battery backup

I have a really cool sunstech weather station but when the power goes off it loses time date and weather prediction. I live in Spain and we are prone to daily power cuts. I need a low power 5v back up system to power it. Any ideas welcome

Posted by malchall 4 years ago


-5v Voltage Regulator

I want to make a -5v Voltage Regulator... Does anyone know if I replace the 7805 regulator with a 7905 would that be enough, or would the capacitors have to be different values?5v Voltage Regulator Schematics

Posted by mrshow555 10 years ago


5v relay module with tv usb

Hello there! I'm sorry if someone already asked this question but I can't find it! I would like to connect 2m led strip to my tv usb so it turns on and off with tv. Can I use this kind of relay ( http://www.ebay.com/itm/5V-1-Channel-Relay-Module-H-L-Level-Triger-with-Optocoupler-for-Arduino-Raspberr-/390865576871?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash;=item5b016763a7 ) to do it?  Thank you in advance!

Posted by tosho82 4 years ago


5v to 12v convert

Hello, I want to connect a portable solar powered rechargeable to 2 DC fans of 12v to cool my car. 1. I have 2 options of portable solar powered: (A) 1500mAh, outputs: 5.5V / 800mA (B) 2000mAh, outputs: 5V 500mA     which one is preffered to connect to those PC fans? 2. most of the PC fans are working at 12v. I don't quite sure if I'll build simple 5v to 12v regulator it will works and produce enough airflow. Thanks.

Posted by ashakif 7 years ago


5v to 12v step up

Hi, I am looking to power some led's by USB. Problem is that the led's are 12v. Here are some example led's: http://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/12V-SMD-1M-60-LED-STRIP-LIGHT-RED-HOME-AQUARIUM-CAR-/290571186666?pt=UK_HomeGarden_Lighting_Lamps_Lighting_SM&hash;=item43a76471ea#ht_3932wt_1396 Would something like this do what i want it to do?:http://www.suntekstore.co.uk/goods.php?id=14002311&utm;_source=gbuk  Also looking at the step up booster i have no idea where i would solder/connect wires to the device? Any help would be appreciated. ItzMar

Posted by ItzMar 6 years ago


covert 3V battery source to 1.5 V

Hi Guys, I have a 3V battery source and want to convert it to 1,5V to run a device. How do I go about doing it? Will a voltage divider work accurately?

Posted by kurtselva 5 years ago


Help! (5V psu problems)

Help!I'm trying to make a 5V psu for programming my new (but not so shiny v_v) ATtiny2313'sI've got the circuit shown below set up, but I'm getting out around 5.6V, when the spec sheets say that I'm supposed to be getting out 5V (+/- .2V) I'm using the LM 340t5, just 'cause I don't have any other regs (except for the MC78M05CT, which is basically the same thing.Any Ideas?!EDITI know what was wrong - it was my meter, it really was 5V all along ;)

Posted by T3h_Muffinator 11 years ago


in where do I find and how do I tell if it is a 5v regulator?

I need to find a five v regulator(7805) for a portable 9v battery charger and i cant go out and buy one. can someone tell me in what device i can find a resistor(specifically 5v).  And i need to know how to tell if it is a 5V Regulator. heres one i found.. does it look like a 5v?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       thanks,                                                                                                                              The DoctorOfAwesome

Posted by Dread_Neck 7 years ago


Converting 12v DC to 5v DC

Greetings, I’m very new in electronics. I would like to connect my analog camera that uses 5v dc to my car battery. So I need your help to make a voltage converter. From what I have understand searching the web, I will be possible and very easy actually. All I would need is an opamp and some resistors?!!! Right? So any diagram or anything that you can help me with will be more than appreciated. Thank you for your time reading this. Best Regards P.S. I hope I’m in the right place writing this topic  

Posted by toqilula 7 years ago


How can I multiply/double (or just increase) voltage in a DV 5v curcuit ???

