Conservation of Water Resources in Home and Office Environments System




About: The BCAMRL is a Mechatronics Research Lab, founded in 2014 on the campus of Bergen County Academies, a magnet high school within the Bergen County Technical School District. Students create innovations base...

The Conservation of Water Resources in Home and Office Environments System is installed underneath the sink and regulates water flow from the water source to the faucet. If the water is flowing for more than 10 seconds (can be adjusted in code) as detected by a flow meter, the water will shut off using a solenoid valve. A reset button must be pressed on the unit for water to begin flowing again. The purpose of this device is written below.

Dripping or accidentally running sinks are a major problem in the US, a dripping faucet can waste 2,082 gallons of water a year, dripping once per second according to The United States Geological Survey. This problem needs to be solved, to stop the waste of water in US homes as well as another problem, a sink that is left on accidentally, which can overflow and cause water damage to the home. These problems can be solved with my device. A device which detects when water is going through the faucet over a period of time and slowly shuts off the water over time when this is detected. This can save water to stop sinks that are left on or remind a person to shut off the water by slowing the flow over time. As an emergency if a pipe breaks or the sink overflows because of a clogged drain, there will be an emergency sensor on the floor which shuts off the water immediately. My device will stop the waste of water from dripping or running sinks as well as stop running sinks from overflowing.


  • Arduino Uno
  • Wires
  • Power Distribution Bar
  • Three 9V Batteries
  • DC Power Connector
  • 9V Battery Pig Tails
  • 9V Battery Connection Box
  • TIP120 Transistor
  • Prototyping Board
  • Solenoid Valve
  • Flow Meter
  • Project Case
  • Resistors
  • Reset Button
  • Power Switch

Construction Materials: Soldering Iron, Lead Free Solder, Heat Shrink Tubing, PVC Pipe Glue, Paint, Wood Glue, Screws

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Step 1:

Place the solenoid valve and flow meter in the project box and connect them with PVC pipe, make sure to have an inlet and outlet for the water connections.

Step 2:

Connect the solenoid valve to a TIP120 circuit, this circuit being connected to a 9V battery to power the solenoid valve. Connect this circuit to the Arduino Uno.

Connect the data pin on the flow meter to the Arduino Uno.

The TIP 120 Circuit is outlined in the circuit diagram above.

Step 3:

Connect the power pins on the TIP120 circuit as well as the flow meter to the power bar.

Connect the power bar to the 5V and GND pins on the Arduino Uno.

Step 4:

Optional Step:

Connect a switch to the project box, inline with another 9V battery and a DC jack to power the Arduino Uno and control whether the device is on or off.

Step 5:

Connect a reset button (Normally Off) to the Arduino Uno on another digital pin= and attach this switch to the project case

Step 6: Done!

Close the project box and upload the code (attached) to the Arduino Uno. (Be Sure to Assign the Correct Pins in Code Based on what you have connected)

You are good to go! Hook up the device to your water inlet and faucet and you are set!



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    2 years ago

    The biggest problem I can see is that you will likely required at least two (2) flow meters, one for low flow (if you can even find one with the sensitivity to detect 1 drop/sec) and another whose detection range is around the normal maximum faucet flow rate. Additionally you may need a third meter for large overflow rates unless a simple presence detector is used for overflow or pipe burst. Flow meters tend to be an expensive component and in general are built to measure only a rather narrow targeted range of flow rates for an acceptable degree of accuracy. No single meter is capable of accurately measuring the entire range of flow rates possible in the typical residential plumbing system from drips through conduit ruptures. Also, bursts or ruptures are possible at any point in the house plumbing or service (source) line from the tap at the water main to the faucet discharge (point of use). Therefore, placement of a device such as you propose below a single fixture (sink) cannot control or address the entire house system. You would need one for every fixture in the house which would cost prohibitive. By the same token, if you tried to use one device for the house as a whole, you would be faced with even a larger range of flows to be measured.
    However, please don't let my observations deter you and I wish you the best and all possible success!! I just thought it would be helpful for you to understand the limitations of current water meters.