Functional Interfaces in Java are a very useful tool that many newer programmers don't utilize. They allow developers to abstract their code so that it can be applied to many different problems. This is especially useful with Lambda expressions which allow functions to be created within a method's parameters. These instructions show how to use a very basic Functional interface called Function. Function has an abstract method called apply that takes one parameter of generic type and returns a generic type. Apply does not have to be defined until the call of the method that calls apply. This is very powerful because it allows programmers to use the same piece of code multiple times only having to change the call to that method.
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Step 1: Create a Java Project
Open an IDE and create a java project, the name is not important. I have named mine "Instructions."
Step 2: Create a Package
Create a new package in the source file, named “instructions.”
Step 3: Create the Converter Class
In the instructions package, create a new class called Converter and Import java.util.function.Function.
Step 4: Create the FunctionTest Class
In the instructions package, create a new class called FunctionTest.
Step 5: Create the Convert Method
In the Converter class, Create a method called "convert" that returns a String s and takes in an int x and a Function f as parameters.
Step 6: Add Type Parameters
Add type parameters Integer and String to the Function f parameter.
This should look like: Function f
Step 7: Calling Apply
Return the result of calling the apply function on f with x and a parameter by return f.apply(x)
Step 8: Main Method
Create a main method in FunctionTest.
Step 9: Start to Call Convert
In the main method of the FunctionTest class start to call the convert method Converter.convert(
Step 10: Choose an Integer
Inside the parentheses, enter an int that you would like to convert to a string. This should look like the picture above.
Step 11: Seperate the Parameters
The next parameter is the Lambda function. With the cursor at the position in the image above, type a comma then a space to delineate between the two parameters.
Step 12: Lambda Function Parameter
Next, you will type the parameters for the lambda function. (Integer x) is our only parameter
Step 13: Lambda Function Body
Following the parameter, type -> to signal that the next text is the body of the function. Type x.toString, close the parentheses, and finish with a semicolon.
Step 14: Assign Result
To make sure the program is working, assign the call to convert to a String variable called result
Step 15: Test
Check that result is equal to the string version of the Integer parameter that you chose. One simple way to do this is with an if statement, shown below.