ok i have the following parts to ue for this: (all leftovers from former project..)  :) 1x mosfet IRF510 power transistor 5,6A 100V 9x 2N3904 amplifier transistors 40V 0,2 A .0.625 W ~16x 1uF capacitors 50V ~99x recifier diodes 1A 50V ~35x 2k resistors  0.25 W the idea is to charge a battery pack consisting of 4x 1,2-1,25V = 4,8-5V 3000mah AA nimh batteries using my 5v usb wall charger that has 1A output! i tried connecting the battery pack directly to + and - and 'i think' its starting to charge but after 1-2 hours at full rate (5v 1a) it should be at least 50% charged (3 hours would be full charge -> 5W x 3 = 15W), but if i connect them they last for about 2 -3 minutes and then empty again!! so after this im concerned that i might need at lest 6V-10V to achieve the desired effect !!  -> charge 15W NIMH batterpack with wall charger (nokia ac-60e.. 1-1,5A) i nless than 3 hours (as like a phone would need !!) therefore i need a cuirciut (ONLY DC) to double my 5V OUTPUT to 10V (yiou shouldnt apply more than twice the curent of a batter pack) or ideally 6-7 V but i dont know if thats possible without a swiching IC or more different resistors.. so just doubling would be nice at the moment!!  

Posted by sblocc10 1 year ago


How to make it work? USB + 5V rechargeable battery + 12V LED strip!

I want to an LED Strip that works my USB or Battery, I got the battery and the USB working fine, the battery charges up without problems, but I need to light the LED Strip (12V) with a 5V battery. Is there a DIY way to: -Step up the voltage, or -Step down the LED Strip Voltage. I know each SMD LED works around 3V, but I can't make sense of the wiring and resistors on the Strip, to wire the SMDs in parallel.

Posted by RaptorHunter 4 years ago


Converting at 9V solar panel output to 5V using diodes and voltage regulators

Hello i was recently sold a solar panel which was the wrong voltage i need to step down the output from 9V to 5 or 6V. I have been given two TA7805S voltage regulators and 6 diodes and told i can do it with these but i don't know how any ideas?

Posted by henrycrone 5 years ago


Fenix Launches ReadySet

Fenix Intl is a little company with a great solution for backcountry power. It’s the Fenix ReadySet: a mobile power source with a sleek design, which fits (along with its solar panel) in a backpack. It can also be charged with a bicycle generator or plugged into the power main, if that’s handy. They are targeting it towards remote parts of Africa, where power is rare and sun is plentiful, but I’d use the ReadySet’s 5- and 12-volt outlets to finally rig my swamp fort with the Arduino-powered extras it clearly needs. In addition to the USB charging ports, it’s got cigar lighter adapters, so charging a phone and running a radio in the wilderness are options as well. Sound good to you? Just yesterday, Fenix launched a Kickstarter campaign where pledgers are rewarded with discounted ReadySets and other Fenix gear. It runs until August 10th, though as of writing it looks like they’ll reach their goal by the end of the day! (Update: goal now reached. But you can still get the units at a discount!) What’s more, our friends at Fenix have given us lots of units to play with and use as prizes. Thus, Instructables will be running an “Off the Grid” contest in early August-September, to be based on rural and mobile power sources, green charging, and renewable energy solutions. And we’ll be giving lots of ReadySets away. What can you do? How could you make it even cooler with a Fenix ReadySet? Post your ideas below in the comments, and we'll look forward to seeing your Instructables in the contest! -SelkeyMoonbeam

Posted by noahw 6 years ago


Mobile phone wind generator

Hi at school, I am making a mobile phone generator. It's only GCSE so my apologies for my lack of knowledge. It is meant to be a "wind generator" but it can basically be a renewable generator via motion. So since I get to take it home afterwards I designed it to be a little record player where you turned the platter and it would change a phone. This is where I need some help. Would this 24v motor provide enough juice to charge a lithium ion battery (with a boost or buck converter [if needed to step down to an appropriate voltage] then a constant current protection circuit etc) the output 5v to charge your phone? Here is the motor: http://uk.rs-online.com/web/p/products/2483716/?grossPr...|pcrid|88056614883|pkw||pmt||prd|2483716&gclid;=CjwKEAiA4dPCBRCM4dqhlv2R1R8SJABom9pHi1B_sRuR-4nr15ce-EWd51aCsEfYqFBsUJioUXEpvRoC1unw_wcB Thanks! For non-British readers :  a GCSE is (in the UK except Scotland) a qualification in a specific subject typically taken by school students aged 14–16, at a level below A level.

