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Design and Build a Tiny House
From what I can see you are not following the bread board schematic properly but it is hard to see through pictures. The instructable clearly states that I am still having issues as well but you made the decision to give it an attempt which I am grateful for. I completely understand your frustrations as I felt the same way.
I ended up reordering the parts I was worried about having fried and used the breadboard schematic.
It is in my list of images and in his original piece
In the diagram I believe you do solder the negative to the center and the positive to the farthest on the right if you have the pegs sticking upward and the jack facing you. I was not able to get past this point in the main video for this instructable. I think I needed to order new capacitors to have it pulse and change colors since it was working at one time but something blew and it's full power which puts out the white light.
I would refer to the instructable for the LED strip specifically. I ran into many of the same problems but my professor and I believe I put the capacitors in the wrong positioning causing them to not work properly. This is why I have flashing but everything is full power which results in the bright white lighting and more of a strobe effect rather than colorfully pulsing to music in my beginning videos. I hope this helps! There was lots of hair pulling and tears that went into this!
How to Make LEDs Flash to Music with an Arduino
LED Lights Synced with the Frequency of Music
Infinity mirror and table (With casual tools)
Blinking LEDs to the Frequency of Music
Sound Reactive LED Strip
LED strip Synced MUSIC
Audio Spectrum Analyzer Infinity Mirror
Infinity Mirror Clock
Arduino, Sensors, and MIDI
LED Music v3.0
Music blinking LED
Arduino-controlled RGB LED Infinity Mirror
Bass Responsive RGB Leds using Arduino