found clear ones in the hair accessories aisle at the pharmacy.
5mm googly eyes - the sticky ones were more expensive, so we got plain ones and used glue.
Fiberfill or other stuffing - you could even use the rest of the glove for this, but stuffing was easier with a large group.
Yellow and black craft felt or polyester fleece - the important feature is that it does not fray or ravel, and it can be glued.
Two nickels - really. (I looked at the prices for metal washers in the right size and weight, but for the number or penguins we were making, it was cheaper and easier to use nickels.)
Not pictured, but you will also need the following tools and materials:
Scissors - these need to be sharp enough to cut the felt or fleece. Some classroom scissors are fine for this, some aren't.
Chalk - to trace the pattern on the fabric.
Tape - to attach the pattern to the fabric - tape loops are easier to manage than pins.
Tacky glue or white glue.
Toothpicks and scrap paper or small cup - for sharing and applying the tacky glue.
Needle - can be any size - bigger eyes are easier for smaller children to thread.
Thread - white is ideal, but it won't show, so any color is fine.
Needle threader - optional, but it can help inexperienced sewers with the needle threading process. (I just threaded needles in advance of each session with pre-knotted thread for the youngest students.)
Sandwich-sized ziploc bag - for storage of each project between working sessions.
Step 2: Pattern
Attached are two .pdf files for the tiny penguin pattern. The first file is a pretty half page, which can be printed in color. The second file has two patterns on the page, and can be printed or photocopied in black and white and then cut in half. Download and print enough patterns for each student to use.
Step 3: Making the Tiny Penguin Body
1. Cut a finger from the cotton knit work glove.
2. Stuff the finger with as much stuffing as you can. Then add more stuffing. (It will compress over time, so you want to pack it tightly.)
3. Holding the stuffed finger with the opening at the top, place two nickels on top of the stuffing. Press them in.
4. Using needle and knotted thread, sew around the open edge of the glove and pull the thread tight to gather the glove fabric over the nickels. Since this sewing will be covered by the glued-on feet later on, it doesn't matter how this sewing looks. Students can sew a messy criss-cross across the opening or do a tidy running stitch in-and-out around the edge - whatever they like or are able to do (mostly) on their own.
5. Tie a knot to finish the stitching. Most students will need some help with this. Take a small stitch in one place and as you are pulling the loop smaller, put your needle and thread through the loop, and pull tight for a knot. Repeat once or twice in the same place to be sure that your knot will hold.
6. Trim the thread with a 1/2- inch to a 1-inch tail.
Your tiny penguin's body is complete.
Step 4: Adding the Wings
Step 1. Cut out the wings-and-tail pattern from the .pdf file.
Step 2. Attach the pattern to black felt or fleece with tape loops. (Trace the pattern with chalk, if you like.)
Step 3. Cut out the wings-and-tail piece. Remove the pattern and recycle the paper.
Step 4. Attach the wings and tail to the tiny penguin body with a clear rubber band. The top part of the fabric forms a kind of hood to make the black part of the penguin's head.
Step 5. See if you can balance your tiny penguin. You may need to squash it a bit, since the stitching is probably bumpy, but the weight of the nickels should help you here.
Step 5: Adding the Beak, Feet, and Googly Eyes
Step 1. Cut out the beak and feet patterns from the .pdf file.
Step 2. Attach the patterns to yellow felt or fleece with tape loops. (Trace the patterns with chalk, if you like.)
Step 3. Cut out the beak and feet pieces. Remove the patterns and recycle the paper.
Step 4. Attach the beak and feet with tacky glue.
Step 5. Attach googly eyes with tacky glue.
Step 6. Wait for the glue to dry. This may take overnight, if you've used lots of glue.
Step 6: Enjoy Your Tiny Penguin
When the glue is dry, your tiny penguin is complete.
Now you are ready for further learning activities!
We followed up with two activities...
1. We documented each penguin with a still photo, and then had discussions about difference - since each penguin had its own personality, due to student choices and variables like which glove finger was used. No two penguins were alike. (Some older students had time to create more than one penguin, so they made tiny penguin families.)
2. After discussion of penguin habitats and penguin behavior, and looking at books and documentary clips on YouTube, we created a penguin habitat with boxes, an old white bedspread, blue paper, and some of the remaining fiberfill stuffing. We spent a class period with each group taking a sequence of still photographs as the students moved their penguins from left to right across the habitat. After the in-class photo session was over, I used video editing software to arrange the still images in an animation sequence. (This is not hard to do, and there are lots of Instructables and other online directions for creating stop-motion animation. Find a tutorial that makes sense to you, and software that's compatible with the computer you have, and go for it!)
On the last day of camp, each group got to view the completed video, which featured the tiny penguin portraits as well as the students' penguin animation. I posted it on YouTube to share with parents and our greater community.