Posted by MukymooD 1 year ago


help with 9v to 5v to 3

I am trying to make someting liek this guy made here https://www.instructables.com/id/EZQ7ZDDF0JY1JSH/ where can i find a circuit that will give me outputs of 3v 5v and 9v

Posted by DELETED_kclv1988 11 years ago


usb 5v to 3v fan

I'm considering running a 3v fan from a 5v usb. can i simply put adequate resistance in series to reduce current to acceptable levels?

Posted by Toga_Dan 5 years ago


PSU Power Supply

I built a PSU bench power supply, but it isnt outputing the right voltages. It just out 5v for all lines(12v,5v). It has a purple wire that is said to be the stand-by, but the psu wont start unless it is connected to the 12v or 5v line. It also says that you have to have the brown sense wire attached to the 3v wire but this seems to do nothing. How can I make this thing output the right power(12v @ 22A, 5v @ 50A)?

Posted by tylerb 10 years ago


Is the reverse voltage on all LEDs always 5v or more?

I have a bunch of LEDs (mainly 0603 and 5050 smd, 3mm, and 5mm - all colors).  Most of them don't list a reverse voltage.  Those that do say 5volts.  My question is, do any LEDs have less than 5v reverse voltage?  Is it possible to accidentally kill them by connecting backwards to a 5v power supply?  Should I put resistors on both the positive and negative to protect them (would that even work)?  Thanks.

Posted by aliasjanedoe 5 years ago


Charging batteries via a 5v USB connection

I am working on a project that requires 4 AA batteries. I would like to discuss if it is possible to create a charger that would charge the batteries (rechargeable AA's of course) via a 5V USB cable. The unit itself would not need to use the 5V USB power to operate, just to recharge the batteries when not in use. Does anybody know if this is possible? Please let me know if this a vague question, as I am in no means a professional in this area. Thanks in advance to any insightful comments!

Posted by honduhridr 10 years ago


How to supply voltage to a circuit which requirs +12v, +5v and GND

I need to know how to supply voltage to a circuit which requirs +12v, +5v and GND. The circuit is a Pic Programmer. Im sorry if this is a stupid question, but im kinda new to electronics and would appreciate any help provided. Please look at the circuit attached below. Thanx

Posted by omega69 7 years ago


Electronics Adapter Question about mA

Hi guys I have an electronic device requiring 50-100mA at 5V. I only have an adapter that is rated at 1200mA at 5V. Is it safe to use the adapter? Thanks

Posted by noneother 11 years ago


Power 5V 1A load using single 3.7V 10Ah li-ion cell, and charge it differently

This is a 3.7 V 10Ah Li-ion cell. Load requires 5V 1A. Can you give me a general idea to have something like this - 1. Power the load from 1 single cell 2. When connected to external power source, like USB, disengage the battery and power the load from USB delivering 5V 1A, and simultaneously charge the cell but at 5A. Thanks.

Posted by arjunmenon 3 years ago


5V Nextel Phone Charger OK to use?

I have a phone charger for my Nextel phone. On one end is a wallwart for a standard US outlet. The other end is the proprietary Nextel connector. The phone connector end was unfortunately broken, but fortunately I have a spare :) I believe the rest of the rig works fine, and rather than throwing it out, I took a look and it was rated 5V @ 800mA DC. AFAIK, 5V is what most USB devices work off of. Would it be suitable if I snipped the end off and rewired other connectors on to this and used it as a charger for other devices? Thanks in advance!

Posted by mikesty 10 years ago


2A USB Charger?

I have an MP3 charger, that charges at 5V Solidly, i.e it doesn't change. It's rated at 2A though, would this fry a 5V 550mA mobile phone and another USB Stick MP3 player? Or should I put it through a 7805 regulator? Thanks.

Posted by Josho 11 years ago


Do I need a voltage regulator in this circuit?

Hi, I am trying to build a portable usb charger the outputs 5V when input is 1.5 or 3 Volts. I found this step up converter: goo.gl/RAV9dC The spec for the converter state that the input voltage is 1V to 10V, and the out put Voltage is -1.5V to -10V and 3V to 10V. I frankly don't know how to interpret this information. It seems to me that by inputting 1.5V, the output will be 10V. So I am wondering if am right, and IF I am, then do I need to put in a 5V voltage regulator in the circuit? Thanks!

