We will be programming a bootloaded ATMega328P with an Arduino sketch, In the Arduino IDE, but using an USBASP programmer not the Arduino board.
This similar to USBASP Bootloading.
You can use a breadboard for this or use something like what is used in this Instructable
For a great tutorial about programming a bread boarded chip, see Ladyada's.
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Step 1: My Hardware
My USBASP and my AVR target board.
Step 2: How Is This Programmed?
These things seem daunting at first, but after you understand them then it's a piece of cake.
Please follow along with the pictures to see the programming procedure.