Posted by syedj94 5 years ago


Direct connection of 5V from power supply to front USB

Hello, I need to charge some devices via USB, but my computer seems to give less than 500mA, so charge takes 12 hours... I have one unused front USB on my computer, and I would like to ask if it will be a good idea to solder the pins 1 and 4 of this connector, directly to a connector coming from the power supply to get 5V but without the limitation on current. Any comments will be appreciated. regards, Angel.

Posted by angel6700 8 years ago


How do I go from 6V to 5V?

Hello there helpful forum! I have this costume I'm making for halloween. I'm using LEDs and lasers and things, and I'm a real new guy to electronics in general. I have a problem because I can't use the AC adapters that they come with for power. I need to have a simple way to make this battery powered so that it's portable. The AC adapters provide 1500mA of power at 5V. What is the simplest way to make (or buy) a portable battery system? It needs to be only a couple of pounds in weight, at most. I have these big 6V lantern batteries. What's the simplest way to drop the voltage to 5V? Also I don't have time to order any thing by mail. Can anyone help? Thanks so much!

Posted by Cactopus 7 years ago


Charging a small 3.7v battery from USB

Hey guys! I had this little flashlight that worked great for years. I would plug it into the USB port on the computer to charge it. When it broke I took it apart and it had a small battery connect directly to the 5v and GND of the USB cable. Is it OK to charge these small 3.7v batteries from just 5v without having to make a circuit? Is ok to just hook them up to 5v? http://www.xheli.com/hm-genius-cp-z-14.html?gclid=CJGkwffHuroCFUkV7AodY0kA8A Thanks!

Posted by HavocRC 4 years ago


dc-dc Buck vs boost efficiency

Hi guys. When you  use solar panels and have gadgets with different voltage requirements  that you want to power up. I need atleast  2 different outputs, 5v and 12v  ,   so which is most efficient ,  12/15v panels that you  regulate to 5v , or  5v panels boosted  to 12v? is there any general advantage in either case and i,m talking about using  cheap ebay switch regulators / boost converters,  not anything expensive hi tech. regards

Posted by kristerh 4 years ago


Need HELP with mod !!!

I need help powering a timer I salvaged from a microwave oven. Here's the schematic for the board. It needs a -5v power supply. I have a 9v battery and a 7805 regulator. Can anyone help me figure out how to make this thing work?hi-res schematic

Posted by mrshow555 10 years ago


voltage level monitor circuit ?

Hello, So for my application, i need to have a circuit that can monitor the input voltage until it reach 5V (usually from 0V ) then switch on and allow the 5V to flow into another circuit.  The problem is i have no idea where to start. Can anyone help me ?  Thank you very much

Posted by ChuongV1 1 year ago


AVR ISP power supply through parallel port

Hi I am building an AVR ISP and it requires a 5V power supply (for 74LS541 and the AVR). I have done some googling but found it to be confusing. Does anyone know how to get a 5V power supply from the parallel port? Thanks

Posted by J50Nunlimited 10 years ago


Powering infrared Line Laser using USB port

Hi,  I have a line laser which has following specs!!! http://www.aliexpress.com/store/product/780nm-60mw-5V-IR-Infrared-Laser-Line-Module-120-degree/640033_1594226134.html 5V DC or 3.3V preferred!! Working current must be < 200mA How can power this laser using USB cable or USB port I know USB has 5V DC (max current is 500mA) I want to know how to convert it so that  i can power the laser??!!! Thansk in advance for help!!

Posted by victorx10 4 years ago


Battery Pack

I want to start a battery pack but I don't know how to connect series/parallel to get most mAh but also 5V-12V output I plan to buy 8 3.7V 2600mAh Lithium Ion Battery but I don't know how to connect those together to get the most mAh as possible but also between 5V to 12V output . It is possible to do that with 

Posted by Kyosoul 4 years ago


12v computer PC fans powered by 5V USB

Hi folks, I have a mains powered USB hub and have successfully powered some 12V, 0.08A PC fans with a USB cable. I was wondering if powering 12V fans with 5V power supply would somehow damage the USB hub over time? I was also going to power some other things from the hub and thought of getting a luster/screw terminal to group power the fans from one USB cable (saving me some USB port space to power the other things). Could you foresee any problems with this? Thanks in advance :)

Posted by horsebones 4 years ago


convert 5v DC to 3.3v DC?

Hello would somebody help me with this please, I am not much of a "electronic" kind of guy so this is a big problem for me. I lost the power adapter of our office router WRT54GC (linksys) and my boss has his finger cross on me. I only knew of its power which is 3.3volts 2A DC. From my location, it is very unlikely to obtain a replacement or an equivalent adapter. I have salvaged a power supply of and old printer that gives off 5.0V 2A DC but the router would not run with this voltage. I will really appreaciate it if somebody would be able to help with a step by step explaination on how to lower the 5v to 3.3V . Thank you very much.

Posted by gincasty 9 years ago


Variable speed on a 5v brushless fan

Hi everyone! I have a 5v DC (0,15A, 50mm x 15mm) computer brushless fan that I want to power with a battery pack (4x AA rechargeables= 4,8v) or the MightyMinty Boost. This small blower is meant to be a part of a woodgas stove, and will bring air to the fire through a small duct. I'm looking for a circuit that would allow me to control the speed of the fan and the airflow. Kinda like a dimmer switch. Is there a readily available switch or devices that I could plug between the batteries and the fan? I guess the RC guys out there know a few thing about variable speed controller. I'm a newbie at this; I don't what to build a circuit from scratch, unless it's really simple. Thanks

Posted by jemor143 7 years ago


Looking for a 5V valve to be driven by ARDUINO

Hi everybody, I am working on a project to make an automatic watering system driven by arduino. I am looking for a valve which I could operate without any extra power supply but the 5V from the ARDUINO. It would be perfect if the valve could be in the range of the 6mm for tubes connections. As my project will rely on gravity for water movements, I don't want to use a pump or whatever active device. Just some standard batteries connected to ARDUINO. Do some of you know such a valve? I have looked on the net without any success. I have found loads of watering projects using arduino but none with the same phylosphy. If you know one, please let me know. Regards,

Posted by BaptisteL8 1 year ago


How power 5v security camera from car battery?

Hi, I'm wanting to buy a security camera that has a 5v DC input.  Here's the link: http://www.smarthome.com/75791/INSTEON-Wireless-Outdoor-IP-Security-Camera-with-Night-Vision-Silver/p.aspx?green=530106ED-4EEC-5734-B040-475BB5ECFDCB&utm;_campaign=site_recs&utm;_medium=site_recs&mbpage;=hcat I'm wanting to mount it up at our gate (300ft from house).  Up there, I already have a solar panel that charges a standard car batter and it powers the gate.  I'm wanting to mount the camera up there and somehow power it from the existing battery. Is this easy?  Can I (a total novice) pull this off? Thanks for any help.

Posted by spodppl 5 years ago


Lead-acid 12V-DC to 5V-DC for ATmega328 (SAFELY)

Hi all! I am currently designing a simple electronic device which uses Arduino-software. It needs to be connected to a car (Lead-Acid) battery of 12V and be stepped down to 5V for my ATmega328 to be powered. I read that I must use a "Standard 7805 5V regulator" for this. My question is, will it be able to cope with the heat? Must I put a heat-sink on it and/or is the regulator even "big" enough for this? I figured that using two regulators in parallel, might halve the current and help prevent over-heating. (http://www.sparkfun.com/products/107) Another thing is, how could I go ahead and setup a small NiMH battery charger for this device which works like this: It runs of the car battery at all times and keeps the backup NiMH battery fully charged - as soon as the car battery gets disconnected, it switches over to the NiMH cells. (I will be using 4 of these for my backup-battery-pack http://www.sparkfun.com/products/335) See my attached schematic of what I have in mind, please tell me what you think about it. I have too little knowledge of electronics to solve this problem myself, but if you can point me in the right direction at least, I will try and figure it out from there. Thank you for your time!

Posted by louwhopley 7 years ago


What is a transistor ?

What is a transistor (( can it transform voltage for example from 5v to 12v ?? )) Which component can transform low voltage to a little higher voltage ?? Thanks !!

Posted by yousouf 6 years ago


looking for 1.5v LEDs

Anybody know where I can buy some LEDs that will work with a single 1.5v coin cell battery?  Thanks.

Posted by aliasjanedoe 5 years ago


How can I wire this up?

I found this today down at the beach, an old broken fm transmitter, and it looks like it had been down there a while. However the transmitter unit itself for some reason is detachable, and it says 5v on the back. Does anyone think it would be possible to wire this up to maybe usb 5v and somehow wire an antenna up to it? That would be so sweet if I could use an old P1 to broadcast a radio station :D

Posted by Punkguyta 9 years ago


Doubt about suppy to circuit

+5V suppy connector was not  mentioned in schematic  So I added that  Please tell me whether it is right or wrong  schematic and layout is attached below

Posted by ashirwad 6 years ago


high capacity joule thief/dc-dc converter

I'm trying to make a dc-dc converter with the following characteristics: Output = 5V regulated at up to 30mA = 150mW Input 1V (or lower) from a slightly flat AAA. Assuming a pessimistic circuit efficiency of 50%, then the input current would need to be 150mW / 0.5 / 1v =  300mA which I think a AAA is capable of supplying. I'm using a variation of "led torch circuit 2" from http://www.talkingelectronics.com/projects/LEDTorchCircuits/LEDTorchCircuits-P1.html, but I've replaced with the 1n4148 with a schottky diode and replaced the 2 LEDs and 29R resistor with a 5k6 and 1k resistor respectively; this should limit the output of the circuit to just under 5v. I have a 150R resistor to provide a 30mA load to the circuit. When the input is 2.4V, the output is 4.62V which is close enough to 5v for me.  But if I decrease the input voltage to 1.14V, then the output voltage falls to 2.7V which is not enough. I have tried half a dozen hand wound transformers with various turns ratios, wire thicknesses and shapes (slug and toroid) but am unable to achieve 5v out (at 30mA) from 1v in. Does anyone have any suggestions as to what to adjust, or perhaps a better circuit?

Posted by GrotBox 6 years ago


iPod nano (3rd generation) charger

There are a lot of post about Ipod chargers and I was not able to charge my ipod yet! I tried different resistors on the data lines (D- D+), 5V to Pin 13 and Ground to pin 16. It shows charging for a little and then stop. I need to have a good simple circuit diagram, with the right resistor to charge my Ipod nano 3rd generation using a 5V power supply (picture of model attached). Thanks for your help in advance! Gracias.

Posted by luisnperez 7 years ago


Idea DC-DC converter step up from usual power bank as external battery for nikon DSLR

Can anybody build a circuit to convert the 5v-2.1A to 8.4v-2.5 to be able to power on the DSLR camera USB output 5V*2.1A=10.5W Camera input 8.4V*2.5A=21W The idea inspired from ifootage Electric Ray E1  ,I don't believe in would power on my DSLR nikon D7100 probably, plus it's too expensive for me 

Posted by assem555 1 year ago


Can dumb / feature phone be charged using USB?

Hello, I recently received a USB power pack but I can't seem to charge the dumb / feature phones that I have.  When I use this adapter to connect the phones they say that they are charging but even after 5 hours they seem like they didn't get a charge t all. Is the voltage difference the issue? With the USB being 5V and the phone battery being 3.7V (though the output of the chargers that the phones came with is 5V). Could I have a faulty unit? Thanks for reading.

Posted by Full Metal 4 years ago


Arduino Uno Relay circuit

I am currently involved in a project that requires me to run a fan heater through coding in an arduino. I have decided to use a relay to act as a switch, to maintain the time period of heater running. I am using a DOAT 5V 20mA relay. I was wondering if anyone could help me with the circuit needed using a n-p-n transistor to power it while maintaining switch function. I know a circuit similar to the one below is needed, but im not sure about the capacitor and resistance values needed for a 5v, 20mA relay.

Posted by RoshanC1 3 years ago


Building a 5V or 12V powered in-line preamplifier

I want to build an in-line pre-amplifier with a 3.5mm in and out jack.  What I want, or at least think I want, is a simple booster that provides a small, but relatively even gain boost from an MP3 player into the main amplifier. Something along the lines of this: https://www.instructables.com/id/In-line-headphone-amplifier/ However, I would like to be able to power it off of 5V USB or off of the 12V coming into the cigar lighter. What I'm effectively trying to do is get enough gain on low volume spoken-word audio coming out of my mp3 player so that I don't have to crank the stereo up to max.  Does anyone have any good sources for instructions or advice for this sort of thing? Alternatively, someone can tell me if this is a fools errand to begin with, and that I aught to be taking a different approach altogether.

Posted by wildgunman 7 years ago